Slavs and Indians have one common ancestor who lived about 4300 years ago
We continue to publish the results of the study of Professor Anatoly Klyosov. Home - Slavs: the discovery of genetics reverses the usual ideas
Each man’s DNA, namely his Y-chromosome, has certain areas in which mutations gradually accumulate once in several generations, time after time, in nucleotides. It has nothing to do with genes. And in general, DNA only on 2% consists of genes, and the male sex Y-chromosome is even less, there are only a small percentage of genes.
The Y chromosome is the only 46 chromosome from all (more precisely, from the 23's that the spermatozoon carries), which is transmitted from father to son, and then to each next son along a chain of times tens of thousands of years old. The son receives the Y chromosome from the father exactly the same that he received from his father, plus new mutations, if any, occurred during the transmission from the father to his son. And it happens rarely. How rare?
Here is an example. This is my 25-marker Slavic haplotype, genus R1a:
13 24 16 11 11 15 12 12 10 13 11 30 16 9 10 11 11 24 14 20 34 15 15 16 16
Each digit is the number of repetitions of a specific sequence of small nucleotide blocks (called “markers”) on the Y chromosome of the DNA. It is called the allele. Mutations in such a haplotype (that is, a random change in the number of nucleotide blocks) occur at a rate of one mutation approximately in the 22 generation, that is, on average once every 550 years - for the entire haplotype. In other words, for every 22 birth of boys - on average - some allele changes.
In each marker, the mutation rate is on average 25 times slower, that is, times in 550 generations, or approximately once in 14 thousands of years. Or, which is the same - on average 550 birth times for boys. Which allele will change next - no one knows, and it is impossible to predict. Statistics. In other words, here we can speak only about the probabilities of these changes.
In my earlier stories about DNA genealogy, I gave examples on the so-called 6-marker haplotypes, small, for simplification. Or they are also called “bikini haplotypes”. But to search for the ancestral home of the Slavs, a tool is needed that is much more accurate. Therefore, we will use 25 marker haplotypes in this story. Since any male 50 has millions of nucleotides in the Y chromosome, the haplotype with its numbers can in principle be extended arbitrarily long, this is only a matter of the technique for determining nucleotide sequences. Haplotypes determine the maximum length of 111 markers, although technically there is no limit. But 25 marker haplotypes are a very subtle resolution, such haplotypes are not even considered by scientific articles. They are usually limited to 8, 10, or 17-marker haplotypes. In my articles, I usually analyze 67-marker or sometimes 111-marker haplotypes, although according to the latest data are few, there are only a few hundred haplotypes in the databases. In the 67-marker version, my haplotype looks like this:
13 24 16 11 11 15 12 12 10 13 11 30 16 9 10 11 11 24 14 20 34 15 15 16 16 11 11 19 23 15 16 17 21 36 41 12 11 11 9 17 17 8 11 10 8 10 10 12 22 22 15 10 12 12 13 8 15 23 21 12 13 11 13 11 11 12 13
I could bring my 111 marker, but readers should be spared. The coincidence of such haplotypes in two people who are not related by close kinship is extremely unlikely. In other words, this is the actual passport issued by nature and recorded in DNA forever.
In order not to complicate the description, we will continue to use 25-marker haplotypes, although any of the following can be easily extended to the 67-marker, and many to the 111-marker. Haplotypes are extremely sensitive to origin, talking about genealogical genera. Take, not R1a, but, say, the South Baltic genus, N1 and 1, in the DNA genealogy system. He is also mostly Slavic, at least in the present, and 14% of ethnic Russians have him, especially in the north of Russia and in the Baltic States.
A typical 25 marker haplotype of this kind looks like this:
14 23 14 11 11 13 11 12 10 14 14 30 18 9 9 11 12 25 14 19 28 14 14 15 15
It has 28 mutations on 25 markers compared to the above R1a haplotype (it should be noted that some mutations are considered in a special way, but we will not dwell on this now). This corresponds to a difference of one thousand three hundred generations, that is, the common ancestor of these two (now) Slavic haplotypes lived more than 20 thousands of years ago. A closer look reveals that the common ancestor of R1a and N1c1 lived more than 40 thousands of years ago. In order to become Slavs, both types went through completely different migration routes, although these paths began, apparently, on the Russian Plain, went almost together to Southern Siberia, and then diametrically opposed.
R1a carriers went west along the southern geographic arc, from southern Siberia through Tibet, Hindustan, crossed the Iranian plateau, Anatolia (that is, modern Turkey), reached the Balkans about 10 thousands of years ago, and about 5 thousands of years ago switched to the east, to Russian plain. The carriers of the parental haplogroup N1 went from southern Siberia along the northern geographic arc, in general, "counterclockwise", through the northern Urals and then on to the Baltic states. They have descendants everywhere along this migration trajectory, among them, for example, the Yakuts, then the Urals, and so on to the Baltic states. Therefore, it is difficult to call them one common name, Yakut from Balts is noticeably different. And the genus is one.
By the way, the Southern Balts separated from the Finno-Ugric people about 2000 years ago, although both of them have one genus, N1c1. But the branches of the genus are already different, and the haplotypes differ in many ways. And the languages differ, the former mostly have Indo-European, Slavic languages, and the latter have Finno-Ugric languages.
The same picture is obtained if we compare the Slavs of the genus R1a, for example, with the Jews. The typical Middle Eastern haplotype of the Jews (genus J1) is:
12 23 14 10 13 15 11 16 12 13 11 30 17 8 9 11 11 26 14 21 27 12 14 16 17
It has 32 mutations in relation to the Slavic R1a. Even further than the southern Balts or the Finno-Ugrians. And between the Jews and the Finno-Ugrians differ in 35 mutations.
In general, the idea is clear. Haplotypes are very sensitive when compared with representatives of different genera. They reflect completely different stories genus, origin, migration of childbirth. But why are there Finno-Ugrians or Jews! Take the Bulgarians, bratushek. Up to half of them have variations of such a haplotype (genus I2):
13 24 16 11 14 15 11 13 13 13 11 31 17 8 10 11 11 25 15 20 32 12 14 15 15
It has a 21 mutation with respect to the above East Slav haplotype R1a. That is, they are both Slavic, but the genus is different. The genus I2 is descended from a different ancestor, the migration routes of the genus I2 were completely different than R1a. It was later, already in our era or at the end of the past, they met and formed a Slavic cultural-ethnic community, and then they joined writing and religion. And the genus is basically different, although 12% of Bulgarians are East Slavic, R1a genus.
It is very important that the number of mutations in the haplotypes can be calculated when the common ancestor of a group of people lived - the haplotypes that we are considering. I will not stop here, exactly how the calculations are carried out, since all this was published in the scientific press several years ago. The bottom line is that the more mutations in a group of people the haplotypes, the older their common ancestor. And since mutations occur completely statistically, irregularly, at a certain average speed, the lifetime of a common ancestor of a group of people belonging to the same genus is calculated quite reliably. Examples will be given below.
To make it clearer, I will give a simple analogy. The haplotype tree is a pyramid that stands on top. The peak at the bottom is a haplotype of a common ancestor of the genus, the pyramid diverges from it. The base of the pyramid, at the very top - we, contemporaries, are our haplotypes. The number of mutations in each haplotype is a measure of the distance from a common ancestor, from the top of the pyramid, to us contemporaries. If the pyramid were perfect - three points, that is, three haplotypes at the base would be enough to calculate the distance to the top. But in reality, three points are few. Experience shows that a dozen 25-marker haplotypes (which means 250 points) is enough for a good estimate of the time to a common ancestor.
25-marker (and in fact, 67-and 111-marker) haplotypes of Russians and Ukrainians of the genus R1a were obtained from the international database YSearch. The carriers of these haplotypes are our contemporaries, living from the Far East to western Ukraine, and from the northern to the southern suburbs. And so it was calculated that the common ancestor of the Russian and Ukrainian Eastern Slavs, the genus R1a, lived 4800 years ago. This figure is quite reliable, it has been verified by cross-sectional calculations for haplotypes of different lengths. And, as we will see now, this figure is not accidental. Calculations were carried out on 67- and 111-marker haplotypes. This is already the top aerobatics of DNA genealogy, if you call a spade a spade.
It turned out that the common pre-Slavic ancestor who lived 4800 years ago had this haplotype:
13 25 16 10 11 14 12 12 10 13 11 30 15 9 10 11 11 24 14 20 32 12 15 15 16
For comparison, here is my haplotype:
13 24 16 11 11 15 12 12 10 13 11 30 16 9 10 11 11 24 14 20 34 15 15 16 16
In comparison with the Proto-Slavic ancestor, I have 10 mutations running out (in bold). If we recall that mutations in such a haplotype occur approximately once in 550 years, then 5500 years separate me from my ancestor. But we are talking about statistics, and for all the circle turns 4800 years. I ran more mutations, someone else - less. In other words, each of us has its own individual mutations, but the ancestor's haplotype is all one. And he, as we shall see, holds on like this almost throughout Europe.
So let's take a breath. Our common pre-Slavic ancestor in the territory of modern Russia-Ukraine-Belarus-Poland lived 4800 years ago. Early Bronze Age, or even the Eneolithic, the transition from the Stone Age to the Bronze Age. To imagine the time scale, this is much earlier than the exodus of the Jews from Egypt, according to biblical tales. And they came out, if you follow the interpretations of the Torah, 3500-3600 years ago. If we ignore the interpretation of the Torah, which, of course, is not a strict scientific source, it can be noted that the common ancestor of the Eastern Slavs lived a thousand years before the eruption of Santorin (Thera), which destroyed the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete.
Now we can begin to build a sequence of events in our ancient history. 4800 years ago, the Proto-Slavs of the genus R1a appeared on the Russian Plain, and not just some Proto-Slavs, but those whose descendants live in our time, tens of millions of people. 3800 years ago, arias, descendants of those early Slavs (and having an identical ancestral haplotype, as will be shown below), built the site of ancient settlement Arkaim (its present name), Sintashtu and the “country of cities” in the Southern Urals. 3600 years ago, Arkaim left the arias, and moved to India. Indeed, according to archaeologists, the mound, which is now called Arkaim, existed just 200 years.
Stop! And where did we get this from, that they were descendants of our ancestors, the Slavs?
How from? And R1a, the label kind? She, this label, accompanies all haplotypes listed above. So, it can be used to determine what kind of people were those who went to India.
By the way, here's more data. In a recent work of German scientists identified nine fossil haplotypes from Northern Kazakhstan - South Ural (what is called Andronovo archaeological culture), and it turned out that eight of them belong to the genus R1a, and one - Mongoloid, genus C. Dating - between 5500 and 1800 years ago. Haplotypes of the genus R1a, for example, are as follows:
13 25 16 11 11 14 XYZ 14 11 32
Here, undeciphered markers are replaced by letters. Very similar to the Slavic haplotypes R1a, cited above, on the first 12 markers, especially when you consider that these ancients also carry individual, random mutations.
Currently, the share of Slavs, descendants of the Aryans of the haplogroup R1a in Lithuania is 38%, in Latvia - 41%, in Belarus - 50%, in Ukraine - 45%. In Russia, the Slavs R1a on average 48%, due to the high proportion of southern Balts in the north of Russia, but in the south and in the center of Russia the proportion of Eastern Slavs R1a reaches 60-75%.
Now about the Haplotypes of the Hindus and the lifetime of their common ancestor. Immediately make a reservation - I deliberately write "Hindus", and not "Indians", because most Indians belong to the natives, the Dravids, especially the Indians of southern India. And Hindus are in their mass just carriers of the haplogroup R1a. It would be wrong to write “Haplotype Indians”, since Indians in general belong to the most diverse genera of DNA genealogy.
In this sense, the expression “Haplotype Hindus” is simbatno to the expression “Haplotype Slavs”. It has a reflection of the “ethnocultural” component, but this is one of the signs of the genus.
In my early popular work on the haplotypes of Slavs and Hindus, I already wrote that they, Slavs and Hindus, had the same common ancestor. Both of them belong to the genus R1a, only in Russians such 50-75%, in Indians - 16%. That is, Russians from the genus R1a 40-60 million men, the Indians - 100 million. But in that work I described only the type of haplotypes, and short ones. Now we can already determine when the common ancestors of the Eastern Slavs and Hindus lived. Here is the ancestral haplotype of Indians of the same kind, R1a.
13 25 16 11 11 14 12 12 10 13 11 31 15 9 10 11 11 24 14 20 32 12 15 15 16
Almost exactly the same as the haplotype of the ancestor of the Slavs of the group R1a. There are two mutations, but in fact there are no mutations. The fourth number to the left of the Slavs there is 10.46, therefore, rounded to 10, and among the Indians there 10.53, rounded to 11. Actually it is the same. Similarly, with the average mutation, the proportion of units. The age of the common ancestor of the Indians is 3850 years. On 950 years younger than the Slavs.
Since the ancestral haplotypes in Hindus and Slavs almost coincide, and the Slavic haplotype on 950 is older, it is clear that these were the Slavs came to India, and not vice versa. Strictly speaking, these were not Pra-Slavs, but Pra-Indus, but they were descendants of Pra-Slavs.
If you add up all the haplotypes of the Slavs and Hindus, since they are supposedly from one ancestor, then the differences disappear altogether. Common ancestral haplotype of Slavs and Indians:
13 25 16 10 11 14 12 12 10 13 11 30 15 9 10 11 11 24 14 20 32 12 15 15 16
It is identical to the common ancestor haplotype of the Slavs of the group R1a. The lifetime of the common ancestor of the Slavs and Indians - 4300 years ago. This is because averaging occurred during the addition. If to simplify completely, it is because not everyone has reached India. For those who came, the common ancestor was already "younger." Ancestor - Proto-Slavic, he is older. After 500 years, the Proto-Slavs-Aryans will build Arkaim, after another 200 years they will go to India, and the Indians will start counting from their common ancestor, again Proto-Slavic, 3850 years ago. It all fits.
Currently, the proportion of Aryan Indians, R1a, is 16% across the country, second only to the most common Indian “native” haplogroup, Х1 (20%). And in the higher castes, the haplogroup R1a takes up to 72%. Let us dwell on this in a bit more detail.
As is known, society in India is divided into castes and tribes. The four main castes, or “varnas,” are the brahmans (priests), the kshatriyas (warriors), the vaishyas (merchants, farmers, herders) and the sudras (workers and servants). In the scientific literature, they are divided into "Indo-European" and "Dravidian" castes, each of which has three levels - the highest caste, the middle and the lowest. Tribes are divided into Indo-European, Dravidian, Burma-Tibetan and Australian-Asian. As it was determined recently, this entire male population in India can be divided into a dozen or a half basic haplogroups — Mongoloid C, Iranian-Caucasian G, Indian H, L, and R2 (which are extremely rare in the world except India), Middle Eastern J1, Mediterranean (and Middle Eastern) J2, East Asian Oh, Siberian Q, East European (Aryan) R1a, West European (and Asian) R1b. By the way, European Roma, as you know, people from India 500-800 years ago, overwhelmingly have the H1 and R2 haplogroups.
The main share of both higher castes, Indo-European and Dravidian, consists of representatives of the Aryan haplogroup R1a. They are up to 72% in the Indo-European higher caste, and 29% in the Dravidian higher caste. The remaining members of the higher castes are carriers of Indian haplogroups R2 (16% and 10%, respectively), L (5% and 17%), H (12% and 7%), the rest are units of percent.
In contrast, the East Asian haplogroup O prevails in the tribes (53% in the Australian-Asian, 66% in the Burma-Tibetan and 29% in the "Indo-European" tribes) and the "native" Indian N (37% in the Dravidian tribes).
In principle, this is consistent with the ancient migration flows. The oldest stream, 40-25 thousands of years ago, brought future Dravidians, East Asians and Australo-Asians to the south, to India, but from where it led - science is not very well known, either from the west, for example, from Mesopotamia, or from the south. Another stream, and perhaps a small stream, led 15-12 thousands of years ago, the earliest carriers of the R1a from the east, from Southern Siberia, from the Altai, on the road to the west. The descendants of these very first R1a have been living since then in the jungle, in Indian tribes. In the higher caste, they, as a rule, did not fall. After many millennia, roughly 8 thousands of years ago, the second wave of Dravidians came to India from the Mediterranean and the Middle East, bringing with them the skills of emerging agriculture, together with the haplogroup J2, which is now in higher castes up to 24%, and in tribes - up to 33 % And finally, 3500 years ago, carriers of the haplogroup R1a arrived in India from the southern Urals under the name of the Aryans. Under it, they entered the Indian epic. Interestingly, the Indian caste system itself was created about the same 3500 years ago.
So again. Slavs and Indians have one common ancestor of the genus R1a, who lived about 4300 years ago, and the ancestor of the Slavs themselves, with the same haplotype, lived a little earlier, 4800 years ago. His descendant after 950 years began the genealogical line among the Hindus, starting from 3850 years ago, just from the beginning of Arkaim. R1a - these were the arias that came to India. And when they came, and that led them there - I will tell later, and before that we'll see when the common ancestors of the genus R1a lived throughout Europe. Then we will make a general picture, where they lived before everyone else, that is, where their ancestral homeland was, and where and when they moved from their ancestral homeland.
We can rightfully call them Aryans, instead of the faceless R1a, and even more so instead of the clumsy “Indo-Europeans” or “Proto-Indo-Europeans”. Arias they are, dear reader, arias. And there was nothing “Indo-Iranian” in them, until, naturally, until they came to India and Iran. And they did not get the language from India or Iran, but rather brought theirs there. Aryan. Proto-Slavic. Sanskrit. Or Proto-Sanskrit, if you like.