Military Review

How German paratroopers stormed Crete

136
Operation plan


The plan for the 11 Corps operation was to carry out a simultaneous landing of an airborne assault force and a landing of gliders at several points on the island. The Germans did not have enough aircraft to land the entire landing at once, so it was decided to attack in three waves.

The first wave (7 o'clock in the morning 20 in May 1941, parachute and glider landing) included the group "West". Major General O. Meindel with a separate airborne assault regiment had to take Maleme airfield and approaches to it. This airfield was the main landing point of the German troops. The 3 th paratrooper regiment of Colonel Heydrich was to occupy the bay of the Court and the city of Chania (Kanya), where the English headquarters and the residence of the Greek king were.

In the second wave (13 hours 20 May) - parachute landing, included the group "Center" and "East". The 1th Parachute Regiment of Colonel B. Brower (later the army was to be headed by the commander of the mountain rifle division, General Ringel) was to take the city of Heraklion and its airfield. The 2 Parachute Regiment of Colonel Sturm was in charge of the Rethymnon airfield.

It was planned that after the capture of all targets from 16 hours on May 21, the third wave will begin - the landing from transport aircraft and ships of the 5th Mountain Rifle Division and heavy weapons, all the necessary supplies. Italy also supported the sea landing: about 3 thousand soldiers, 60 ships. From the air, the landing was supported by the 8th air corps of General von Richthofen - more than 700 aircraft, as well as 62 aircraft of the Italian Air Force. German-Italian aviation had to act against the garrison of the island and paralyze a powerful British naval group. The operation also involved German submarines and part of the Italian Navy (5 destroyers and 25 small ships).

For the British, a cover from the sea was carried out by the forces of the British Mediterranean fleet Admiral Cunningham - 5 battleships, 1 aircraft carrier, 12 cruisers and about 30 destroyers deployed west and north of Crete. True, the British fleet, based on the Bay of the Court, suffered greatly from attacks by enemy aircraft. And the only British aircraft carrier, during the battle for Greece, lost most of its carrier-based aircraft and could not support the garrison of Crete from the air.



The beginning of the invasion

Early in the morning, the German air force brought a massive blow to the British position at the landing sites. However, most of the camouflaged positions survived, and the British air defense did not open the return fire, so as not to give out their location. In addition, gliders and junkers with paratroopers approached only half an hour after the departure of the bombers and attack aircraft. The Germans did not take into account the weather, it was hot and the first batch of aircraft raised a cloud of dust. The rest of the aircraft had to wait. Launched the first aircraft circled in the sky, waiting for the rest. As a result, it was not possible to land on the move immediately after the bombing. There was a pause that had the most negative impact on the landing.

When in 7 hour. 25 min. The vanguard of Captain Altman (2-th company of the 1-th battalion of the assault regiment) began landing. Marines met a strong fire. Gliders turned into a sieve, fell apart in the air, crashed against rocks, fell into the sea, desperately maneuvering, sat down on roads, any suitable sites. But the landed German paratroopers violently attacked the enemy. The allies struck by their audacity were initially taken aback. But they quickly awoke and attacked mortar and machine-gun fire on the Germans. The seizure of the airfield failed on the move, the New Zealanders in hand-to-hand combat threw the Germans away. Altman managed to capture only the bridge and part of the positions west of the airfield. At the same time he has only 108 fighters left from 28 fighters.

The problem was that German paratroopers dropped without carbines and machine guns. Personal, heavy weapon and ammunition dumped in separate containers. And they still had to get to. The paratroopers had submachine guns (about one in four, pistols and hand grenades). As a result, many paratroopers died trying to break through to their containers. German paratroopers went on the attack with pistols, hand grenades and deminers, the allies shot them with rifles and machine guns, as in a dash.

The battalion, which followed the forward detachment, also ran into heavy fire. Many died still in the air, the commander of the battalion, Major Koch, and many soldiers were injured at the beginning of the battle. The company that landed on the 1 enemy battery seized it, but suffered heavy losses - 90 was left from the 30 soldiers. The 4 Company and the headquarters of the 1 Battalion fell to the positions of the New Zealand battalion and they were almost completely destroyed. 3-I company was able to get to the air defense battery south of the airfield and defeated it. This minimized the loss of German aircraft during the release of the main forces. In addition, with the help of anti-aircraft guns, they were able to take up defense and rejected the reinforcements rushing to the aid of the garrison of the airfield.

How German paratroopers stormed Crete

German transport aircraft Junkers Y. 52 towing gliders DFS 230 during the first day of the operation "Mercury"

Thus, the German paratroopers made such a dense fire that many German soldiers died or were injured before landing on the island. Many gliders crashed before landing. Others landed, but were immediately shot before the landing. Because of intelligence errors, often paratroopers were landed over the main lines of defense of the enemy and the Germans were simply shot from all trunks. And the remnants finished on the ground. Mostly landing was almost completely destroyed. It was a slaughter.

Thus, the paratroopers of the 3 Battalion landed northeast of Maleme directly at the position of the New Zealand 5 Brigade. The German battalion was almost destroyed. The 4 Battalion with the regimental headquarters successfully landed westward, having lost few people and was able to gain a foothold on one side of the airfield. True, the commander of the detachment Meindel was seriously wounded. He was replaced by the commander of the 2 Battalion, Major Stenzler. His battalion entered the battle east of Spilia and suffered heavy losses. Part of the paratroopers were interrupted by Cretan militias. A reinforced platoon of Lieutenant Kissamos landed among the Greek troops. Of the 72 soldiers, only 13 of surrendered paratroopers survived, who were rescued by New Zealand officers from reprisals. Hard battle lasted all day. Positions at the airport changed hands. The Germans were gradually able to unite the remaining forces, grouping around the 3 company and entrenched in the northern part of the airfield.

Similarly, events developed in the landing zone of the 3 regiment, dropped east of Maleme. Before the landing, the entire division headquarters and the commander of the 7 Air Division, General Süssmann, who was to lead the operation on the ground, died. The 3 th battalion, which was thrown out first, died, it fell into the position of the New Zealanders: many were knocked out even in the air, killed or captured after landing. By mistake, the pilots dropped several units over the mountains. The soldiers got broken and out of order. One company was blown into the sea by the wind and it sank; The 13-I mortar company was dropped over the reservoir and also sank in full force. Only the 9-I company landed safely and after a fierce battle, took all-round defense. The landing continued all day. The surviving German paratroopers were scattered and tried to unite, to break through to the containers with weapons.



German paratroopers carry containers with equipment

German paratroopers in battle in Crete

The second wave. At first, the German command had no data on the catastrophic situation of the landing force, having decided that the landing was successful. Of the 500 aircraft that threw out the 1 th invasion wave, only a few have not returned. The crews of the German aircraft, who were returning to the mainland to take the soldiers of the second wave, did not see what was happening on the island, and thought that things were going well. Therefore, the headquarters of Lør and Student gave the go-ahead to transfer the second wave. But things went even worse than in the morning. The planned change of bomber and transport squadrons again failed. Clouds of dust and problems with refueling slowed the movement of aviation. The aircraft departed in small groups and at large intervals. It was not possible to create a dense wave, the German troops landed without air support, small detachments and with large dispersion. And now they were waiting for even more "hot meeting." All more or less suitable sites were blocked and adjusted.

The 2 Airborne Regiment arrived at Rethymnon very late - at 16 hour. 15 min. Only two companies managed to land after an air raid, the third was blown away 7 km from the target. The landing of the main forces was delayed and they suffered heavy losses. The 19-I Australian Brigade quickly recovered and met the enemy with heavy fire. However, the 2 battalion fighters were able to capture one of the dominant heights and tried to make their way to the airfield. They were met by such strong fire from other heights and armored vehicles that were there that the Germans rolled away. Making sure that the airfield did not take the airfield, the paratroopers began to dig in and wait for reinforcements. Having gathered the soldiers scattered around the district at night, the paratroopers repeated the attack, but again came under heavy fire and retreated back, taking up defensive positions. Paratroopers suffered heavy losses, by the evening around 400 people were killed, and the detachment commander Colonel Sturm was captured.

The situation for the 1st regiment was even worse. He was thrown off with even greater delay, at 17 o’clock. 30 minutes. when the bombers had already left, and the British prepared for battle. In addition, part of the regiment had already been dropped on Maleme, the airfield of Heraklion was covered by reinforced air defense, and the paratroopers had to jump from high altitude. This has increased losses. Landing fell under heavy fire, including artillery and rooted to the ground Tanks. This led to a complete defeat. Two companies died almost entirely (5 people survived), the remaining units were dispersed, and only the onset of night saved them from complete extermination. After assessing the situation, Colonel Brower refused a suicide assault and focused on collecting survivors and finding containers with weapons. The Germans captured the former prison in the village of Agya and created a defense unit on the road to Chania.

Thus, the position of the German assault was disastrous. Many commanders died, were seriously injured or captured. Of the 10 ths. Landed paratroopers in the ranks, only about 6 thous. People remained. No goal has been achieved. Occupied positions held with difficulty. The Germans almost spent their ammunition, heavy weapons were not enough. Wounded, tired parachutists were preparing for the last battle. There was no connection (the radio was broken when disembarking), the pilots could not give a clear picture of the battle. As a result, the German command in Athens did not know that the landing was almost defeated. The Allies had complete superiority in forces and de facto could destroy the existing German forces. However, General Freiberg made a mistake. He saved forces, believing that the landing of the main forces of the enemy, who were waiting from the sea in the region of Chania and the Gulf of the Court, was ahead. The Allies missed a chance to win, not throwing all the reserves to eliminate the enemy in the area of ​​Maleme.

It was not only the inaction of the allies that straightened the situation, but also the quality of the training of German officers. Even in the face of the deaths of many top commanders, the remaining officers independently created resistance nodes and literally bit into the many times superior forces of the enemy, imposing a battle on him and shackling his initiative. German paratroopers bravely fought, hoping that the comrades were more fortunate and were waiting for reinforcements. At night, they didn’t slow down, searched for their own, attacked the enemy, got weapons. The British missed the time, got confused in the situation. They also had problems: no one knew about the situation as a whole, there was not enough communication equipment, there was no transport for the transfer of troops, armored vehicles for the organization of counterstrikes, the superiority of the Germans in the air, the lack of support for their aircraft. Freiberg saved power, waited for the main enemy forces. Many Allied soldiers had poor training: they fought halfway, they were afraid to attack, they were not fully defensive. Thus, the Allies lost the initiative and did not use their large numerical advantage; they lacked combat experience, pressure and courage. In this situation, the German paratroopers kept out of their last strength, and survived until reinforcements arrived.


The second wave of German paratroopers parachuted in the area of ​​the city of Rethymnon

Landing German paratroopers and containers with weapons and ammunition

The continuation of the battle

On a special plane, General Student sent his liaison officer, Captain Klyaye, to Crete. After jumping with a parachute at night, he was able to correctly assess the situation and report back to headquarters. Realizing the threat of failure, the commander of the operation rejected the proposal to wind down the operation, and ordered 21 to throw all available forces at the storm of Maleme Airport. There were going to smuggle the third echelon of the invasion - mountain rangers. At night, all free transport planes in south-eastern Europe were mobilized and transferred to Greece.

With the dawn the battle resumed. With the support of aviation, German paratroopers captured part of the Maleme airfield. It was not possible to capture all the landing grounds. Aircraft with ammunition sat right on the beaches, suffering accidents. Successfully landed only one, he brought the wounded, including Meindel. The German command threw into battle the last reserves. In 14 hour. Two landing anti-tank companies were landed. In 15 hour. The 550 fighters of the second wave of the invasion, led by Colonel Ramke, entered the battle; they were unable to land on May 20 due to aircraft breakdowns. As a result, the Germans were able to take the airfield.

Meanwhile, the first attempt by the sea to land part of the rangers failed. The German command planned to transfer part of the mountain rifle division, heavy weapons and equipment by sea on small Greek ships, which were covered by an Italian destroyer. However, the British ships intercepted the landing flotilla north of Crete and sank most of the ships, destroying soldiers, weapons and supplies to 300. The remaining motorboats fled. 22 May, a new amphibious flotilla nearly repeated the fate of the previous one. This time the British navy were tied up by the British, and the German air force was so active that the British ships were forced to retreat. Here the first significant air-sea battle took place, and the aircraft showed that it is capable of defeating the fleet and forcing it to retreat. The British lost the 3 cruiser, the 6 destroyers, many ships suffered serious damage, including two battleships.


The British light cruiser "Gloucester" under the blow of German bombers. 22 May Luftwaffe dive bombers Junkers Ju.87R attacked the Gloucester cruiser and achieved four direct hits. As a result of a series of devastating explosions, the ship went to the bottom, taking with them 725 crew members

The British continued bombardment of the airfield with mortars and anti-aircraft guns from the dominant heights. The Germans fired back from captured guns. Transports with mountain rangers began to arrive in this hell. Not everyone was lucky, as the shelling continued. Some aircraft hit the air right, others - already on the ground, the third - were lucky. The landing pad (length of runway 600 meters) had to be cleared by the wreckage of the aircraft with the help of captured armored vehicles. Then everything was repeated. In two days, the Germans lost more than 150 machines. It was a nightmare, but at a great price German paratroopers and huntsmen punched a gap in the defense of the enemy. Step by step, the Germans crowded the enemy, seized new positions. The most stubborn firing points suppressed with the help of aviation. In 17 hour. Maleme village was captured. The gates to Crete were occupied, which allowed us to gradually increase the forces of the landing force on the island. The operation was headed by the commander of mountain rangers, General Ringel.

Freiber realized his mistake and ordered the New Zealanders to repel the airport. At night, the Allies nearly beat off the airfield. They were stopped at the edge of the airfield. In the morning, German aircraft drove off the enemy. In other areas, the German paratroopers tied the enemy by combat. In Rethymnon, the remnants of the 2 th paratrooper regiment stayed for a day at a busy height, and then retreated to the ruins of the plant, where they held, fettering up to 7 thousands of enemy soldiers. The 1 Parachute Regiment attempted to take Heraklion, but the attack choked. Colonel Brower was ordered to stop and hold down the enemy by combat. German aviation initially failed to effectively support the paratroopers, and they had to repel the 8 attacks of thousands of British themselves.

22 May in Maleme paratroopers captured the prevailing height of 107. On the same day, the Luftwaffe dodavilo remnants of enemy artillery in the vicinity of the airfield, the shelling stopped. The air bridge earned its full potential: 20 vehicles with soldiers, weapons and ammunition arrived every hour. Return flights exported the wounded. General Student arrived with headquarters.

On May 23, the British tried unsuccessfully to repel an airfield, and then began to depart to the east. In Rethymnon, the paratroopers were able to repel enemy attacks with the support of aviation. In Heraklion, the Germans were able to unite the two groups. On the same day, the British fleet, suffering serious losses from the strikes of German aircraft, mostly went to Alexandria. Admiral Cunningham began at night to avoid attacks by the Luftwaffe, sending fleet of ammunition and food to the island. This allowed the German command to land a naval landing of several thousand Italian and German soldiers.

General Lör ordered the rangers of Ringel to seize the Bay of the Court and violate the supply line of the British garrison, as well as unblock the surrounded paratroopers in the area of ​​Rethymnon and Heraklion. May 24-25 German troops attacked, breaking through enemy positions from Maleme to Chania. Only with the strong support of aviation did German troops break through the British defense and get through to Chania. Part of the Greco-British garrison was demoralized, and the mass desertion of the Allied soldiers began. In Rethymnon, the German paratroopers continued to fight in the environment, delaying the forces of the enemy. On the night of the 26, the remnants of the squad (250 soldiers) attempted to break into Heraklion. But having received the order, they stopped and received help, continued the fight. In Heraklion, having received reinforcements, the Germans launched a counteroffensive. 27 May the Germans went to storm Heraklion and occupied it without a fight. The British left the city and the airfield and began evacuating from the island.

Freiberg told the commander-in-chief of the British forces in the Middle East, Wavewell, that his troops were at the limit of their strength and capabilities and could no longer resist. 27 May Wavell and Churchill gave permission to withdraw troops. Freiberg began to withdraw troops to the south, towards Hrr-Sfakion, on the southern coast, from where they began to evacuate. The British fleet took out about 13 thousand people. for four nights. Part of the British and Greek troops were evacuated from Heraklion.

On May 28, the Germans broke down the stubborn resistance of the English rearguard east of Chania and occupied the bay of Souda, and hydroplanes immediately began to arrive there. In Rethymnon 29 in May, the German paratroopers continued the battle with the enemy forces that were many times superior to them. They were able to break through to the airfield and then came across the rangers who landed there. Help arrived at the last moment. Mountain hunters took the city. In this area, an Australian battalion was surrounded and captured, which did not receive an evacuation order. Ringel directed the main forces to the eastern part of the island, to the south, where the main forces of Freiberg moved, sent insignificant units.

The British evacuated through the southern part of the island and announced its surrender. The British fleet evacuated 15-16 thousand people, having lost several ships. June 1 operation was completed, the allied pockets of resistance were suppressed. The Allies made no attempt to recapture the island, and it remained in the hands of the Germans until the end of the war.


German paratroopers at the defeated Junkers U-52 at Maleme airfield

Results

German troops took Crete, the allies were defeated and fled. The Germans lost more than 6 thousand killed and wounded (according to other sources, about 7-8 thousand people), 271 aircraft, 148 aircraft were damaged (mainly - transport workers). Allied casualties: about 4 thousand killed, more than 2,7 thousand wounded and more 17 thousand prisoners. The British fleet lost (from aviation operations): 3 cruisers, 6 destroyers, more 20 auxiliary ships and transports. Also damaged: 1 aircraft carrier, 3 battleship, 6 cruisers and 7 destroyers. At the same time about 2 thousand people died. Allied forces lost 47 aircraft. Many Cretans died while participating in partisan activities.

Militarily, the airborne operation showed the importance of reconnaissance. German paratroopers suffered heavy losses due to underestimation of the enemy defenses. The Germans were not able to conduct a full-fledged air and artillery training, prepare bridgeheads. There was no effect of surprise, as the troops were waiting. Poorly armed paratroopers had to storm the relatively well-prepared positions of the enemy. They were saved by the relative poor preparation of the enemy, the lack of transport and heavy weapons from the allies. Played their role mistakes of the allied command.

The Germans have strategically strengthened their positions in the Balkans. But in order to build on success, and to consolidate positions in the Mediterranean, North Africa and the Middle East, it was necessary to continue the seizures - the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles, Malta, Cyprus, Gibraltar, Alexandria and Suez. By itself, Crete was only a springboard for a further offensive in the Mediterranean. As Churchill noted: “Hitler’s hand could have reached further, in the direction of India.” However, Hitler turned to the East and the capture of Crete did not affect the course of further hostilities in the region. The British maintained their position in the Mediterranean. The allies, struck by the effectiveness of the Goering Green Devils, began to accelerate the creation of their airborne forces.

The Fuhrer did the opposite; he was very upset by the high losses of the elite troops of the Third Reich. He rewarded Student and Riegel, but declared that “the time of the paratroopers has passed.” The student offered to take Suez for the next throw, but Hitler refused. All attempts to dissuade him were unsuccessful. The assault of Malta was also rejected (Operation Hercules), although Italy offered to single out large forces (the airborne and air assault divisions), since the seizure of this island was of paramount importance for controlling the central Mediterranean. The Fuhrer categorically banned major airborne operations. Now Gering's Airborne Forces ceased to be the army's edge, they were used only as “fire brigades”, plugging the most dangerous holes at the front.


German paratroopers pass by British soldiers killed in Crete

German paratroopers search the captured British soldiers in Crete

German paratroopers escort British prisoners along a city street in Crete.

German truck drives past a column of British prisoners of war
Author:
Articles from this series:
1941 Campaign

How defeated Yugoslavia and Greece
Yugoslav operation
Greek operation
Operation Mercury
136 comments
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  1. bionik
    bionik 23 May 2016 07: 20
    +2
    German soldiers raise the Nazi flag in Crete.
  2. bionik
    bionik 23 May 2016 07: 21
    +6
    German paratroopers and transport aircraft Junkers Yu-52 flying over them in the area of ​​altitude 107 in Crete. Height 107 in the area of ​​the Maleme airfield was one of the most important reference points of the Allies, for which there were fierce battles. May 21, the height was captured by the Germans.
  3. bionik
    bionik 23 May 2016 07: 23
    +4
    The commander of the 11th Airborne Corps, General Kurt Arthur Benno Student (third from the left) and the commander of the 5th Mountain Division, Major General Julius Ringel (fourth from the left) at the map before the operation "Mercury".
    1. ICT
      ICT 23 May 2016 07: 40
      +6
      German soldiers in Crete.





  4. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 23 May 2016 07: 47
    +9
    interesting operation. Thank you for the article.
  5. Same lech
    Same lech 23 May 2016 08: 04
    -2
    A very interesting operation of the German Airborne Forces ... and in vain did Hitler prohibit further major operations of these troops ... Then Hitler made a lot of such mistakes.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 23 May 2016 10: 20
      +14
      Quote: The same LYOKHA
      A very interesting operation of the German Airborne Forces ... and in vain did Hitler prohibit further major operations of these troops ... Then Hitler made a lot of such mistakes.

      90% so-called "Hitler's mistakes" are the shoals of generals written off to him in post-war memoirs. Suffice it to recall the same "stop-order" of von Runstedt, which was passed on to Hitler after the war. smile

      As for the major operation of the Axis paratroopers, it was planned in Malta. But the Allies strengthened the island + Rommel convinced the command that he himself will cope.

      In addition, large airborne operations are good when the enemy is weak and cannot quickly pull up reinforcements (or their breakthrough units will quickly approach the landing party). Otherwise it will be Dnepr-43 or Market Garden.
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. AK64
        AK64 23 May 2016 12: 20
        +2
        90% so-called "Hitler's mistakes" are the shoals of generals written off to him in post-war memoirs. Suffice it to recall the same "stop-order" of von Runstedt, which was passed on to Hitler after the war. smile

        I agree.
        Doubt, however, is caused by the 2TA turning south in August, instead of continuing to drunk.

        As for the major operation of the Axis paratroopers, it was planned in Malta. But the Allies strengthened the island + Rommel convinced the command that he himself will cope.

        The landing on Malta in general ... The island is small, there are few insignificant landing sites, and everywhere the British density is high
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 23 May 2016 13: 03
          +4
          Quote: AK64
          Doubt, however, is caused by the 2TA turning south in August, instead of continuing to drunk.

          The Kiev operation? And there were no special options: to leave GA "Yug" and "Center" without communication and to have a 600-thousand-strong group on the flank of the offensive against Moscow, none of the generals wanted. If Heinz does not strike towards Kleist, then divisions are withdrawn from the SWZ to reinforce the offensive of the same Bryansk Front (in real life, for the defense of Moscow, divisions were removed even from near Leningrad, despite the threat to Tikhvin). And the Germans will again be forced to deal with the threat on the flanks.
          Especially since Guderian and so inexorably attracted to the south - first in an attempt to cover his bare flank, and then - to help repel the blow of Eremenko.
          Quote: AK64
          The landing on Malta in general ... The island is small, there are few insignificant landing sites, and everywhere the British density is high

          But what a scope of planning! One landing Pz.abt.zbv-66 with its T-34, KV-1 and KV-2 which is worth. smile
    2. gladcu2
      gladcu2 23 May 2016 20: 12
      +2
      The same Lech.

      The one who does nothing is not mistaken.

      Initially, Crete did not have to be taken if the development of a further operation was not planned. The straits could be taken to create an advantage in the war for Africa. But the losses scared.

      Why were the losses scared? Because they did not correctly analyze the situation.

      What led to such losses? Dustiness of the airfield, after the bombing. Loss of moment of surprise and lack of information about the situation due to poor communication.

      Thanks to the author, very interesting and informative.
      1. Warrior2015
        Warrior2015 24 May 2016 20: 17
        0
        Quote: gladcu2
        Initially, Crete did not have to be taken if the development of a further operation was not planned. The straits could be taken to create an advantage in the war for Africa. But the losses scared.

        And who would tell you what was not planned? 41 summer before the attack on the USSR? - the options were very different - including continuing the offensive in Africa, taking Cairo, then Jerusalem and going to Baghdad and then to Afghanistan and India.

        And by the way, it was a much more realistic plan than Barbarossa ...
  6. salavat
    salavat 23 May 2016 09: 02
    +16
    Whatever you say, these paratroopers are desperate guys. Their courage and resilience deserve respect, although they were enemies.
    1. yehat
      yehat 23 May 2016 14: 11
      0
      it is durability! the paratroopers in the Reich were an example for everyone, then from there they took the strength of spirit into the SS troops. Please note - even with fast and frightening 60% losses, the paratroopers fought to the end.
      1. PKK
        PKK 23 May 2016 17: 22
        +1
        Please note that the German paratrooper saw disasters in the air, the mass shooting and death of his comrades. However, his fighting spirit did not break and he fought above his strength.
    2. gladcu2
      gladcu2 23 May 2016 20: 21
      +4
      salavat

      There is such a thing, talking about the enemy in a positive way is impossible. We must speak in a neutral form. Otherwise, you can hurt yourself. That is morality.

      But it is necessary to give an analysis of what has happened, since without doing the analysis you can do yourself double harm.

      Here, not only learn the special selection of soldiers played a role but also patriotism. But what kind of patriotism the fascists might have is a topic for separate discussions. There is nothing secret or unusual about this. You can always figure it out.
  7. BISMARCK94
    BISMARCK94 23 May 2016 09: 29
    +4
    There you have the color chronicles.
  8. kon125
    kon125 23 May 2016 09: 49
    +5
    Stulent was, of course, a great Commander, an enthusiast of the Airborne Forces, thanks for the article, the German Airborne Forces were an elite. Thank you for the article, it would be interesting to read about the capture of Fort Eien Emael, and, especially, about the actions of the paratroopers of Hemrania on the World Front, although major operations they no longer drove, but maybe I'm wrong.
    1. avt
      avt 23 May 2016 10: 28
      +5
      Quote: kon125
      German Airborne Forces by the elite.

      Well, somehow - yes. They delved up more business sooner and sooner than later on the SAS shaved. Perhaps it’s only cooler than ours, well, the OMSBON and the landing corps, to take the same Rodimtsev with his soldiers in Stalingrad
      The assault on Malta was also rejected (Operation Hercules), although Italy proposed the allocation of large forces (airborne and airborne assault divisions), since the capture of this island was of primary importance for controlling the central Mediterranean.
      A strategic miscalculation affecting the entire course of a company in Africa.
      1. Verdun
        Verdun 23 May 2016 11: 08
        +3
        A strategic miscalculation affecting the entire course of a company in Africa.
        The fact that this influenced the course of the Mediterranean and African companies is a fact. But to call it a miscalculation is still not worth it. During the landing on Crete, more than a third of the Yu-52 aircraft were lost with the help of which the landing was carried out. There were simply no necessary forces and means.
        1. avt
          avt 23 May 2016 11: 22
          +1
          Quote: Verdun
          . There were simply no necessary forces and means.

          Just look at the composition of forces and assets in comparison at the very moment when it was proposed to seize Malta, and if we talk about some kind of material shortage, then we can only talk about the amount of fuel requested by the Italian fleet for the operation. In the end, everything ended in exactly the same way as with Britain - Goering said that he would crush Malta from the air and transferred an air corps there to help the Italians. At first, as in the Battle of England itself, Malta was heavily ironed out, but in the end the Angles after the operation “Pedestal” confidently turned the tide. And everything fell into place - they clamped down the supply of the Italo-German corps at sea and from the air.
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 23 May 2016 12: 34
            +4
            Quote: avt
            Just look at the composition of forces and assets in comparison at the very moment when it was proposed to capture Malta and even if we talk about some kind of material shortage, we can only talk about the amount of fuel requested by the Italian fleet for the operation

            The problem is that without this fuel the forces assigned to the operation could not go to sea. For Supermarine had no fuel reserves - they were used up back in 1941.
            As mentioned earlier, the Italian fleet started the war with 1800000 tons of oil. Despite the savings and restrictions imposed immediately, as soon as it became clear that the war was dragging on, by February 1941, 1000000 tons of this reserve had been used up. It was the ninth month of the war.
            In the summer of 1941, when only 103000 tons of oil arrived from Germany, the reserves of the Italian fleet were finally exhausted. From that moment, the Italian fleet was forced to conduct operations only when oil supplies allowed it.

            It came to the point that when planning operations, the composition of the Italian forces was determined not by operational and tactical considerations, but by the available fuel.
            Quote: avt
            At first, as in the Battle of England itself, Malta was heavily ironed out, but in the end the Angles after the operation “Pedestal” confidently turned the tide. And everything fell into place - they clamped down the supply of the Italo-German corps at sea and from the air.

            And there’s something to pinch - what not to pinch: Rommel scored on the questions of rear organization and managed to organize a shortage of supplies at the front, receiving 1500–2500 tons of cargo daily by sea. With the same supply shoulder, no taken Malta will help: the rear and transport will become a thing in themselves, spending most of the delivered on their own needs (spending on delivery).
            1. avt
              avt 23 May 2016 12: 48
              +2
              Quote: Alexey RA
              . With the same supply shoulder no Malta taken

              With the presence of Malta, the Angles blocked in fact, albeit with strain,
              Quote: avt
              clamped the supply of the Italo-German corps at sea and from the air tightly.

              What they actually demonstrated with the help of intelligence covered the Germans' convoys at the crucial moment, leaving the Germans without fuel, at least. And the rest - yes.
      2. AK64
        AK64 23 May 2016 12: 30
        +4
        A strategic miscalculation affecting the entire course of a company in Africa.

        Would put them there.
        Tiny Malta, much smaller than Crete
        Fighters in Malta were, unlike Crete
        Due to its tiny size, defense was organized in all real landing sites.

        Nuivot.

        Generally speaking, they were simply obliged to put them on Crete.
        But lords, as usual ... only in parades and can command. And for a war, generals are needed without white gloves and titles (that’s why Monty had to be retrieved from somewhere else)
        1. avt
          avt 23 May 2016 18: 06
          +2
          Quote: AK64
          Fighters in Malta were, unlike Crete

          From this place, concretely and in detail - what were there, probably starting with the jet six fighters Gloucester "Gladiator" wassat and how we ended up in the end. That's when the dynamics are overwhelming, then the verdicts
          Quote: AK64
          Would put them there.

          and take out about who put whom and how. The Germans were not in vain planning the participation of the Italian fleet and if
          Quote: avt
          , then we can only talk about the amount of fuel requested by the Italian fleet for the operation
          which Hitler refused, citing volume and
          Quote: Alexey RA
          The problem is that without this fuel the forces assigned to the operation could not go to sea. For Supermarine had no fuel reserves - they were used up back in 1941.

          And without a fleet, the landing of ONE PARAJUT DESCENT is a one-way ticket.
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 23 May 2016 18: 55
            +3
            Quote: avt
            From this place, concretely and in detail - what were there, probably starting with the reactive SIX FIGHTERS Gloucester "Gladiator" wassat and what they ended up with.

            Malta combat vehicles:
            March 23, 1942: 14 Spitfires and 11 Hurricanes.
            The Wasp was connected to the flights to Malta.
            April 22, 1942: 7 Spitfires. Critical point.
            Special measures have been taken to protect arriving vehicles.
            May 9, 1942: 37 Spitfires and 13 Hurricanes were raised only to cover the harbor. Fracture of the situation.
            And then the conveyor entered a normal rhythm.
            From May to June "Eagle" transported 135 "Spitov" to the island. In July-August, a pair of "Eagles" and "Furies" - another 125 "Spits".
            By August 1942, there were more than 100 combat-ready fighters in Malta.
            Quote: avt
            And without a fleet, the landing of ONE PARAJUT DESCENT is a one-way ticket.

            Mayo sho mayo. smile
            There is no excess oil. From the word at all. For on the one hand there is the Battle of the Atlantic. On the other hand, there are active battles on the Eastern Front in the southern and central sectors (Sevastopol, Don, Voronezh, Volga, the Caucasus, the Rzhev region). Moreover, active battles near Stalingrad and the Caucasus were not planned. Plus there was a big bummer with Grozny oil.
            1. avt
              avt 23 May 2016 19: 59
              0
              Quote: Alexey RA
              March 23, 1942: 14 Spitfires and 11 Hurricanes.

              That is precisely that BEFORE the visit of Furyos and Pedestal, there was practically nothing there, and in 1940 Malta was practically naked from the air, and with the arrival of the German aviation corps, the Germans established the work of the Italians and really ironed out Malta. BUT! They practically repeated Gritsenko's monologue in the role of a general traveling on a train with Stirlitz to the US - "These idiots think that the war can be won by bombing alone!", But in fact the Germans implemented it both on the shaved islands and in Malta. request
              1. Alexey RA
                Alexey RA 24 May 2016 10: 07
                0
                Quote: avt
                That is exactly what BEFORE the visit of "Furyos" and "Pedestal" there was practically nothing there

                "Pedestal" is August 1942. By this time, Malta already had 5 squadrons with more than a hundred combat-ready vehicles. Moreover, since May, cannon fifths "Spits" went to Malta.
                Quote: avt
                in 1940, Malta was practically naked from the air, and even with the arrival of the German air corps, the Germans arranged the work of the Italians, and actually ironed Malta.

                That is yes. In 1940, everything was bad with the fighters in Malta.
                The critical point in 1942 was the unsuccessful transfer of the "Spits" by "Wasp" in April 1942, when a few hours later the backlashes covered the Maltese fighters right at the airfield.
                1. AK64
                  AK64 24 May 2016 16: 13
                  0
                  That is yes. In 1940, everything was bad with the fighters in Malta.


                  Oh, he's about the 40th ....

                  Why not about the 39th?
        2. gladcu2
          gladcu2 23 May 2016 20: 32
          0
          AK64

          Why does everyone think that the British did not have the same supply problems?

          At least with the timely delivery of components for equipment from the island of England, they were quite present. Do not forget about the battleships of Hitler who pirated on supply routes. Although they did not play a decisive role, they attracted a lot of attention.

          Everything was completely different if we took into account this dustiness of the airfield at the time of the landing of the first wave.
    2. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 23 May 2016 13: 13
      -1
      "especially, about the actions of paratroopers of Gemrania on the East Front," ////

      They were not on the Eastern Front. They acted in Africa, Greece, fought off
      Allied attacks in Italy in 42-44.
      1. yehat
        yehat 23 May 2016 14: 20
        +5
        were on the east, but not as a striking force
        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 23 May 2016 23: 08
          0
          How is anyone? And where? smile
  9. Verdun
    Verdun 23 May 2016 10: 49
    +12
    With a fairly detailed account of the events that took place in Cyprus, the article suffers from some "gaps" in information and weakness of analytical conclusions. I would like to add and correct.
    1. Crete was defended by 32 thousand British soldiers and about 15 thousand Greek. The Germans transferred 23,5 thousand soldiers to the island, of which about 10 000 in the initial phase. Given the fact that the Allies had almost two-fold superiority in manpower (even with the exception of the Greeks - one and a half times), the defense of Crete should be regarded as a complete failure. After all, no one has canceled the 3 to 1 loss rule in offensive operations.
    2.
    Of the 10 thousand landed paratroopers, only about 6 thousand people remained in service.
    When landing an air assault, this is a very high percentage. In military practice, 80% of losses in the first wave of the landing are considered normal.
    3.
    The Germans lost more than 6 thousand dead and wounded (according to other sources, about 7-8 thousand
    According to German data, the losses amounted to 4000 killed. But it's not that. During the operation, the British evacuated about 18 soldiers from the island, and 000 British and 12 Greeks - that is, more than the total number of Germans who landed - were captured.
    Why am I doing all this? Moreover, all the talk of the Allies about how successfully they fought on land is not worth a damn. Having superiority at sea, one cannot contrive with superior forces to fend off airborne assault forces ...
    1. Verdun
      Verdun 23 May 2016 11: 10
      +1
      Quote: Verdun
      events in Cyprus

      Sorry, typo, of course "in Crete".
    2. alicante11
      alicante11 23 May 2016 12: 10
      +3
      After all, no one has canceled the 3 to 1 loss rule in offensive operations.


      IMHO, it's still about the superiority of 3: 1, necessary for the offensive. As for the losses, they exceed the advancing one mainly in the event of an offensive failure. If successful, the defender loses more in the breakout and pursuit phase.
    3. AK64
      AK64 23 May 2016 12: 41
      +2
      With a fairly detailed account of the events that took place in Cyprus, the article suffers from some "gaps" in information and weakness of analytical conclusions. I would like to add and correct.

      So.
      1. Crete was defended by 32 thousand British soldiers and about 15 thousand Greek. The Germans transferred 23,5 thousand soldiers to the island, of which about 10 000 in the initial phase. Given the fact that the Allies had almost two-fold superiority in manpower (even with the exception of the Greeks - one and a half times), the defense of Crete should be regarded as a complete failure.

      Absolutely. Moreover, the failure of the authorities.
      But one detail should be noted: the German troops were of a very high level of training. Those that opposed them - from "satisfactory" to "unsatisfactory" (Greeks, and even New Zealans; the last excellent fighters, but at that time were essentially untrained recruits.)
      After all, no one has canceled the 3 to 1 loss rule in offensive operations.

      This rule does not exist. It is a myth.
      But in general, the losses of paratroopers at the first stage were much higher than 3: 1. All the losses of the allies - due to failure and prisoners.
      Of the 10 thousand landed paratroopers, only about 6 thousand people remained in service.
      When landing an air assault, this is a very high percentage. In military practice, 80% of losses in the first wave of the landing are considered normal.

      I don’t even know where such figures come from.

      The Germans lost more than 6 thousand killed and wounded (according to other sources, about 7-8 thousand. According to German data, the losses amounted to 4000 killed.

      IMHO, the last digit is correct - "less than 4000"
      But it's not that. During the operation, the British evacuated about 18 soldiers from the island, and 000 British and 12 Greeks - that is, more than the total number of Germans who landed - were captured.
      Why am I doing all this? Moreover, all the talk of the Allies about how successfully they fought on land is not worth a damn. Having superiority at sea, one cannot contrive with superior forces to fend off airborne assault forces ...

      Consider Sevastopol, the last assault.

      I do not condone the British - the weight of their pre-war generals (and indeed the officer corps) turned out to be professionally insolvent. The sailors are even more than that, but the army .. This is a nightmare. But all in white gloves.
      So during the war they had to change the whole generals.

      But cf with the USSR --- though not to the same extent, but also similar.
      Morality: peacetime officers not fit for war.
      1. Verdun
        Verdun 23 May 2016 13: 03
        +4
        Quote: AK64
        the German troops were very, very well trained. Those that opposed them - from "satisfactory" to "unsatisfactory"
        Yes it is. But the British had artillery and even tanks on the island, and the width of Crete - 60 km at its widest point - made it possible to support the defending forces with naval artillery at almost any point.
        Morality: Peacetime officers are not fit for war.
        I do not really understand what peacetime officers are. Everyone once begins with classes at training grounds. Of course, real combat experience is invaluable. Another thing is that such an experience comes to smart people pretty quickly, but never to fools.
        1. AK64
          AK64 23 May 2016 13: 28
          0
          the width of Crete - 60 km at its widest point - made it possible to support the defending forces with naval artillery at almost any point.

          So the boats sank something - 4 cruisers and 6 EM.

          I do not really understand what peacetime officers are. Everyone once begins with classes at training grounds. Of course, real combat experience is invaluable. Another thing is that such an experience comes to smart people pretty quickly, but never to fools.

          This is not the point. The British generals were the "closed club of high society" - lord upon lord. Fife-o-clocks and all that. That Percival is in Southeast Asia, that Horus is in Belgium ... That this is a dunduk in Africa. Prof-unsuitable people in principle.
          What "experience" if "five-o-clocks" are not drunk?

          In the Republic of Ingushetia, the same situation was until Nikolai took over the command: he played tennis at the rate
          1. Verdun
            Verdun 23 May 2016 13: 43
            +1
            Quote: AK64
            In the Republic of Ingushetia, the same situation was until Nikolai took over the command: he played tennis at the rate

            As a commander, Emperor Nicholas II was an absolute zero. And as an organizer - a little better. Otherwise, he would not have taken command, but made sure that competent people did not lead the army and navy, not the sloppies. For example, such as Nikolai Ottovich von Essen or Alexei Alekseevich Brusilov. This is an example. You look, and you wouldn't play lawn tennis ...
            1. AK64
              AK64 23 May 2016 13: 53
              -2
              As a commander, Emperor Nicholas II was an absolute zero.

              Is that your opinion? Very, very interesting ...
              And as an organizer - a little better.

              Is that your opinion? Very, very interesting ... Go on, tell me that in bed he was also an absolute zero.
              Otherwise, he would not have taken command, but made sure that competent people did not lead the army and navy, not the sloppies.

              At the beginning of the war, Nick-Nick was the commander in chief - a darling-military man; the military loved him. And what? What is the result?
              So Nikolay Alexandrovich had to shake the whole generals in order to find very few competent.

              For example, such as Nikolai Ottovich von Essen or Alexei Alekseevich Brusilov.

              Both of them are close to the plinth in terms of professional qualities.
              You look, and you wouldn't play lawn tennis ...

              Lawn tennis was played while Nick-Nick Gluck was. And as Nick-Nick and his shoblu tennis players were sent ... far away, so the work of the Headquarters got better somehow. By itself, one must think - after all, "Nikolai was" ... how do you write there? "zero in bed", is that it? Everything was getting better by itself. With the military bone of Nik-Nika, it was all law tennis, but under Nikolai Aleksandrovich it somehow got up by itself.
              1. Verdun
                Verdun 23 May 2016 14: 04
                0
                Quote: AK64
                Is that your opinion? Very, very interesting ... Go on, tell me that in bed he was also an absolute zero.

                Sorry, I will not discuss your last comment. Because there’s nothing to discuss there.
                1. AK64
                  AK64 23 May 2016 15: 21
                  -1
                  Quote: AK64
                  Is that your opinion? Very, very interesting ... Go on, tell me that in bed he was also an absolute zero.


                  Sorry, I will not discuss your last comment. Because there’s nothing to discuss there.

                  I have no doubt that you would prefer at least a two-day discussion of your bold and original, as well as perfectly confirmed opinion about long pipiski General and organizational talent of Nikolai Alexandrovich.
              2. Alexey RA
                Alexey RA 23 May 2016 16: 52
                +2
                Quote: AK64
                Both of them are close to the plinth in terms of professional qualities.

                As for Essen, I disagree. With the forces available to him, he was able to solve the strategic problem that he was ordered to solve in the best possible way. Alas, the "German landing in the Gulf of Finland" was a fix idea for the top leadership of the Empire.
                Yes, and Essen's pre-war proposals were quite robust - especially in terms of ordering new ones and buying up existing LCs in Britain. For Nikolai Ottovich did not believe in domestic industry.
                By the way, among the promising ships of the future war Essen had a monitor with 356-mm guns. For the Irbensky and Moonsund MAP - that’s it.
        2. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 23 May 2016 13: 50
          +1
          Quote: Verdun
          I do not really understand what peacetime officers are. Everyone once begins with classes at training grounds.

          Have you read Evelyn Waugh's Officers and Gentlemen?
          “By the way, what is your unit doing today?”
          - Apply thin red lines. The map of Crete is an exact copy from the Greek edition, so I ordered a half-inch grid to be applied to it so that the map could be used.
          - Maps of Crete? Who ordered anyone to receive maps of Crete?
          “I wrote them out myself last night from Ras al-Tin.”
          “You didn’t go about your business, Crouchback.” That is how rumors are born.
          (...)
          - Ah, there you are! Major Hound exclaimed. - At last. I have already begun to lose hope. Are you from Colonel Prentis?
          “Not really,” one of the officers answered. “You see,” the officer went on, “Prentice is dead.”
          - Dead? asked Major Hound in such an annoyed tone, as if he had been officially informed of the death of his aunt, whom he had every reason to believe was in good health. - Can not be! We had a connection with him no more than the day before yesterday.
          - He's killed. Many of the commando units are killed.
          - It was necessary to inform us about this.

          The peace officer in the British Army is a creature preoccupied with issues of command taking as little of his precious time as possible and turning his attention mainly to the appearance of the unit entrusted to him.
          Quote: Verdun
          Yes it is. But the British had artillery and even tanks on the island

          To be precise, there were guns and tanks. But artillery and armored units practically none. For the evacuated units left almost all the "harness" of the artillery in Greece. It was possible to rely only on the artillery units of the garrison.
          As a result, the garrison was armed with only a few stationary and 85 captured Italian guns of various calibers, with almost no ammunition. Having disassembled some guns for spare parts, we collected 50 suitable for firing guns.
          Of the armored vehicles there were 16 old Cruiser MkI, 16 light Mark VIB, 9 medium tanks Matilda IIA of the 7th Royal Tank Regiment and the 4th Hussar Regiment of His Majesty. Matilda's 40-mm guns had mostly armor-piercing shells in their ammunition that were ineffective against infantry. The engines were worn out, there were practically no spare parts. Some tanks were launched for spare parts, most were simply dug in as bunkers in important areas.
          1. Verdun
            Verdun 23 May 2016 14: 02
            0
            Quote: Alexey RA
            Having disassembled some guns for spare parts, we collected 50 suitable for firing guns.
            Of the armored vehicles there were 16 old Cruiser MkI, 16 light Mark VIB, 9 medium tanks Matilda IIA of the 7th Royal Tank Regiment and the 4th Hussar Regiment of His Majesty.

            Do you think that the Germans threw at least some part of such weapons into the air through Crete?
            1. Alexey RA
              Alexey RA 23 May 2016 14: 08
              0
              Quote: Verdun
              Do you think that the Germans threw at least some part of such weapons into the air through Crete?

              Have you read further?
              Some tanks were launched for spare parts, most were simply dug in as bunkers in important areas.
              1. Verdun
                Verdun 23 May 2016 14: 18
                +4
                Have you read further?
                I read everything to the end. But, the fact is that German paratroopers are infantry. Let well armed with machine guns, machine guns and grenades, albeit well trained and able to jump with a parachute, but - infantry. And it is incredibly difficult to take the infantry forces, without the support of artillery and armored vehicles, the fortified positions of the enemy, who has at his disposal, even outdated and isolated tanks and artillery. Moreover, not having not only a numerical superiority, but even parity. And, by the way, the use of tanks, especially those that are outdated, in terrain conditions where it is difficult to maneuver them, is normal practice. In the Far East, back in the eighties, I even met the Tigers, dug in as bunkers.
            2. tlauicol
              tlauicol 23 May 2016 14: 22
              +1
              The Germans transferred 353 light artillery pieces, 771 motorcycles, 5358 containers, 1090 tons of other cargo. And the British, with 50 operational cannons throughout Crete, counterattacked Maleme, for example, with the support of two operational tanks - a little liquid against almost 800 German and Italian aircraft! So the support of the landing was enormous, but the island’s garrison was insignificant - but even under these conditions, the landing should have been completely exterminated
              1. Verdun
                Verdun 23 May 2016 14: 40
                +1
                The Germans transferred 353 light artillery pieces, 771 motorcycles, 5358 containers, 1090 tons of other cargo.
                The guns and motorcycles were transferred in the third phase of the operation, after the capture of the airfield. With systems for airborne artillery landing and armored vehicles at that time was in no way ...
                1. tlauicol
                  tlauicol 23 May 2016 15: 14
                  0
                  but 800 support aircraft - isn’t it too?
                  1. Verdun
                    Verdun 23 May 2016 15: 47
                    +1
                    Quote: Tlauicol
                    but 800 support aircraft - isn’t it too?

                    In total - 715 support aircraft. About half of them are Bf-109 fighters. Given that from the aerodromes of mainland Greece, from where German aircraft started, the path to Crete is no closer than from the French to the English coast, this meant that the bombers acted almost without cover. What kind of devil the British, preparing to defend Crete, pulled the fleet there, but did not transfer aircraft - a question for the Misty Albion strategists.
                    1. AK64
                      AK64 23 May 2016 16: 02
                      -1
                      In total - 715 support aircraft. About half of them are Bf-109 fighters.

                      180 fighters. The rest of the bombers

                      Given that from the aerodromes of mainland Greece, from where German aircraft started, the path to Crete is no closer than from the French to the English coast, this meant that the bombers acted almost without cover. What kind of devil the British, preparing to defend Crete, pulled the fleet there, but did not transfer aircraft - a question for the Misty Albion strategists.

                      The fleet was there "historically": the "Mediterranean fleet" was based on Alexadria. And there was practically no aviation at the theater.
                      In order not to bomb the fighters on the island, there would have to be at least 100 fighters (at least Hurricanes). There was a whole theater and a quarter of that was not there.
                    2. tlauicol
                      tlauicol 23 May 2016 16: 05
                      +2
                      okay, really no cover? Bf-109s also managed to carry 250kg of bombs and sink ships (including the cruiser Fiji yes ) and "Worspight" to damage and the island to spill and communications to break

                      But the British from Africa are really very good. It was far away and the aircraft did not cover them

                      still italian planes did not count
                      1. AK64
                        AK64 23 May 2016 16: 41
                        -1
                        oh well, really without cover?

                        What is "no cover"? It is precisely the weakness of aviation that explains, first of all, such a rapid defeat of the allies in the Balkans: even air reconnaissance was not sensible

                        Bf-109 also managed to carry 250kg bombs

                        This sounds like a complete fantasy: he didn’t even have such suspension units.

                        and sink ships (including the cruiser "Fiji" yes) and "Worspite" damage

                        And that sounds fantastic too. Why did you get this at all?
                        and island spud and disrupt communications

                        They didn’t fly to the moon
                      2. tlauicol
                        tlauicol 23 May 2016 16: 57
                        +4
                        I’m not writing to you, but to Verdun. He explained that the success of the landing was precisely due to the support of almost 800 aircraft - and that operation was on the verge of failure. This despite the fact that for every 20 paratroopers had to concentrate one plane!

                        Bf-109e didn’t fly to the moon, but they took 250 kg to the chest - one of them landed onboard Fiji, the other Worspight
                      3. AK64
                        AK64 23 May 2016 17: 14
                        0
                        Found really set ETC 500
                        (+ set, for me this is news.)
                      4. Verdun
                        Verdun 23 May 2016 17: 14
                        0

                        Bf-109e didn’t fly to the moon, but they took 250 kg to the chest - one of them landed onboard Fiji, the other Worspight
                        Yes, the Bf-109 could take one 250 kg bomb. But, even assuming. that the main composition of the German fighters - Bf-109F with a range of 880 km without hanging tanks - which is doubtful at the time of landing, then looking at the geographical map, it is easy to see if these aircraft operated at range limits. And Fiji was just out of luck.
                        18:45 A single ME109 from JG 77 (Molai airfield in the south of the Peloponnese (Major Woldeng)) was able to find and attack HMS Fiji at range. The result of the attack from the side of the sun was the hit of one 225 kg. the bomb, which lay extremely well - at the side of the ship in the midship region, went obliquely under the bottom and exploded, turning the cruiser’s bottom with a hydraulic shock. The boiler compartment was flooded, the cruiser lost speed and tilted heavily to the port side. Half an hour later, another attack with Ju.88 piloted by Gerhard Brenner, and as a result three more bombs. 20.15 the cruiser rolled over and sank at 34.583333, 23.16666734 ° 35 s. w. 23 ° 10 in. d. / 34.583333 ° s. w. 23.166667 ° in. d. (G) (O).

                        It is worth noting that the sinking of the ship took place AFTER ALL the ammunition of the air defense of the guns were used up (see air defense on the HMS Fiji)

                        Different sources on the Web give different numbers of hits on the ship, as well as different types of aircraft involved in the sinking of the HMS Fiji.
                        This is an example. If you want more details - here is the link.

                        http://wiki.wargaming.net/ru/Navy:HMS_Fiji_%281939%29#.D0.92.D1.82.D0.BE.D1.80.D


                        0.B6.D0.B5.D0.BD.D0.B8.D0.B5_.D0.9A.D1.80.D0.B8.D1.82

                        It’s quite a competent analysis of events.
                      5. tlauicol
                        tlauicol 23 May 2016 18: 05
                        0
                        Fiji was sunk southwest of Crete, so that the 109th could also bomb 250kg in Heraklion - there was enough range. Aviation dragged the campaign while the landing party bravely died
                      6. Alexey RA
                        Alexey RA 23 May 2016 18: 10
                        +1
                        Quote: Verdun
                        Yes, the Bf-109 could take one 250 kg bomb. But, even assuming. that the main composition of the German fighters - Bf-109F with a range of 880 km without hanging tanks - which is doubtful at the time of landing, then looking at the geographical map, it is easy to see if these aircraft operated at range limits. And Fiji was just out of luck.

                        Uh-huh ... and the Hurricanes were also out of luck:
                        The Lehrgeschwader 2 pilots also distinguished themselves, having shot down three Hurricanes Mk.I. on the route from Crete to Egypt in the last days of the island’s defense.

                        It turns out that the radius Bf.109E was enough for work between Crete and Egypt.
                        In addition, the Messers worked on Crete in the role of IBA and SHA:
                        Since all RAF fighters were either shot down or evacuated, the Messerschmitts were involved in attacking ground targets in the landing areas and patrolling airspace over Crete.
                      7. Verdun
                        Verdun 23 May 2016 18: 36
                        0
                        Quote: Alexey RA

                        It turns out that the radius Bf.109E was enough for work between Crete and Egypt.
                        Given the fact that they took off from the airfield in Molai in the south of the Peloponnese, there were enough minutes for five to ten presence in the air. In order to drop bombs or fire at a ground target - enough. To cover the bombers - no. It was not enough, since the cover implies maneuvering and air combat, but the Bf-109E did not have enough fuel for this.
                        Also distinguished pilots Lehrgeschwader 2
                        Since the model of the aircraft is not indicated, it could very well be the Bf-110, but these machines were quite small.
                      8. tlauicol
                        tlauicol 23 May 2016 18: 44
                        0
                        that’s the trick that covering German bombers wasn’t even required. if the British had 50 Spitfires in Crete, the landing would not even have reached the island
                      9. Verdun
                        Verdun 23 May 2016 18: 57
                        0
                        be with the English 50 Spitfires in Crete
                        Yes, not even Spitfire - it wasn’t worth dreaming about then - but at least Hurricanes.
                        Quote: Verdun
                        What kind of devil the British, preparing to defend Crete, pulled the fleet there, but did not transfer aircraft - a question for the Misty Albion strategists.

                        I quote myself in the early comments. Glad we came to a consensus.
                      10. Alexey RA
                        Alexey RA 23 May 2016 19: 04
                        0
                        Quote: Tlauicol
                        that’s the trick that covering German bombers wasn’t even required. if the British had 50 Spitfires in Crete, the landing would not even have reached the island

                        He-he-he ... On April 21, 1942, the defenders of Malta received 46 Spits. After 48 hours, only 7 combat-ready vehicles remained on the island. The RAF patrolled the raid - and most of the cars were burned right at the airfield.

                        So 50 "spits" on earth do not mean anything yet. Now, if Crete had an air defense system similar to the protection of the Islands (with early radar detection of the enemy and the control center of the aircraft), then there could be options.
                      11. AK64
                        AK64 23 May 2016 19: 04
                        0
                        if the British had 50 Spitfires in Crete, the landing would not even have reached the island

                        50 is not enough, they would have been worn out in 3-4 days: during attacks wave after wave, sooner or later they would have been destroyed on the ground. 50 against 600 is still sharply insufficient even though Me109 is at the limit of range. Plus, there were no radars there, which meant someone on duty in the air and other joys.
                      12. tlauicol
                        tlauicol 23 May 2016 19: 33
                        0
                        in fact, the Luftwaffe was engaged in this all month before the landing - they grind the Royal Air Force (and again there is no merit of the landing in this). Month! not 3-4 days.
                        but stay on the island with 50 fighters by May 20 .. no radars needed - they would take off after the stormtroopers left (parking could be closed with a smoke curtain and generally masked) towards gliders and 500 transporters who were half an hour late and went without cover
                      13. tlauicol
                        tlauicol 23 May 2016 19: 38
                        +3
                        However, why such difficulties? It would be enough for Freiberg to blow up the runways of airfields and kill the unfortunate
                      14. AK64
                        AK64 23 May 2016 19: 44
                        0
                        However, why such difficulties? It would be enough for Freiberg to blow up the runways of airfields and kill the unfortunate

                        Yes. Breaking the order.
                        It was the case when the order needed to be violated.
                2. The comment was deleted.
              2. Alexey RA
                Alexey RA 23 May 2016 19: 00
                0
                Quote: Verdun
                Since the model of the aircraft is not indicated, it could very well be the Bf-110, but these machines were quite small.

                Nope. I. (Jagd) / LG 2 worked on Crete, which was armed with the Bf.109E in the version of a fighter-bomber.
              3. Verdun
                Verdun 23 May 2016 19: 42
                +1
                Bf.109E in the version of the fighter-bomber.
                There was no such "option". All Bf-109E equipped with a device for the suspension of additional tanks could take bombs instead of tanks. German fighter aircraft operating in the Crete area:

                ZG 26 - two Me.110 groups (captain von Retberg), Argos airfield near Mycenae.

                JG 77 (Major Woldeng) - Three Me groups. 109, Molai airfield in the south of the Peloponnese, 20 km from Monemvasia.

                LG 2 is one Me group. 109 (Captain Ilefeld), Molai airfield.

                At the same time, I could not find sources from which it was possible to judge unambiguously who shot down whom and who bombed whom. Too many discrepancies. Relative clarity is perhaps only with Fiji, since it was attacked by a single aircraft.
              4. AK64
                AK64 23 May 2016 19: 50
                0
                There was no such "option". All Bf-109E equipped with a device for the suspension of additional tanks could take bombs instead of tanks.


                The E-1 production version kept two 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 17s above the engine and two more in the wings. Later, many were modified to the E-3 armament standard. The E-1B was a small batch of E-1s that became the first operational Bf 109 fighter bomber, Or Jagdbomber (usually abbreviated to Jabo)... These were fitted with either an ETC 500 bomb rack, carrying one 250 kg (550 lb) bomb, or four 50 kg (110 lb) bombs. The E-1 was also fitted with the Reflexvisier "Revi" gunsight. Communications equipment was the FuG 7 Funkgerät 7 (radio set) short-range radio apparatus, effective to ranges of 48–56 km (30–35 mi). A total of 1,183 E-1 were built, 110 of them were E-1 / B


                E-4 / B (Fighter-bomber version of E-4, 1 × 250 kg / 550 lb bomb, usually with DB 601Aa)


                E-4 /BN (Fighter-bomber version of E-4 / N, 1 × 250 kg / 550 lb bomb)


                G-2 / R1: Long-range fighter-bomber. It carried a bomb up to 500 kg (1,100 lb) under the fuselage and had a modified fuel system with underwing fittings for a 300 L (80 US gal) drop tank. As a standard Bf 109G had not enough ground clearance to carry a 500 kg bomb, a jettisonable auxiliary undercarriage was added just aft of the cockpit. [65] The prototype was the FiSk 199. No production known


                And so on ...
              5. Verdun
                Verdun 23 May 2016 20: 15
                +1
                Quote: AK64
                And so on ...

                Let me explain. For the first time, a holder for mounting outboard tanks and bombs was developed for the E-4 model. But, later, these kits were installed on the machines of earlier releases. At the same time, the concept of "fighter-bomber" implies not only the possibility of suspension of bombs - this was the case for many WWII fighters - but also aiming equipment for bombing. Unlike the Bf-110, which was equipped with a Revi C / 12D sight to increase the effectiveness of bombing, which provides an accurate drop of bombs from a gentle dive, the Bf-109E did not have such equipment. There were prototypes, but there were no facts of mass equipment.
              6. AK64
                AK64 23 May 2016 21: 20
                0
                Let me explain. For the first time, a holder for mounting outboard tanks and bombs was developed for the E-4 model. But, later, these kits were installed on the machines of earlier releases. At the same time, the concept of "fighter-bomber" implies not only the possibility of suspension of bombs - this was the case for many WWII fighters - but also aiming equipment for bombing. Unlike the Bf-110, which was equipped with a Revi C / 12D sight to increase the effectiveness of bombing, which provides an accurate drop of bombs from a gentle dive, the Bf-109E did not have such equipment. There were prototypes, but there were no facts of mass equipment.

                The Germans themselves classified these versions as "fighter-bomber" (Jagdbomber, Jabo). But you, of course, know better.

                Which of the WWII fighter-bombers had a special bomb sight?
  • voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 23 May 2016 14: 55
    0
    "A peacetime officer in the British Army is a creature concerned with
    so that command issues take away as little of his precious as possible
    time and focusing mainly on the external
    view of the subdivision entrusted to him "/////

    The English officers - especially in the infantry - are of very high quality.
    They live together with soldiers, play sports and shoot together as equals.
    They are always thin, fit. Their officers never beat soldiers,
    Do not humiliate them.
    1. AK64
      AK64 23 May 2016 15: 25
      +2
      The English officers - especially in the infantry - are of very high quality.
      They live together with soldiers, play sports and shoot together as equals.
      They are always thin, fit. Their officers never beat soldiers,
      Do not humiliate them.


      You are absolutely right: a gentleman does not even beat a servant himself - for this there is a boatswain.
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 23 May 2016 16: 25
      0
      Quote: voyaka uh
      The English officers - especially in the infantry - are of very high quality.
      They live together with soldiers, play sports and shoot together as equals.
      They are always thin, fit. Their officers never beat soldiers,
      Do not humiliate them.

      Are you talking about the current time or the situation in 1939? I described exactly 1939.
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 23 May 2016 23: 17
        +1
        Anglican officers - like Wingate - laid the foundations of IDF tactics that
        still valid. And we are very grateful to them for this.
        Night battle, loose, rather than chain attack, aimed fire single, and not firing
        bursts, a tank battle on the rollback ... helped us win wars with small losses.
        1. AK64
          AK64 24 May 2016 09: 33
          +1
          Anglican officers - like Wingate - laid the foundations of IDF tactics that are still in effect. And we are very grateful to them for this. A night battle, a loose, rather than a chain attack, aimed fire in single and not firing bursts, a tank battle on a rollback ... helped us win wars with small losses.


          Wingate is NOT a "peacetime officer" (you have forgotten how to read something in Russian); Wingate is a military time officer.

          And so you are right: the British have created a state for you - but your British leadership has thrown and crossed over to the United States.
          And rightly, by the way, they did it: your then leadership realized how exactly your state and your IDF are going to use the British. And for what they teach, prepare.

          You will understand the history of your country, the first 10-15 years, in the context of the confrontation "Britain against the USA"
          1. voyaka uh
            voyaka uh 25 May 2016 23: 16
            +1
            "but your leadership of the British threw and went over to the United States" ////

            The British actually helped the Arabs more: they created an excellent Arab Legion
            in Jordan (which we could not win in the 49th) ... But this is their business - I am not in a complaint.
            Worse, in 1967, England and France declared an arms embargo on Israel.
            Therefore, since 1970, rapprochement with the United States and the purchase of weapons from there began.

            "You will understand the history of your country" ////

            I am doing my best. If I don’t understand something, I’ll consult you smile
  • Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 23 May 2016 18: 13
    0
    Quote: Verdun
    Yes it is. But the British had artillery and even tanks on the island, and the width of Crete - 60 km at its widest point - made it possible to support the defending forces with naval artillery at almost any point.

    The British were just trying to do it. The result was practically the same as in Operation Verp:
    On the night of May 23, three destroyers left Malta - "Kelly", "Kashmir" and "Kipling". The detachment was to fire at the airfield at Maleme. At dawn on May 23, the destroyers were already south of Crete, but still out of reach of the Ju-87.

    Only at 07.55 did 24 Ju-87Bs from I./StG2 appear above them, led by Hauptmann Hichhold, who immediately went over to the attack. First, as a result of a direct hit to the center of the corps, the destroyer Kashmir sank within two minutes, killing 82 people and injuring 14. Then, despite all desperate attempts to dodge, "Kelly" got a direct hit in the engine room. The destroyer almost immediately capsized and quickly went under water. Almost half of his crew died with him - 130 people. As a result of the Stuk attack, only one Kipling survived, escaping with only minor injuries, in which 5 people were killed and one was wounded. "Kipling" picked up from the water 279 surviving sailors from the crews of two sunken destroyers.
  • PKK
    PKK 23 May 2016 17: 32
    0
    Quote: AK64
    peacetime officers are not fit for war.

    The Americans carried out research, only 2% of the soldiers not only shot but also destroyed the enemy, the rest past 25% were described. They were fashioned. Therefore, the bulk of the allied forces were just not able to fight, there was no skill and fighting spirit. , all polls were able to destroy the enemy, the one that smeared and pissed they did not have. Hence the striking results of the loss and prisoners.
    1. AK64
      AK64 23 May 2016 17: 53
      +2
      The Americans carried out research, only 2% of the soldiers not only shot but also destroyed the enemy, the rest past 25% were described. They were fashioned. Therefore, the bulk of the allied forces were just not able to fight, there was no skill and fighting spirit. , all polls were able to destroy the enemy, the one that smeared and pissed they did not have. Hence the striking results of the loss and prisoners.


      \ Horst Wessel jumps up from a chair and stands. German\
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 23 May 2016 18: 17
      +2
      Quote: PKK
      The Americans carried out research, only 2% of the soldiers not only shot but also destroyed the enemy, the rest past 25% were described. They were fashioned. Therefore, the bulk of the allied forces were just not able to fight, there was no skill and fighting spirit. , all polls were able to destroy the enemy, the one that smeared and pissed they did not have. Hence the striking results of the loss and prisoners.

      Yeah ... that's just in battles with these unable to fight The allies of the elite 6 TA SS in December 1944 suffered the same losses that they could not arrive on time near Budapest.
      1. HERMES
        HERMES 24 May 2016 14: 42
        0
        Quote: Alexey RA
        Yeah ... only in battles with these unable to fight the Allies, the elite 6 TA SS in December 1944 suffered the same losses that they could not arrive on time near Budapest.


        With the allies who flew ... Allied aviation eliminated up to 70% of the German army. Where German aviation was and what was done was clear. If there wasn’t such strong air support ... The Western Front would drown in the English Channel and the Mediterranean Sea.
        1. AK64
          AK64 24 May 2016 16: 11
          +1
          Allied aviation eliminated up to 70% of the German army.


          "Write more, Misha, why should you wish spawn!"
        2. Warrior2015
          Warrior2015 24 May 2016 20: 21
          0
          Quote: HERMES
          If there wasn’t such powerful air support ... the Western Front would drown in the English Channel and the Mediterranean Sea.

          No doubt the role of air strikes in the Anglo-Saxon alliance was dominant. But in the 1844 year, they learned a lot - and were very saturated with anti-tank weapons - that's why the German tank attacks drowned.

          The Ardennes operation was only successful for the Germans at the beginning - when both the surprise factor and favorable non-flying weather worked. Then - everything merged.
    3. HERMES
      HERMES 24 May 2016 00: 02
      0
      Quote: PKK
      The Americans carried out research, only 2% of the soldiers not only shot but also destroyed the enemy, the rest past 25% were described. They were fashioned. Therefore, the bulk of the allied forces were just not able to fight, there was no skill and fighting spirit. , all polls were able to destroy the enemy, the one that smeared and pissed they did not have. Hence the striking results of the loss and prisoners.


      Well, you, too ... compared the American soldier with the German ... long ago "calculated" that the German soldier was many times superior to the soldier of the allied army in combat effectiveness. The Germans have a war in their blood. Fascists are fascists ... but they are great fighters. Even after the Great The German Democratic Republic was the most powerful ally of the USSR in the Patriotic War, and all Poland and Czechoslovakia were no match for them.
      Well, then they ask some if they lost? Not one nation has been able to hold out for so long under the onslaught of virtually the whole world.
      1. AK64
        AK64 24 May 2016 09: 25
        -2
        it has long been "calculated" that the German soldier was many times superior to the soldier of the allied army in combat capability.

        Who and where "counted"?
        Where can I get acquainted with the "counting" method?
        1. HERMES
          HERMES 24 May 2016 14: 37
          0
          Quote: AK64
          it has long been "calculated" that the German soldier was many times superior to the soldier of the allied army in combat capability.

          Who and where "counted"?
          Where can I get acquainted with the "counting" method?


          The same technique, which is now calculated the superiority of a Russian soldier over Ukrainian, American, etc. And you can familiarize yourself with this technique right here ... on the site, in many articles and comments on them.

          If I replaced the word "German soldier" with "Russian soldier", you would react differently.
          1. AK64
            AK64 24 May 2016 16: 10
            +1
            The same technique, which is now calculated the superiority of a Russian soldier over Ukrainian, American, etc. And you can familiarize yourself with this technique right here ... on the site, in many articles and comments on them.

            That is, sucking fingers ...
            Clear

            If I replaced the word "German soldier" with "Russian soldier", you would react differently.

            Not at all.
            The Americans were (and are) excellent soldiers. And the British are excellent soldiers, especially Canadians, Australians and New Zealanders (that is, from the colonies). They are no worse than the Germans.
            While the Germans had well-trained and fired at relatively safe wars, the solates - they won.
            Generally speaking, even in Poland the Germans showed themselves as soldiers, it is soldiers, it is not important. But, fortunately for them, the enemy (Poles) was "training". It was on such and such opponents that we gained personal experience and class.
  • The comment was deleted.
  • Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 23 May 2016 14: 07
    +2
    Quote: Verdun
    1. Crete was defended by 32 thousand British soldiers and about 15 thousand Greek. The Germans transferred 23,5 thousand soldiers to the island, of which about 10 000 in the initial phase. Given the fact that the Allies had almost two-fold superiority in manpower (even with the exception of the Greeks - one and a half times), the defense of Crete should be regarded as a complete failure. After all, no one has canceled the 3 to 1 loss rule in offensive operations.

    Have you watched the composition of these forces?
    The Greeks fought with the remnants of 12, 20 divisions, 5 of the Cretan division, Crete gendarmerie battalion, Heraklion garrison (number to battalion), cadets of military academies, training regiments and other scattered units. The number of Greek troops was 11-12 thousand people. British forces in Crete consisted of the island’s garrison (14 thousand people) and units of the British expeditionary force evacuated from Greece, numbering up to 15 thousand people. The core of these troops was the 2-I New Zealand Division (7500 people), the 19-I Australian Brigade (6500 people) and the 14-I British infantry brigade. There were also selected units — the battalion of the Leicester Regiment and the 700 of the Scottish mountain riflemen.
    The British expeditionary forces that evacuated from Greece fled, leaving heavy weapons. The British fleet did not have time to replenish the reserves of the garrison, since its actions were paralyzed by German aircraft.

    Only the garrison of Crete can be considered truly combat-ready. The rest is infantry with a rifleman, weighed down by the almost complete lack of transport.
    Quote: Verdun
    Having superiority at sea, one cannot contrive with superior forces to fend off airborne assault forces ...

    The superior forces of the British were not. And the superiority at sea was leveled by the absolute superiority of the Germans in the air. After a couple of days, ABC compounds at sea remained virtually without anti-aircraft ammunition.
  • yehat
    yehat 23 May 2016 14: 24
    0
    you forget that Crete is not a sea. But the Germans still actively supported aviation
    and therefore the British could not / were afraid to freely maneuver with large forces.
    Do not forget the level of training. Still, 1 German paratrooper in battle cost at least 3-4 people from the garrison of Crete.
    1. Verdun
      Verdun 23 May 2016 14: 44
      0
      Quote: yehat
      Still, 1 German paratrooper in battle cost at least 3-4 people from the garrison of Crete.

      So talk about it! It is about the fact that on land the Allies fought extremely inefficiently.
      1. AK64
        AK64 23 May 2016 15: 17
        +1
        So talk about it! It is about the fact that on land the Allies fought extremely inefficiently.

        These are your fantasies
      2. yehat
        yehat 23 May 2016 18: 03
        0
        Well, I would not say that. they crushed the Germans quite a few
        the problem is different - in operational command and readiness a difficult order to execute
      3. Warrior2015
        Warrior2015 24 May 2016 20: 27
        0
        Quote: Verdun
        It is about the fact that on land the Allies fought extremely inefficiently.

        Yes, who told you such nonsense? The Germans themselves did not think so, but considered it "Tommy" the most dangerous opponents in terms of efficiency.
  • Schultz
    Schultz 23 May 2016 15: 09
    0
    According to Student's report, the landing losses during the landing amounted to 3700 fighters.
  • 1rl141
    1rl141 23 May 2016 11: 08
    +2
    Why isn't anyone screaming that the Germans have filled up the British with corpses? For the sake of a small, useless island?
    The Germans are fighters. And for the sake of victory, they did not spare themselves. The Englishmen were scammers.
    1. iouris
      iouris 23 May 2016 12: 08
      +4
      It seems to me that you are wrong: the capture of Crete, for which the Germans paid with their "elite" Airborne Forces, their many years of combat training, did not have a noticeable effect on the course of the war. (Usually, huh?) After Crete, the Airborne Forces were actually disbanded. In this case, Hitler made a difficult but necessary decision, aimed at precisely not "filling the enemy with corpses" of elite soldiers.
      1. AK64
        AK64 23 May 2016 12: 45
        +1
        It seems to me that you are wrong: the capture of Crete, for which the Germans paid with their "elite" Airborne Forces, their many years of combat training, did not have a noticeable effect on the course of the war.

        In the hands of the British, Crete would become an aircraft carrier aimed at oil fields, and a place for landing in the Balkans. The bottom line is this.

        (Usually, huh?) After Crete, the Airborne Forces were actually disbanded. In this case, Hitler made a difficult but necessary decision, aimed at precisely not "filling the enemy with corpses" of elite soldiers.

        Exactly.
        1. iouris
          iouris 23 May 2016 14: 26
          0
          For the "mistress of the seas" Malta is more important. It was possible to bomb oil fields not from Crete, but, for example, from Egypt. For the landing in the Balkans, the participation of Britain alone was clearly not enough, therefore, the participation of the Americans was a necessary condition for "supporting the pants", and before that it was still very far away - the United States remained neutral (like Sweden and only traded). In addition, in modern Syria, "Vichy" were based, who, in fact, successfully fought with the British. Turkey, too, was not a union state for England.
          So it turns out that for both sides of this episode of the war, Crete is a failure.
          Although the Airborne Forces, at the cost of very large losses, won a strong-willed victory, nothing positive can be said about the effectiveness of the Airborne Forces.
  • Robert Nevsky
    Robert Nevsky 23 May 2016 12: 44
    -8
    Churchill broke the ridge of German airborne forces in Cyprus ...
    1. Andy
      Andy 23 May 2016 13: 36
      +2
      In my Churchill, the ridge was broken, so I’m minus one. lose a bunch of ships, casualties killed and captured ...
      1. tlauicol
        tlauicol 23 May 2016 14: 25
        0
        Really it paratroopers battleships threw grenades? or they needed 1300 aircraft (including 800 bombers and fighters)
    2. iouris
      iouris 23 May 2016 14: 27
      0
      The ridge broke when it collided with reality. Churchill has nothing to do with it.
  • voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 23 May 2016 13: 18
    +3
    Pay attention to the date of operation: May 1941.
    1 month before the start of the Second World War.

    Hitler was so sure of the defeat of the Red Army,
    that a month before the start of a grandiose land scale
    campaign against the enormous in numbers and equipment of the Red Army
    begins a risky landing, destroying the elite
    parts and mass of aircraft.
    1. Verdun
      Verdun 23 May 2016 13: 25
      0
      Hitler was so sure of the defeat of the Red Army,
      Here you are absolutely right. But the idea that capturing Malta or getting through La Manche to Britain is more complicated than defeating the USSR is very symptomatic. Both Napoleon and Charles XII likewise underestimated Russia. And the result was exactly the same.
    2. AK64
      AK64 23 May 2016 13: 31
      +4
      Pay attention to the date of operation: May 1941.
      1 month before the start of the Second World War.
      Hitler was so sure of the defeat of the Red Army,

      So it all started with Yugoslavia.

      In fact, "intelligence reported exactly," in the sense of "in May." But Yugoslavia rebelled. The British took advantage of and climbed into the Balkans. So we had to urgently liquidate the crisis.

      But didn’t leave oil fields under attack?
      1. iouris
        iouris 23 May 2016 14: 30
        +2
        The Allies bombed these oil fields and what, did it help them a lot? Until the Russian army reached the Romanian border, Hitler continued to have Romanian oil.
        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 23 May 2016 14: 47
          +2
          And how can you completely stop oil production by bombing?
          You can bomb the towers - they are rebuilt.
          And the oil itself is deep underground, nothing happens to it from bombs.
          Anglo-American bombing stopped several times
          production in Romania for 1-3 months, and then everything was rebuilt, and
          production resumed.
          At the same time, the raids of the strategists were long, and the losses from air defense were large.
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 23 May 2016 16: 44
            0
            Quote: voyaka uh
            And how can you completely stop oil production by bombing?

            Pumping and loading infrastructure. What is the use of the tower if pumping stations and railway or tanker terminals, as well as tanks are broken?
            Quote: voyaka uh
            Anglo-American bombing stopped several times
            production in Romania for 1-3 months, and then everything was rebuilt, and
            production resumed.

            With the blows at the refinery in Germany, the situation was the same. Until in 1944 the Allies realized that a one-time bombing does not solve anything - the bombed plants are being restored over time. And then they switched to the practice of regular raids on the same objects.
          2. Poppy
            Poppy 23 May 2016 16: 44
            0
            set fire for example
            a burning well can only be put out by a directed explosion
            1. tlauicol
              tlauicol 23 May 2016 16: 58
              0
              better to bomb refineries
          3. iouris
            iouris 23 May 2016 17: 42
            +1
            It was suggested that Fr. The Germans needed Crete in order to prevent the bombing of oil fields in Romania. It is learned that this thesis is incorrect, i.e. The airborne forces that Student invented were ditched for no reason. This is an important conclusion for romantics from the Airborne Forces. I advise you to pay attention to it.
    3. yehat
      yehat 23 May 2016 14: 27
      0
      in plans he was drawn much nicer
    4. Lord blacwood
      Lord blacwood 23 May 2016 16: 42
      +1
      The fact is that the Italian dictator Mussolini, who was an ally of Hitler, launched an attack on Greece, and not only did he lose, he also attracted the attention of the British. The British planned to deploy long-range bombers, and this threatened the safety of Romanian oil, so important for Germany. So I had to capture Crete, and postpone the date of the attack on the USSR from May 22 to June 22. But the attack was planned on May 22, and these weeks were not enough when attacking Moscow.
      1. yehat
        yehat 23 May 2016 18: 07
        +1
        so Mussolini means the savior of the USSR)))
        but I didn’t know!

        You are confused: the Germans were mobilized by June 22 almost 100%
        they could not hit harder. and you think in vain that weeks would decide something.
        And the path to Moscow in May was no shorter than in June
        As for the readiness of the Red Army, it already literally lost everything and quickly, so that it could NOT be WORSE anymore, but the Germans received a lot of additional equipment by June 22.
        1. Lord blacwood
          Lord blacwood 23 May 2016 18: 30
          +1

          The path was the same, but the Germans did not have time for winter, and their troops were shackled in snowdrifts. If they attacked on May 22, they would have managed by winter.
          The fact is that with his actions that were not coordinated with Hitler (Mussolini did not devote Hitler to his plans), he drew the attention of the British, and there was a threat of a British bombing of oil wells. (this is precisely why some of the troops were returned to Yugoslavia, Greece and Crete).
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 23 May 2016 19: 39
            0
            Quote: Lord Blacwood
            The path was the same, but the Germans did not have time for winter, and their troops were shackled in snowdrifts. If they attacked on May 22, they would have managed by winter.

            Exactly the same way ours were shackled with mud and snowdrifts. One "saga about the T-60" is worth it:
            I am combing through the recently opened GABTU fund. Reports of tank brigades and regiments for the winter of 1941-42. Refrain of reports: T-60 bugs, beloved by M. Svirin, is a threshing floor, unable to overcome the snow cover of 0.2-0,4 meters. They collect snow under the bottom and sit on it. In the best case, they go in low gear and quickly overheat. Applicable in battle only along cleared roads. In addition, on the T-60, on the marches, the driver’s inspection slit is quickly clogged with snow, and driving with an open hatch led to frostbite on the faces of drivers.
            © kind Dr. Guillotin AKA Isaev

            Ours was even worse: for the technique that got stuck during the retreat 100% went into irrevocability.
      2. Seal
        Seal 23 May 2016 23: 20
        +1
        But the attack was planned on May 22, and these weeks were not enough when attacking Moscow.

        It would be better if they attacked on May 22, 1941. Since May and the beginning of June 1941 in our Eastern Europe were one of the coldest and rainy weather observations for many years.
        And German tanks on our muddy roads in May - early June 1941 would not have reached Smolensk.
        But just around the time of June 10, 1941, hot weather set in. And by June 20, 1941, all roads had dried to a good highway. And in July - August, even a number of swamps dried up in our Northwest region, which again greatly contributed to the advancement of motorized Germans.
        And the combat readiness on May 22, in fact, was higher than on June 22. Artillery was dispersed to the camps.
    5. Warrior2015
      Warrior2015 24 May 2016 20: 25
      0
      Quote: voyaka uh
      Pay attention to the date of operation: May 1941. 1 a month before the start of the Second World War.
      Hitler was so sure of the defeat of the Red Army,
      that a month before the start of a grandiose land scale
      the campaign against the enormous in numbers and equipment of the Red Army begins a risky landing, destroying the elite units and the mass of aircraft.

      No one before the start of the war is ever sure of its beginning.
      The invasion of the USSR could not have begun - you look and the Reich would have lived a little longer.

      But the war with England was already underway - and a step on Crete was a step towards the Middle East and further Iraq.
  • Schultz
    Schultz 23 May 2016 15: 04
    +2
    I constantly ask myself the question - do we all know about the Molotov-Ribbentrop protocols and whether there was a separate section on "common interests" in Persia and India. Otto Skorzeny in his memoirs believed that 22.06.41/XNUMX/XNUMX. - this is the beginning of a joint operation with the USSR for the transit of troops to the Kushki district, and then Afghanistan - Hindustan.
    1. Poppy
      Poppy 23 May 2016 16: 44
      +1
      the so-called secret protocols still not found, apparently from does not exist in nature
      and the agreement has long been published
      1. iouris
        iouris 23 May 2016 17: 36
        +2
        Read the protocols of the Munich Agreement: there is the whole program of the future war. That is why Churchill said, commenting on Chamberlain's statement: "You wanted to buy the world at the price of shame, but you got war and shame!" And Molotov is out of business here at all.
      2. AK64
        AK64 23 May 2016 17: 50
        0
        the so-called secret protocols still not found, apparently from does not exist in nature
        and the agreement has long been published

        "Isn't there a comma? So it is there will!"
        (Beaumarchais, Figaro)
      3. The comment was deleted.
    2. Lord blacwood
      Lord blacwood 23 May 2016 18: 33
      +1
      Schultz, you are not talking about a secret protocol, but about Hitler’s later proposals. And, by the way, Stalin refused them.
      1. Schultz
        Schultz 24 May 2016 08: 46
        0
        Earlier, while working on the Brest-Litovsk Treaty, I had to meet in the documents of the Tukhachevsky Fleet Commission from 29-30. with links to certain points of the Brest Peace that are absent in the canonical text. Therefore, this question arose - precisely according to Molotov and Ribbentrop.
    3. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 24 May 2016 11: 28
      +1
      for Schultz:

      "but, do we all know about the Molotov-Ribbentrop protocols and was there
      separate section on "common interests" in Persia and India "////

      Both the protocols themselves and the secret applications are published.

      There is nothing about Asia there: only about the division of northeastern Europe.

      In the Berlin talks (December 1940), Hitler tried to drag Stalin
      to the section of Persia and India, but negotiations broke down because of disagreements on the division of southeastern Europe, more specifically - Bulgaria, and because of the Turkish straits.
      The failure of the negotiations (due to Molotov’s negligence) led to the Second World War.
      Molotov received a hat from Stalin, but it was too late.
  • Quzmi4
    Quzmi4 23 May 2016 18: 36
    +1
    In a previous article, hooked:
    "Despite the huge losses, all the goals set for the landing were achieved." (Quoting from memory).
    At the same time, no matter how insulting it is to admit, despite the heroism and steadfastness of our paratroopers, despite the fact that they fought no less, and more valiantly, the goals of the Vyazemsky and Dnieper operations were not achieved.
    Under Vyazma, ground troops were unable to break through and join with the captured bridgehead.
    And the Dnieper operation is a separate song ... I personally have the impression that it was prepared and carried out (not from the side of the landing, of course) entirely "sent Cossacks" (((((((((((
  • Altona
    Altona 23 May 2016 20: 39
    +1
    Modern Crete. A friend from Germany with her family is resting, photo is relevant. And according to the article itself, it is one of the most interesting operations of the Second World War. If a good feature film was shot about it, it would be very large-scale and exciting.
  • Seal
    Seal 23 May 2016 22: 13
    +2
    We need to see what happened shortly before the German landing on Crete.
    On April 1, 1941, a pro-Nazi military coup, known as the Rashid Ali Coup or the Golden Four Coup, took place in Iraq. The massacre of all those who looked like the British began. The Germans requested Turkey to let German troops through Iraq through Turkey. The Turks refused. Then the Germans asked to be allowed at least to carry weapons to Iraq through the territory of Turkey. In real history, Turkey refused this to Hitler Germany.
    The Germans could build an air bridge from Greece to Rhodes (it.), From there to Syria (Vichy), and from there to Iraq.
    But the British air base in Crete would not allow the air bridge to operate efficiently.
    Therefore, the Germans needed to either take Crete, or, for example, declare war on Turkey and capture it. But the capture of Turkey was impossible both in time (the Germans did not have time, as they planned an attack on us), nor enough forces in the Balkans to attack Turkey.
    In the end, what happened happened.
    The Germans took Crete, but lost to Iraq.
    The British pulled up troops from India and by May 31 took Baghdad.
    But it could have been otherwise.
    For example, Turkey would open the transit for Germans through its territory to Iraq and the Germans would not have to take Crete. Rashid Ali, with the help of the Germans, would have stayed in power. Having suffered a defeat in Iraq, the British were no longer forced to transfer Indian troops from India to other fronts, including Egypt, but, on the contrary, were forced to strengthen British troops in India, since in India the positions of the Indian fascists led by Subhas Chandra Bos were quite strong .
    http://garinich-03.livejournal.com/2098013.html
    Shortly before this, the Germans on March 31, 1941 in Libya dealt a powerful blow to the British. On the night of April 4, the Italo-German troops occupied Benghazi without a fight, and on April 10 approached Tobruk, which was surrounded by them the next day. The attempts of the Italo-German troops to seize Tobruk on the move were unsuccessful, and they directed their main forces towards Egypt. On April 12, troops entered Bardia; on April 15 they occupied Sidi Omar, Es Sallum, the passage of Halfaya, and the oasis of Jarabub.
  • Seal
    Seal 23 May 2016 22: 13
    0
    Next is virtual reality.

    General Wavell in Egypt did not receive reinforcements from India. Moreover, he was forced to send part of his already insignificant forces from Egypt to the north, to cover the borders of Palestine and Transjordan. But it did not help. An anti-British rebellion led by the Jerusalem Mufti broke out in Palestine. The Germans, Turks and parts of Vichy France (in these French units there was actually a Circassian cavalry) delivered a powerful blow from Syria and Lebanon and within a week ended up on the eastern coast of the Suez Canal. From the west towards Cairo to the weakened British units the Germans continued their advance. The attacks of German troops and their allies in the direction of Cairo and Alexandria simultaneously from the east and west led the Germans to success. British troops surrendered in Egypt on May 31, 1941. The British fleet was locked in the Mediterranean Sea, having no more bases in it except Malta and Gibraltar. Franco begins the blockade of Gibraltar, the Germans set up their guns on Spanish territory near Gibraltar, taking the strait of Gibraltar at gunpoint. In the name of saving the fleet, locked in the Mediterranean Sea and several hundred thousand British captured in Egypt, on June 5, 1941, Churchill resigned and left for Canada. The new British government on June 15, 1941 entered into a truce with Germany.
    As a result, a week before June 22, 1941, the USSR was left alone, without future allies, under the threat of attack not only from the West, but also from the south. The Germans have Iranian and Iraqi oil. From Turkish, Iraqi and Iranian airfields, German bombers simply get not only our oil fields in Baku, but also in the Maykop area. The USSR did not yet have other sources of oil at that time.
    After Britain came out of the war, our other US ally sits on a flat priest across the ocean and does not climb anywhere. Therefore, Japan prefers to act together with Hitler Germany against the USSR, and not against the United States.
    1. AK64
      AK64 24 May 2016 09: 38
      0
      ...... After Britain leaves the war, our other US ally sits on a flat pope across the ocean and does not climb anywhere. Therefore, Japan prefers to act together with Hitler Germany against the USSR, and not against the United States.


      None of this could be because it could never have happened: with such a development of events the United States would have entered the war in June, on its own (in the worst case, since Maine had not been found), and would have transferred the contingent to Britain to keep Churchill in power by force .

      This is not to mention the fact that the attack on Egypt from Palestine, and from Tobruk, is an area of ​​fiction.
      1. troyan
        troyan 24 May 2016 10: 36
        0
        Quote: AK64
        and from Tobruk --- the realm of fantasy.

        El Alamein.
        1. AK64
          AK64 24 May 2016 16: 03
          0
          El Alamein.

          It can be interesting and useful to view maps: where is Tubruk, where is the Nile, where is El Alamein.

          And, by the way, Tubruk was not taken in 1941. That "somewhat" hindered the supply of the German-Italians.
        2. The comment was deleted.
  • akims
    akims 23 May 2016 23: 17
    +1
    If, yes, if only ... But for some reason the Greeks feel sorry. The Germans did not stand on ceremony with them.
  • Rooney
    Rooney 26 May 2016 21: 59
    0
    Thanks for the article, very interesting!
  • Jääkorppi
    Jääkorppi 30 May 2016 23: 00
    0
    The indecision and passivity of the British led to defeat! 17 thousand prisoners, a complete disaster, however, the strategic indecision of the Germans is also a gift! Do not capture Malta !! In 1941 there were all the possibilities! Do not block the English fleet in Egypt, do not ensure uninterrupted delivery to the African Corps! And the result is a defeat in Africa! Opponents were worth each other!