Military Review

Tanks under Fuentes de Ebro

Not so long ago, an article appeared on the VO site about Soviet military assistance to republican Spain. And, of course, questions arose, and why, nevertheless, the nationalists won, not the Republicans, but how did our Tanks? And it just so happened that I have something to tell on this subject. Moreover, the information was taken from very interesting sources. It turned out that in 1997 my daughter graduated from the Penza Pedagogical Institute and had to write a thesis. And what is the easiest to defend a thesis? The one in which no one understands anything from the “lessons”! So she chose the topic ... "The historiography of the Spanish Civil War." And besides the “Spanish Diary”, Koltsova took a book from the English historian Hugh Thomas, and also wrote to the Committee of Veterans-Internationalists to Spain to the Ministry of Defense and to England. Oh, how happy they were both there and there! They sent a bunch of books, photographs, and there were so many that it was enough for a book published by the Polygon Publishing House. I personally especially liked the selection of materials about tank fighting in the Fuentes de Ebro area. Moreover, it was just that rare case when information about the same event came from three different sources, and it could be compared: it was the Soviet newspaper Pravda, the memories of the British and international Canadians, and a book from Spain about military use armored vehicles francists. And all this resulted in the following text:

“The Republican government after the military setbacks of 1936 of the year decided to turn the tide, and for this to conduct a decisive offensive in the area of ​​the Aragon front in 1937. Belief in success was based on excellence in engineering. The fact is that it was then that the Republicans received a new batch of modern tanks BT-5 and T-26, which were decidedly superior to the machine gun tanks of the rebels. The direction of the main attack was to be the small town of Fuentes de Ebro, through which there was a strategically important road to Zaragoza, and from which to it on a flat terrain was no more than 50 km.

The operation was to be led by General Karel Sverchevsky - a Pole, known in Spain as “Walter”. The following forces were assigned to him for the offensive: the 15-I International Brigade, of the four infantry battalions of 600 fighters in each, and another battery of anti-tank guns. Her commander was a Croat Vladimir Kopik, who began his military career in the Austro-Hungarian army during the First World War. The English battalion was the most "fired" and fighting in this brigade. It consisted of three infantry companies, armed with Mosin rifles, and a company equipped with light machine guns DP-27 and also machine-tool "Maxims". Half the battalion was from Spanish volunteers. They were followed by a battalion of Americans "Lincoln-Washington" merged from two to one in July 1937, which everyone called "Lincolns". In the 24 th Spanish battalion, in addition to the Spaniards themselves, there were Latin Americans, including even Cubans. “Mac-papes” was the name of another soldier, now Canadian battalion (the abbreviated name Mackenzie Papino is the name of the two leaders of the uprising in Canada against England in 1837).

Tanks under Fuentes de Ebro

BT-5 tanks, shot down under Fuentes de Ebro.

10 August 1937 Fifty BT-5 tanks were delivered to Spain, of which a regiment of heavy tanks was formed, to which was added a company of armored cars and another company of anti-tank guns. BT-5 among the tanks that fought in Spain, was probably the best. And not so much in terms of weapons and reservations, but in terms of speed and maneuverability. Commanded the "regiment" Lieutenant Colonel S. Kondratiev. Many of his assistants were also Soviet military advisers, and the Bulgarian was his deputy. The regiment consisted of three companies, each had three divisions, and each division had five tanks. The commander’s vehicles had radio stations and square or rectangular white markings, but usually the cars were distinguished by their individual license plates on the towers. The opponents of the Republicans on the Aragon front were the 5 Corps of Nationalists, whose main forces were located in the cities of Belchite and Fuentes, around which a circular defense was arranged. The units that defended Fuentes de Ebro were part of the 52 Division and included three companies of the 7 Infantry Regiment, a company of militiamen from the Spanish Phalanx organization (fit only for the second echelon of defense) and one battery of 10 light guns th artillery regiment. Then they were sent to the aid of three more divisions and the Italian-Spanish brigade "Blue Arrows". In this brigade were three "camps" of the Moroccan cavalry; The 225 Battalion, four batteries with 65-, 75-, 105- and 155-mm guns, and the “Foreign Legion” battalion, as well as parts of the “Spanish phalanx” assembled from everywhere.

Soviet tank T-26 with troops on armor in the Belchite area.

In October, a calm was established at the front, which made it possible to develop an operation plan, according to which it was supposed to take the city from the flanks with the help of tanks. But here aviation nationalists unexpectedly destroyed a convoy of republican trucks with fuel and ammunition, and the commanders decided that since the nationalists knew about the convoy, they also knew about the tanks, and if so, then the element of surprise from their use was already lost and it wasn’t worth starting up with flank attacks!

Federation of anarchists of Iberia distributes to the people weapon.

As a result, they decided to attack the city frontally with the support of artillery and aviation. It was supposed to land a tank landing, which was supposed to strike at the nationalists from the rear. But they didn’t react to the development of the idea that was so unworked in practice without special attention - they say, "we will put people on tanks, and then they will do everything themselves." Ways of interaction of tanks with infantry until the beginning of the operation were not worked out, in short, everything was similar to our fatal "the main thing to start, maybe we will break through."

Soviet tank T-26, turned into an altar for the mass. Since the Republicans did not complain about “opium for the people”, it remains to assume that the car is a trophy, as well as the fact that we have a car that fell to the nationalists.

During the assault, Fuentes de Ebro did not pay attention to the positive experience of sharing artillery and tanks in the successful capture of the city of Quinto in August 1937. In addition, people were just tired after the fierce battles for the city of Balchite, and harsh trench life contributed little to raising morale soldier of the republican army. In addition, the brigade was international, the moral and political situation inside it was complex and controversial, and it is clear that all of this had a very negative effect on her readiness for the offensive as a whole. At headquarters, too, there were disagreements about the offensive, but, nevertheless, it was decided to start it, and it began on October 11.

The Spaniards had very few of their tanks, but the Spanish workers riveted such armored cars and used them ... as appropriate.

At o'clock in the morning, Kondratyev gathered the officers of his regiment for the last briefing, after which the tanks (and they were only five kilometers away from the city!) Began to move into the area of ​​attack. The infantry assault forces had to go to the tanks on foot, so it took more time than planned.

Some of the home-made Spanish BAs looked monstrous!

And here, at dawn, the artillery of the Franco, noticing the movement in close proximity to their positions, opened fire. Republicans began to suffer losses, even without joining the battle! The distance to the Franco trenches was only from 400 to 800. The front, on which the Republicans were, was as much as four kilometers, but their troops were at different distances from them. The British on the left flank of the river, along the road to the city stood "Lincoln", the farthest behind the road were Canadians "McPaps."

The terrain on which the offensive was to take place was completely carved by ravines and irrigation canals. In some places it was covered with vegetation, but on the whole it was a plain that was clearly visible from the city. Because of the general confusion of artillery preparation, the Republicans were able to start only on 10.00 in the morning, and they carried it out with only two batteries. They fired several volleys and ceased firing. The “element of surprise,” if one still existed, was now completely lost, and the nationalists even had time to tighten up their reserves.

That was the end of most of these self-made BA!

But the attack did not begin immediately after the artillery preparation. They waited for the tanks, which decided to refuel, to approach. Why didn't they do it the day before, nobody knew. Most likely, they simply did not think about it. By noon, the motors boomed in the sky, and Natasha appeared over the city — single-engine light Soviet PZ bombers in the amount of ... 18 vehicles. They made only one run, dropped bombs from horizontal flight and flew away. It is not surprising that the results of the bombing were similar to the results of the artillery preparation. And now all hope was on the rapid tank attack with the landing of the Spanish battalion 24 on armor.

And now let's remember how the BT-5 tank looked like that it had a high and rather narrow engine part sticking out behind the muffler, and there were no handrails on it. Therefore, it was hardly suitable for the transport of troops; he simply had nothing to hold onto it. Only the commander’s tanks had an antenna in the form of a handrail on the turret, but it was still inconvenient for all the paratroopers to hold on to it, besides, there were still few such tanks.

Wounded BT-5. Fuentes de Ebro.

Only about two o'clock in the afternoon the order to launch the attack finally sounded, although preparations for it began at four (!) O'clock in the morning. The number of tanks involved in this battle: from 40 to 48, it was unprecedented by the standards of that time! On all tanks standing along the front, the commanders who looked out from the towers waved flags, passing the “Do as I do!” Signal, and disappeared inside. But again, the BT-5 had no intercom: to give the order to start moving, the commander pushed the driver with his foot in the back. Motors roared and, leading at the enemy a quick fire and rumbling caterpillars, the tanks rushed to the city. But it was not without embarrassment: the Spaniards' infantry, who was sitting along the front in the trenches, as it turned out, did not warn anyone about the tanks, and she began to shoot at a fright, from where it was unclear from where tanks appeared in the rear. The tank landing party immediately answered her, but, fortunately, due to the high speed, neither of them nor the others got into each other. As soon as the tanks rushed over the trenches, the infantrymen in them immediately understood what was happening and ran for the tanks with shouts of “Hurray!”, But they were simply unable to catch up with the BT-5, rushing at full speed.

Visibility for drivers due to the high grass was poor. For example, tanker Robert Gladnik saw only the spire of Fuentes Church in 90 meters ahead of him. His tank jumped on potholes so that it lost almost all of its troops, and then his car got into a deep ravine. Nobody answered his calls on the radio, but the motor worked, and he managed to choose from the ravine. After that, he shot the entire ammunition in the city and left the battlefield ...

Here it is the spire of the church of St.. Michael of the city of Fuentes de Ebro, still preserved.

William Kardash in his tank overcame a ravine, but his tank was set on fire by a bottle with a combustible mixture near the city itself. The engine stalled, but when the nationalists tried to approach the tank, Kardash opened machine gun fire at them. Then the fire reached the fighting compartment, and the crew had to leave the car. Fortunately, he was saved by the crew of another car passing by.

"Tanks rushed, raising the wind," as a result, many paratroopers were dropped from armor, while others fell under heavy fire of the enemy. The drivers of the area did not know, and several cars got into the canals and ravines, and they could not get out of them without help. But, despite all these difficulties, the attack continued! Having avoided the sad fate of their comrades, several tanks broke barbed-wire obstacles and entered the city, but they found it difficult to maneuver in the narrow streets of the medieval Spanish city, and as a result tankers lost several tanks in the city itself and were forced to retreat.

This BT, shot from the other side.

As for the internationalist infantry, then ... she courageously followed the tanks, but ... the person cannot run after the horse (think of the "Ice Battle", where the infantry was depicted next to the knights in the schemes!), And even more so for the tanks, especially the tanks BT

The commander of the English battalion raised his men to the attack, but was immediately killed, and his battalion was forced to lie down under heavy machine-gun fire from the Franco side. The Americans walked almost half the distance to the enemy trenches, but were forced to lie down and dig in "under the very nose" of the nationalists. The situation could save only a desperate dash! Or approach reserves! "McPaps" from the enemy were the farthest. And they managed to advance a few hundred meters, but then both the commander and the commissar were killed by enemy bullets. The interaction between the units under enemy fire could not be established. The Republican machine gun fire returned to be of no effect, and then the Republican battery commander received a ridiculous order: to advance with the guns and help the infantry! As a result, he lost a good position, but he did not find a new one, and all this time his tools were silent.

By the end of the battle, the Brigadiers lay down on the whole space between their lines and the enemy's trenches, and the soldiers began to dig single cells. The soil was traditionally Spanish: red earth and stones. The orderlies who carried the wounded out were only able to finish their work by night. But even before dark, the brigade was taken to the old positions. Some, not heavily damaged tanks managed to pull out.

McPaps lost 60 people killed and more than 100 injured. Of the three mouth commanders, two were killed, the third seriously wounded.

The Lincoln's casualties made 18 people killed, including the commander of a machine-gun company and about 50 injured. The British lost the fewest killed: only six, but they had a lot of wounded. The Spanish battalion, which participated in the tank breakthrough, suffered very heavy losses. Well, and the landing, which was in the rear without support, was all surrounded by Francoists and completely destroyed. Among the gunners were several wounded.

Tankers Kondratieff lost 16 crews killed, and his deputy was killed. In just one day, the Soviet tankers thus suffered the heaviest casualties of the entire war! Different sources give different information on the number of shot down tanks: from 16 to 28, but it is obvious that they accounted for 38% - 40% of the number of vehicles involved.

Republican T-26 with anti-aircraft machine gun.

Interestingly, the sad experience of a tank landing at Fuentes de Ebro was not taken into account by the Soviet command during the Great Patriotic War. It was widely used, while our commanders didn’t force him to take heavy losses.

The fate of S. Kondratiev’s comorus itself turned out to be sad: during the Finnish war, part of it on the Karelian Isthmus was surrounded, it didn’t come to help, the losses were huge, and he came out of the encirclement and decided to commit suicide because just do not forgive. Then they shot General Pavlov. He was compromised that in Spain he “morally decayed”, but after his return “from there” for some reason they closed their eyes. But then the 41 began, and the new defeats were no longer forgiven to him ... Well, the story of the Spanish tanks, in fact, will be continued in the next article.

Fig. A.Shepsa

(To be continued)
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  1. qwert
    qwert 26 May 2016 06: 59
    And again about the radios on the tanks. Well, okay, the Germans had it. And the British? And the French? What about the Americans? Were radios on all tanks in the late thirties?
    1. kalibr
      26 May 2016 07: 11
      For the French, only starting with the tanks of the D series - D1 and 2, and on all subsequent AMXs, etc. on the lungs Hotchkiss and Renault were not. The British did not have 6t on Vickers. On heavier ones - "16t" was provided. About Covenanter, Crusader, I will not say - you have to look. There was no # 1 on Matilda. I was on Matilda # 2.
    2. inkass_98
      inkass_98 26 May 2016 07: 22
      The Japanese definitely had, like on airplanes. The French were also radio-fired (whip antenna when folded, B1):

      Yes, and the English were equipped (for example - MkVIA):
    3. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 26 May 2016 10: 02
      Quote: qwert
      And again about the radios on the tanks. Well, okay, the Germans had it.

      The Germans at first everything was very interesting. The radio transmitters were not on all vehicles (only tanks from the commander’s platoon and above + staff units), but the rest of the tanks had radio receivers (see the first volume of Yents, p. 272-274). This was done so that the commanders of linear vehicles did not clog the ether.
  2. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 26 May 2016 07: 23
    My grandfather Vasily was wounded near Terruel ....... Eternal memory to the Warriors-Internationalists who tried to stop the fascist infection there. Thank you for the article. waiting for the continuation!
  3. Riv
    Riv 26 May 2016 08: 27
    The battle of Fuente de Ebro was part of the offensive on the river. Ebro, in general, has developed quite successfully. As a result, it was delayed the assault of Madrid by the Franco, the enemy suffered heavy losses in manpower and equipment. This was the last operation in which inter-brigades were massively involved.

    The war in Spain clearly showed an extremely low level of discipline among the inter-brigade. Stalin, apparently, was expecting another. That is why none of the officers of the Red Army suffered any penalties as a result of the war. Part was repressed, but not at all for it. Pianki Pavlova in Spain against the background of the shoals of the republican command and the general mess looked utter nonsense. After Spain, Stalin finally abandoned the ideas of the Comintern on exporting the revolution, the priority for him was the development of the economy of his country.

    In addition, for the command of the Red Army, it became obvious that there was a need for closer interaction of the combat arms on the battlefield, without which no technical superiority could guarantee victory. The Civil War standards were no longer fit. So it cannot be said that no conclusions were drawn at all. The saturation of the troops with communications equipment accelerated, but it took time to "digest" the experience of a small number of military advisers.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 26 May 2016 10: 03
      "the enemy suffered heavy losses in manpower and equipment" ////

      Big ones?
      1) Republicans
      30 000 slain
      20 000 wounded
      19 563 captured

      2) francists
      6500 killed
      30 000 wounded
      5000 captured

      Bottom line: the final defeat of the Republicans
      1. Riv
        Riv 26 May 2016 11: 40
        Yeah ... And 100.000.000 Soviet prisoners do not forget. :)
        In the inter-brigades for the entire time of the Spanish Civil War, about 30 thousand people served. The Ebro army, allocated from the sixth army, consisted of them almost completely (well, therefore, allocated). The armies were given two tank divisions, also manned by inter-brigade and Soviet volunteers, and four cavalry regiments. The total number of fighters who took part in the fights on the bridgehead was about 40.000 people.

        Obviously, on average, each of them, according to Vicki, was killed, wounded, or was captured twice. The Franco was even harsher. When storming the bridgehead on the river. Ebro they lost about 80.000 people. Half resurrected, Carl! :)))
        1. Mikhail Matyugin
          Mikhail Matyugin 26 May 2016 19: 48
          Quote: Riv
          In the inter-brigades for the entire time of the Spanish Civil War, about 30 thousand people served.

          I will disappoint you a little - but in general, regarding the Spanish Civil War, the situation with information is extremely difficult, oddly enough. And how much was actually in the same international brigades is not yet known exactly, tk. the "leaked" information is unreliable.
          1. Riv
            Riv 27 May 2016 04: 51
            That is, everyone could die five times? However, hardly.
      2. Akuzenka
        Akuzenka 29 May 2016 00: 25
        And in the wiki, it is written how the British sank the steamers with Jews that went to Palestine, in 1939-1940? No?! It's strange. Apparently this is the most "truthful" encyclopedia. Trust her!
    2. kalibr
      26 May 2016 10: 07
      Yes, that's right. You can - ha-ha, just take this post of yours and insert it as a conclusion in the second material. Throw the word "shoals" and "mess" and OK! But ... it has already been written and even with your permission, I cannot do it.
      1. Riv
        Riv 26 May 2016 11: 46
        Use it. Moreover, this is just an excerpt from an old-old lecture.
    3. Stirbjorn
      Stirbjorn 26 May 2016 10: 15
      The Republicans only succeeded in defending themselves successfully (the same Guadalajara, the Battle of Haram) - they failed to carry out any sensible offensive hi
      1. Riv
        Riv 26 May 2016 11: 48
        We must remember that on the side of Franco was a professional army, and among the Republicans the army resembled the Red Army of the 1918 model. The wildest mixture of political parties and movements. For fun, google how many people were in the Spanish anarchist parties.
        1. DimerVladimer
          DimerVladimer 26 May 2016 14: 52
          Quote: Riv
          We must remember that on the side of Franco was a professional army, and among the Republicans the army resembled the Red Army of the 1918 model. The wildest mixture of political parties and movements. For fun, google how many people were in the Spanish anarchist parties.

          Let's just say that the backbone was army in both of them.
          Part of the military did not obey Franco - although a small part.
          Franco carried out a tough conscription into the army - and the choice was not great: either to the army or to prison, and in some places they leaned against the wall. So the composition of the units among the Francoists was heterogeneous, but for the most part, these units were more efficient than the republican ones, due to strict discipline.
        2. Mikhail Matyugin
          Mikhail Matyugin 26 May 2016 19: 52
          Quote: Riv
          We must remember that on the side of Franco was a professional army, and among the Republicans the army resembled the Red Army of the 1918 model of the year

          This is what communists and anarchists said in order to justify defeat.

          In fact, DimerVladimer is quite right. I will say even more - of the professional military, the "Francoists" had only the African army, most of the military in Spain itself did not support the rebellion, remaining loyal to official Madrid, or took a wait and see attitude.

          And what did the communists do? Yes, the same thing that was done in Russia, for example, they began to carry out mass murders of the professional officer corps (those who did not immediately and unconditionally support the communist government), focusing on "class differences". As a result, most of those military professionals who were either "non-participating" or were moderately loyal to Madrid, those who survived, were quickly piled up to the Francoists.
          1. kalibr
            27 May 2016 08: 23
            And destroy the priests with terrible force! This is in a Catholic country!
            1. Riv
              Riv 29 May 2016 03: 30
              The nuance is that the communists were in the minority there. And those that did exist, too, were by no means oriented towards Stalin. Remember: this is the mid-30s. Trotsky is still alive and is doing all his dirty work in exile. Dolores Ibarruri (remember: "Better standing than kneeling!") - Comintern. The Trotskyists were much closer to her than the Stalinists. Then she will have a snack, having received Soviet citizenship, but for now ...
              And most of all among the Republicans there were anarchists of various sizes.
  4. Andrey VOV
    Andrey VOV 26 May 2016 10: 20
    Thanks to the author and his daughter and pleasantly surprised that the girl is so keenly interested in such topics! Respect and respect !!
    1. kalibr
      26 May 2016 11: 58
      Alas, Andrey, she hasn't been interested in this for a long time! There was simply a need to choose - either this topic or "The activity of the CPSU to improve the life of workers in the Penza region after 1956" and so on. It all depends on the supervisor. She had Professor Farbman, who had such "imported" topics. Everyone else in this was "0". I had to be interested and write, but what to do? And then all this stuff was used in different places. Now she does very different things. But ... I have a good "legacy" left!
      1. Memento
        Memento 23 June 2019 00: 44
        My relative died in this battle. "Lincolnman". Truck driver. I would like to know more details.
  5. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin 26 May 2016 10: 22
    Nationalists in Spain have always had problems with tanks - primarily due to the fact that the countries that supported their confrontation with the "Spanish Bolsheviks" - Germany and Italy - had almost no tanks of their own or were very primitive. And the USSR supplied some of the best tanks in the world at that time, and in huge quantities to the Madrid government, which shamelessly destroyed them in huge quantities - and of course the Francoists were glad to receive such trophies.
    1. kalibr
      26 May 2016 12: 02
      Hemingway has a wonderful play "The Fifth Column" about the Spanish Civil War and a number of interesting stories. Orwell has a whole book about Catalonia. It was after his return from there that he declared that the people needed land and freedom, and the communists and fascists - strength and power, and became an anti-communist and antifascist, although at first he sympathized with the left.
      1. Rastas
        Rastas 26 May 2016 13: 52
        Orwell always remained a socialist according to his convictions, no need to misinterpret. He was a member of the POUM (Labor Party of Marxist Unity), which in its views was much more radical than the Bolsheviks. They simply believed that Stalin had betrayed the revolution and established the dictatorship of the bureaucracy.
        1. kalibr
          26 May 2016 14: 25
          I am not mistaking, these are his own words in one of his books. It just so happened that I had to read a lot of it and it caught my eye. But I won't name the page, it was long ago. As for the POUM, he went to Spain from the POUM, because he did not want to go from other organizations. About this in his book "In Memory of Catalonia". And when he returned, he joined the "Independent Labor Party", so he was not a member of the POUM.
  6. Robert Nevsky
    Robert Nevsky 26 May 2016 12: 02
    The main weapon that the Republicans lacked was Shpagin type assault rifles.
    1. kalibr
      26 May 2016 14: 26
      They had machine guns, and their own, Spanish under the 9-mm cartridge of Parabellum, but few, and they did not manage to produce a lot.
      1. DimerVladimer
        DimerVladimer 26 May 2016 14: 57
        During the war, Republicans even assembled and repaired planes, purchased production licenses in France and the Soviet Union.
        In that war technique, machine guns were not a priority, the rifle provided the necessary range, and machine guns thwarted massive attacks.
  7. xomaNN
    xomaNN 26 May 2016 13: 16
    "ABOS" - many possible victories were destroyed in the war fool
    In a situation where an armored fist from BT-5 could have defeated the Francoists in that battle, such a terrible result when planning for the operation by the headquarters of the operation and training l / s ...
    Maybe that's why there are so many sudden exercises and military tests in Syria in Russia now - the LESSON IS LEARNED!
    1. DimerVladimer
      DimerVladimer 26 May 2016 15: 55
      The exercises will not replace the experience of combat use. No introductory prediction of enemy actions in real combat.
      look - the fire at the base near Palmyra, the Guardian newspaper writes that the barmalei take responsibility (by the way, we silently talk about this event).
      Pictures would be closer to see.

      a Russian helicopter unit based in Syria was destroyed as a result of an attack by the Islamic State (a terrorist organization is banned in the Russian Federation. - Ed. note), as, apparently, satellite images suggest - http: //www.theguardian. com / world / 2016 / may / 24 / syrian-airbase-used-by-russia-damag
  8. DimerVladimer
    DimerVladimer 26 May 2016 15: 05
    They learned to fight in Spain, there was no experience - they "mowed down" both in the tank forces and in the aviation.
    The Spanish Civil War became a "training ground" for the Luftwaffe and for the commanders of the Red Army.

    According to the results of this company, the Red Army began to introduce armored shells in aviation, to strengthen the armament of fighters from rifle to large-caliber and cannon. It became clear that the biplanes had become obsolete - they could not be caught up either by the fighters of the Francoists, Italians, Germans or modern bombers Do-17 or Savoy market.
    1. Mikhail Matyugin
      Mikhail Matyugin 26 May 2016 19: 42
      Quote: DimerVladimer
      It became clear that the biplanes had become obsolete - they could not be caught up either by the fighters of the Franks, Italians, Germans, or modern Do-17 bombers or Savoy market.

      Well, how can I say that in the tanks, that the aviation of the Francoists was very lagging behind, as it turned out (the USSR quieted its technical innovations and showed only when the trouble started in any region - by the way, Japan also acted).

      And about biplanes, everything is not so clear. I think it will be a surprise for you to find out that even in the Luftwaffe before 1944 there was a lot of biplanes.
  9. Monarchist
    Monarchist 26 May 2016 17: 44
    Monarchist. I am interested in history, but I regret very little about the use of tanks in Spain, Spain. When I was a schoolboy I read the memories of some of the tankers, but I don’t remember the author and name. Therefore, I read with great interest. I look forward to continuing
    1. kalibr
      26 May 2016 19: 10
      The second part is ready and should be the third.
  10. Lens
    Lens 26 May 2016 21: 46
    Why all the same the republicans lost the civil war? .... you can not count on success, doing something "by half" or even less. Historical experience confirms this. The Francoists unleashed a REAL FULL WAR. The Germans and Italians got involved in it to the maximum, but the allies of the Republicans .... Remember even the movie "volunteers" there they say about a letter from Spain - "it cannot be shown ...." The allies did not show their intentions in full force. Equipment supplies - the USSR is more or less modern, France, the Czech Republic - outdated or unsuccessful projects. Manpower - the USSR - professional personnel but in a small limited number, the rest of the countries - volunteers, but .... either a hairdresser, then an artist, then a writer ... But the fight had to be cadre, well trained, well armed.
    And not only in Spain. China 1937 year - the same picture. What to go far - Afghanistan. So far, only advisers have steamed - the political picture has begun to change. Full-blooded troops were introduced - the course changed.
  11. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin 28 May 2016 09: 19
    Quote: Lens
    The Frankists unleashed a REAL COMPLETE war. The Germans and Italians got into it to the maximum, but the allies of the Republicans ....

    Let's just say that it was the Spanish communists and anarchists who unleashed a "real war to the maximum", having launched a campaign of terror against the elite of the nation and the religious shrines of the people. Only in response to this did the Spanish Christian patriots revolt in the African army, which turned out to be the most efficient military force in the country.

    And all countries used the ongoing Civil War to the maximum for their own benefits - and Italy and Germany sent the latest models to break-in, and the Soviet Union with France and Mexico too, and the United States helped both sides at once. smile
  12. aba
    aba 29 May 2016 14: 23
    Reading material, you understand that war is not only a technique.
  13. Molot1979
    Molot1979 25 October 2016 06: 01
    The main reason for the defeat of the Republicans is a complete mess in the rear and on the fronts. Anarchists against the Communists, Trotskyists against the Stalinists, Basques are generally strictly for themselves. Someone in the government is constantly changing, intrigues, scandals, investigations ... Add to this the fact that Franco had troops with a fired skeleton of Moroccan veterans - they really had good combat experience. What could yesterday’s workers and peasants oppose them? Finally, the position of neighboring countries was openly unfriendly to the republic. And the radio on the tanks is so ... a cherry on a huge cake.
  14. Memento
    Memento 23 June 2019 00: 06
    My relative - my grandmother's cousin - died in this battle. So writes on the website of the 15th Lincoln International Brigade. He was born in the village of Rakovchik near Kolomyia (Ukraine) in 1911. Somewhere in 1926, he emigrated with his parents from Poland (at that time) to the United States. In 1937 he went to Spain for the war. He fought in the 15th international brigade. Was a truck driver. I’m wondering if he died after an air raid ("the nationalist aviation unexpectedly destroyed a convoy of republican trucks with fuel and ammunition") or in battle. Perhaps he was at one of these BAs? And he writes that only 18 "Lincolns" were killed. This relative was his name Dmitry. The surname is really a little changed, I don't know in the USA after emigration or in Spain ...