Military Review

Crusader army of the north of Europe

42
No wonder
That God I forgot long ago.

Sins now I will wash away repentance.
I am ready to serve God with all my soul.

Friedrich von Hausen. Translation by V. Mikushevich


As far back as the Bronze Age, the Baltic Sea did not so much divide the people who lived on its shores, as it did. It was not difficult to swim on it, since it is small in size and, in addition, closed. During the Iron Age, and then in the early Middle Ages, it was possible to say that trade simply flourished here. This means that the inhabitants of the coast had much more information about each other than about the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea and the so-called “Lower Lands” in Palestine. Of course, the sailors who plowed the waters of the Mediterranean Sea knew more than others, but for most of the crusaders who were striving for the Holy Land, it was a real terra incognita.

The very geographical position of the Scandinavian states was such that it predetermined the direction of their expansion from north to south. Denmark sought to spread its influence over the eastern lands, that is, the coast of Northern Germany (where the Slavs lived then), as well as Poland, and to the west - not without reason the area of ​​Denlo appeared in England (the area of ​​"Danish law"). The Swedes, for natural reasons, looked at a tidbit in the direction of neighboring Finland, while its trade was focused on a strong Novgorod principality. Thus, the knights of these countries, except perhaps for the Danes, found it quite difficult to get to Palestine both by land and even by sea, since it would take a very long time to sail there. After all, if the ships of the Crusaders arrived in Palestine in 10 weeks from Pisa, then ... one can imagine how long such a voyage would have lasted if they had left from Sweden or Norway. By the way, the German crusaders therefore usually chose the path by land, because it would be quite difficult for them to get to Palestine by ships from the Baltic coast, and would require a huge fleetwhich they did not have.


The main wealth of the Baltics is “sun stone” - amber.

But still, they wanted to atone for their sins and also take part in expeditions to the East. And it should be noted that the idea of ​​a “northern crusade” to the East received its concrete embodiment in business as early as 1103. Then the king of Denmark, Eric I went on a pilgrimage to Palestine and, by the way, was the first European sovereign who visited the Holy Land, even though he died returning back. Four years later, Earl Sigurd Jorsalafar, and one of the rulers of Norway, after passing the Strait of Gibraltar, arrived in Palestine and brought with him a small fleet and northern knights to help the crusaders. However, this can be considered, rather, an armed pilgrimage, since the expedition of Sigurd because of its small number cannot be called a separate campaign. However, in the Baltics there were also their campaigns with a religious background, which were also called “crusaded” and which had a very interesting history and chronology:

1103: Danish king Eric makes his pilgrimage, but dies on the way back.
1108: In the Bishopric of Magdeburg (this is the north of Germany) they announce a crusade to the East.
1135: Danes are attacking the island of Rügen, where Slavs lived at the time.
1147: The beginning of the first "northern crusade" against the pagan Slavs who lived on the shores of the Baltic.
1168 - 1169: The Danish king Valdemar I subordinates the island of Rugen to his power.
1171: Pope Alexander III declared a crusade against the Baltic pagan tribes.
1185: Whip IV, King of Denmark, conquers the Slavs in Pomerania.
1198: Pope Innocent III declared a crusade against the Livs.
1202: Dietrich of Toreida, the brother of Bishop Albert von Buxheuden, founded a diocese with a center in the city of Riga and established the Order of the Swordsmen, or the “Brotherhood of the Soldiers of Christ”, the purpose of which was to spread Christianity in Livonia.
1204: “Brotherhood of the Warriors of Christ” is approved by Pope Innocent III.
1206: Crusader military expedition to the island of Ezel, where Finns and Estonians lived.
1200-1209: The conquest of the warriors of the bishop by Albert.
1210: The existence of the Order of Pope Innocent III confirms his bull.
1217: Crusade of the Northern Knights against the Prussians (Modern North-Eastern Poland and the Kaliningrad Region) is announced by Pope Honorius III.
1219: The crusade of the King of Denmark Valdemar II against the Estonians. According to legend, the Danish flag fell from the sky during a battle with them under Lindanise. Waldemar founded the city of Revel (Tallinn) and began to conquer northern Estonia.
1224: Order troops took the city of Yuryev (Dorpat). Prince Vyachko, who led his defense, died. Novgorod did not send any help due to a conflict with Prince Vsevolod Yuryevich.
1226: The creation of the Teutonic Order by Emperor Frederick II. All East Prussia and Lithuania should have entered his “zone of responsibility”.
1230: The Teutonic Order receives the blessing of Pope Gregory IX for the war against the heathen Prussians.
1231 - 1240: The conquest of Western Prussians by the Teutonic Order.
1233: Northern Crusade (1233 - 1236).
1234: In a battle on the Omovzhe River near the city of Yuriev (now the Emajõgi River and the city of Tartu), Prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich of Novgorod defeats the army of the Sword (a part of the knights fell under the ice of the Emajõgi River and sank). After that two years the order did not attack Lithuania. On the other hand, the Lithuanians went on campaigns to the lands of the Order and its bishops several times or took part in them together with the Livs, Zemgals and Russian princes.
1236: Another crusade against Lithuania is declared by Pope Gregory IX. On September 22, at the Battle of Saul (now the city of Siauliai), the swordtails will again suffer a serious defeat. Died master of the order Volguin von Namburg. In fact, the Order of the Swordsmen ceased to exist.
1237: In Viterbo, Pope Gregory IX and the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, Hermann von Salz, conduct the rite of joining the Order of the Sword to the Teutonic Order. The new entity is named the Livonian Landmayster of the Teutonic Order. In fact, the Livonian Order was born, because the land on which its territory was located was called Livonia at that time.
1240: First Crusade, which was directed against Novgorod the Great. The Crusaders are defeated by Prince Alexander at the mouth of the Neva River.
1242: Battle on the Ice.
1249: Jarl Birger conquers the central regions of Finland.
1254 - 1256: Samogits are conquered (the eastern part of the Kaliningrad region).
1260: The Battle of Durbe (near the modern village of Durbe in western Latvia) - the troops of the Teutonic Order are defeated by the Lithuanians and the Kursk.
1268: The Order participates in the Battle of Rakovor with Novgorod.
1269: The Order strikes back and 10 days is besieged by Pskov, but retreating upon learning of the approach of the Novgorod troops.
1270: Battle of the Lithuanians and Novgorod with the Livonian crusaders, supported by the Danes at Carus on the ice of the Baltic Sea. Crusaders are defeated.
1290: The Livonian knights conquer the Semigally (coastal Lithuania).
1291: After the fall of the fortress of Acre in Palestine, the headquarters of the Teutonic Order is transferred to Venice.
1292: The Swedish crusaders set up their outpost in Karelia - the fortress of Vyborg.
1300: Swedes build a fortress on Landskron in the place of St. Petersburg.
1308: Danzig (Gdansk) is occupied by the Teutonic knights.
1309: The headquarters of the Teutonic Order from Venice is transferred to Marienburg (Malbork).
1318: Novgorodians organize a trip to Finland and burn Abo (Turku).
1323: The Noteborg World: The End of the War between Novgorod and Sweden. A peace treaty was concluded between the Teutonic Order and the Grand Duke of Lithuania, Hediminas.
1346: The Danish king Valdemar IV sells Danish possessions in northern Estonia to the Teutonic Order.
1348: The Swedish king Magnus organizes the first crusade against Russia.
1350: King Magnus Second Crusade.
1362: Prussians and Crusaders who converted to Catholicism occupy the Lithuanian city of Kaunas.
1364: Pope Urban V publishes a bull in which he speaks of the need to continue the crusade against the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
1381: Prince Jagiello gets the title of Grand Duke of Lithuania.
1386: Jagiello is baptized and proclaimed by the Polish king under the name of Vladislav II. The foundation of the Jagiellonian dynasty, which reigned in Poland before 1668, takes place.
1398: The Swedish island Gotland is occupied by the Teutonic knights. The prince Lithuanian Vitovt transfers them to self-enchantment.
1409: A rebellion against the rule of the order begins in Self-love.
1410: Battle of Grunwald.
1423: The Last Crusade to Prussia.
1429: The Teutonic Order helps Hungary repel the onslaught of the Ottoman Turks.
1454 – 1466: The war between the Polish-Prussian military alliance and the Teutonic Order, in which he lost West Prussia and Livonia, and East Prussia turned into a vassal of the Polish crown.
1496: The invasion of the Swedish army into the borders of Muscovy and the siege of Ivangorod.
1500: Lithuania and the Livonian Order conclude a treaty against Moscow.
1501– 1503: The troops of the order were defeated by the Russians at the Battle of Helmed (1501, near Dorpat).
1502: The Russian army is defeated by the forces of the master of the Livonian Order of Voltaire von Plettenberg in the Battle of Smolna.
1557: Ivan IV is on course to aggravate relations with the order - refuses his ambassadors to accept. The Order was crushed and virtually eliminated during the Livonian War with Moscow State in 1561. The last grandmaster of the order, not seeing opportunities to preserve his independence, in the same year takes the title of duke, which means the end of his existence. At the end of the war in 1581, his land was divided by Sweden and Rzeczpospolita.


Knight of the Teutonic Order in the museum of the cathedral in Kaliningrad.

As you can see, it was not without its spiritual and knightly orders, among which the Teutonic Order played the main role. However, he was not the first in the Baltic lands, because he was founded in Palestine. Before him in the Baltics there was an Order of the Sword, his nominal name received from the image of a red sword and a Maltese cross on a raincoat.

Crusader army of the north of Europe

Knight of the Order “Brothers of Soldiers of Christ of Livonia against the Prussians” (Order of the Knights Service of Christ in Prussia - there are different versions of the names V.Sh.) or “Dobzhinsky brothers” (in Polish “Dobzhinsky brothers”). The Order was founded on the initiative of Konrad, Prince of Mazovia, and the Bishops of Prussia, Kuyaviya and Plock in 1222 or 1228 to protect their lands from Prussians' raids, and ... as a political counterweight to the Teutonic Order.

As for the Teutonic Order, it originates from the hospital for German pilgrims - "The House of St. Mary of Teutonic" in Jerusalem, and as a spiritual and knightly order appeared in 1198 year. And at the very beginning he united only 40 people and had the same order of the Order that the Templars had. The robe of the knights of the order was a white surcoat and a cloak with a simple black cross.


Otto de Grandisan, died 1328 Switzerland, Lozansky Cathedral. The armor is typical of the knights of that era: lowered chainmail gauntlets with a slit on the palm, surko above the chainmail hauberka, shield with the coat of arms, in which there are the shells of St. Jacob Kompostelsky. That is, his ancestors were also crusaders, although they fought with the Moors in Spain.

In 1206, the pope granted the Teutons unlimited right to conquer the Baltic states and convert the local population to the Catholic faith, and in 1211, the Hungarian king, Andrei II, handed over the awarded lands to Semigradje. However, he failed to settle there and it was then that, seeing their plight, the knights of the order were approached by the Polish prince Konrad Mazowiecki, who invited them to help him in the struggle against the tribe of pagans-Prussians.

In 1231, the Pope blessed the first crusade to Prussia. Participation in this charitable action, just as during the march to the East, gave its participants a guarantee of spiritual salvation, moreover, notable warriors hoped for the seizure of vast lands. That's why about 2000 people took part in it, which was quite a bit for this region of Europe. Over time, the Prussians were almost destroyed, and the knight brothers erected castles and fortresses on their territories in order to secure forever their power over this land.


Rudolf von Sachsenhausen, mind. 1370 Germany, Frankfurt am Main. Before us is a secular knight and a big dandy. The tophelm helmet is gold plated, beneath it for permanent wearing of a bacinette with a visor, gold-plated plate gloves, the same knee pads, rich, most likely brocade surcoats. The greaves, however, are clearly leather. Here the knight decided to save a little. On the shield is his coat of arms, part of the details of which is repeated on his helmet decoration.

The success of the campaign against the peoples of the Baltic states was made possible thanks to good organization, but also to the principles followed by the Teutons. All the brothers gave a vow of obedience, which should be strictly enforced. They should have talked in a low voice, could not have any secrets from each other, as well as from the authorities, lived together and even slept on hard boxes half-dressed and with swords in their hands. The basis of the army of the Order was the knights in white cloaks, testifying to their noble origin and military merit. The so-called “gray brothers” should be rendered to brothers-knights of various kinds of services, and half-brothers — that is, civilians, often from among the local colonists — were used in economic work. However, it is known that, despite the strict charter, its rules were often violated. It happened that in the castles and chickens, and gambling, and in their cellars kept wine, mead and beer. In total, the Knights built more than 100 of such castles, which allowed them to control vast areas of the Baltic lands and get fabulous profits from the trade in amber. Historians associate the decline of the Order with the Great War and the Battle of Grunwald 1410 of the year. Then the joint efforts of the Poles, Lithuanians and Russians caused him an extremely painful defeat. True, the Germans uttered a condition - not to restore the destroyed castles and fortresses in order to prevent the Poles from gaining ground on their land. However, 47 years later, even Marienburg - the capital of the order - was captured by the Poles, after which the order did not rise. His last master was the German Duke Albrecht of Brandenburg. Being a skilled politician and an experienced diplomat, he took up the task of transforming a religious state into a secular state and he succeeded! With his death, the knightly times for Prussia were gone forever, although the order itself still exists! All in all, from 1100 to 1300 year in Europe appeared as many as twelve spiritual and knightly orders. However, all the rest of them could not compete in their popularity with the Templars, Joannits and the Teutonic Order.


Eberhardt von Rosenberg, mind. 1387 Germany, Boksberg Evangelical Church. Another knight in typical Germanic armament and a splinter (brethash) of chain mail, which was hooked on a bascinet. The lining on it is not shown and ... well, did the rings of chain mail rub his nose?

In the late XIV - early XV centuries. army of the Order was considered the strongest in Europe. The fact is that the Order of the Templars by this time rested in the Bose, and all other orders did not have such an economic base. After all, the order received simply fabulous profits from the trade in amber! Even the army of hospitallers in the XIV century. there were only hundreds of people. And although the Mediterranean knight monks for decades skillfully restrained the onslaught of the Muslims, they didn’t have the forces to go to any noticeable retaliatory actions.


An interesting book about the northern crusaders was written by D. Nicole in collaboration with D. Lindholm.

The Teutons had a different situation. In the 13th and early 14th centuries, they conquered the Baltic lands and created a state there that allowed them to accumulate huge financial resources. Therefore, it is not surprising that already in the XIV century he was able to deploy a powerful army. No wonder during the so-called Great War 1409 –1411. it was completed in different ways: firstly, it included brothers-knights and half brothers; secondly, the militia of secular vassals subordinate to him; then - detachments that collected Prussian bishops and cities, then mercenaries who fought for salaries; and, finally, the “guests” - foreign crusaders, as well as troops belonging to the allies of the Order. Nevertheless, the Teutonic Order still lost.


Georg von Bach, died. 1415 Germany, Steinbach, Church of Sts. Jacob The image on the coat of arms is again repeated on the “big helmet”. Noteworthy is the chain mail of barmitsa. At that time it was already an outdated solution, but, as you can see, it was also used by German knights.


Figures of the company "Star" in scale 1: 72.

However, although this happened, the story of the northern crusaders would best end with a poem by the troubadour Thibault Champagne, which was called “The Song of the Crusade” and, perhaps, best conveys the psychology of the majority of the then knights of the crusaders.

Be merciful, Lord, to my destiny.
For your enemies, I rati move.
Look: I will raise my sword in holy struggle.
All the joy I leave for You, -
I will listen to your draft for the trumpet.
Strengthen the power, Christ, in his slave.
The reliable one serves the lord
Who serves by faith, the truth of Thee.
I leave the ladies. But, holding the sword,
I am proud to serve the holy temple
That faith in God is strong in the soul,
Flying in prayer following incense.
Expensive faith of gold: no rust
Nor eats her fire: who, dear
Only it, goes to battle, will not take shame
And will meet death, exulting, not trembling.
Lady! Cover surrounding
Give help! I go to battle, serving you.
For losing a lady on earth
Heavenly help mistress.

Translation by S. Pinus
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42 comments
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  1. D-Master
    D-Master 30 May 2016 06: 54
    +5
    Thank you very much for the article. The article is extremely valuable in that it perfectly organizes various information that is abundant on the network but extremely fragmented. Sam had the pleasure of visiting May in Kaliningrad and personally seeing the full armor exhibited in the museum of the Cathedral of Kaliningrad, as well as visiting, for example, the museum of torture in the village of Yantarny ...
    1. kalibr
      30 May 2016 07: 29
      +1
      And the knightly "hrenovuha" you were given at the entrance?
      1. D-Master
        D-Master 30 May 2016 09: 54
        0
        Unfortunately, no ... But the museum (I'm talking about the museum in the village of Yantarny) made a very good impression and was quite informative and interesting. Besides the dull casemates there is something to see ... But it is better to visit it with a guide or a full-time guide. Unaccompanied, you fly it very quickly.
        1. kalibr
          30 May 2016 15: 55
          0
          That's why I asked you that I was also in some castle near Kaliningrad (ruins), where initiative people organized an excellent show and there was also a torture museum there. But ... before the entrance, all the participants of the excursion were brought a "glass" of knightly horseradish and ... this reduced the criticality of perception among tourists. And then there was a sea of ​​beer, smoked Baltic herring, fried fish, homemade bread, bow shooting, sword fights, women pounded walnuts with their priests - it was great.
          1. saygon66
            saygon66 30 May 2016 16: 17
            +1
            -Shaaken Castle, in the village. Nekrasovo ... They also showed a fabulous ...
            - They burned some kind of cattle ... and there so much work was invested by people!
            1. kalibr
              30 May 2016 18: 26
              0
              Yes, exactly there! It was a very professional event in the "open air party" style. The organizers showed me the remains of the burnt building too. It is a pity that envy is still the strongest motivator in people's actions.
    2. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 30 May 2016 20: 10
      +1
      Quote: D-Master
      Thank you very much for the article. The article is extremely valuable in that it perfectly organizes various information that is abundant on the network but extremely fragmented. Sam had the pleasure of visiting May in Kaliningrad and personally seeing the full armor exhibited in the museum of the Cathedral of Kaliningrad, as well as visiting, for example, the museum of torture in the village of Yantarny ...

      The torture museum is a spray that is allowed to be displayed. And gentlemen, the noble German, Danish, Swedish and other knights, having drunk the noble "knightly" crap ", have done something else. Get drunk, until they lose their human appearance, and stick to the" Holy Sepulcher "to atone for their sins. Some (or a very delicate editor) gave them the compass said “to the east.” So we went to Novgorod, Pskov, and Smolensk.
  2. drop
    drop 30 May 2016 08: 30
    +12
    We should treat our Tsar Ivan the Terrible with dignity only because he interrupted for four years the raids of these knights in the North of our country.
    After the creation of the Solovetsky Monastery, the knights of the three states decided to destroy it. In one of the battles, about 200 of these invaders were captured by the Russians. The voivode reported to the Tsar. A decree followed - to execute everyone, and release one to Sweden with the transfer of this message to the head of the order. The raids stopped for four years. I published a documentary about this in "VO". I have the honor.
    1. Mikhail Matyugin
      Mikhail Matyugin 30 May 2016 10: 40
      +1
      Quote: Drop
      In one of the battles the Russians were captured by 200 of these invaders. The Governor reported to the Tsar. A decree followed, to execute all

      Do you really think killing prisoners is good?
      1. Aryan
        Aryan 30 May 2016 16: 33
        +1
        Oppa! 21st century moralist judges primeval times?
        well ... listen ...
      2. bocsman
        bocsman 27 September 2016 18: 53
        +1
        Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
        Quote: Drop
        In one of the battles the Russians were captured by 200 of these invaders. The Governor reported to the Tsar. A decree followed, to execute all

        Do you really think killing prisoners is good?


        Of course, killing captive enemies is bad! For several reasons. And I will list them, especially for Misha Matyugin.
        1. With each prisoner, you can get a ransom from his family. And these savages either did not know (which is unlikely), multiply by 199 any amount that occurs to you. But they considered that their native land is more expensive than money! Here are the barbarians!
        2. To let free enemies (even for money) so that the savage Ivan IV could not breed. Does he have such a bloodthirsty character ?!
        3. Well, what is four years of a quiet life for the state for its people!?
        The main thing is tolerance, liberalism, etc. !!!!!
        Is that right, Misha?
  3. masiya
    masiya 30 May 2016 08: 53
    +2
    Interesting, informative, useful for expanding the worldview ...
  4. Kerch
    Kerch 30 May 2016 09: 11
    +2
    The best, they are the best, but the Ottomans beat the knights very well, and more than once. There was an article in the magazine "Brother", where the main reason for many of the knights' defeats was the lack of unity in tactics, in battle formation. In other words, everything for which the Roman legions were so famous in their time.
  5. pigkiller
    pigkiller 30 May 2016 10: 07
    +4
    As the Perley Ubernshens to the East, the rod still. With genocide and troubadours.
  6. Verdun
    Verdun 30 May 2016 10: 27
    +4
    The article is entertaining and it’s good that the approach to the presentation of the material is systematic. But only when you read it, you involuntarily think about the fact that not all wars for the glory of Christ in fact had a religious background. Yes, goals were declared Christian. But the tasks were completely mercantile.
    1. kalibr
      30 May 2016 15: 57
      0
      "We believe in God, and the rest is in cash!" I do not remember who, but "someone" "from there" said so!
      1. Anglorussian
        Anglorussian 30 May 2016 22: 27
        -1
        I do not remember who, but "someone" "from there" said so!
        This is an American proverb, she has been for many years. This is because we believe the motto of God is written on the dollar.
    2. bocsman
      bocsman 27 September 2016 19: 03
      0
      Quote: Verdun
      The article is entertaining and it’s good that the approach to the presentation of the material is systematic. But only when you read it, you involuntarily think about the fact that not all wars for the glory of Christ in fact had a religious background. Yes, goals were declared Christian. But the tasks were completely mercantile.


      And what is characteristic is that all the lands on which they were supposedly going to be baptized were already baptized !!! So the mercantile spirit in the cube !!!!
      And here again, the analogy with those who are carrying democracy all over the world. What do you want?
      Democracy, or .....?!
  7. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin 30 May 2016 10: 44
    +2
    Quote: Verdun
    . Yes, goals were declared Christian. But the tasks were completely mercantile.

    By the way, the Teutonic and Livonian orders in the 14th and 15th centuries, after the baptism of Lithuania and other neighboring pagan peoples, directly accused the Catholic church hierarchs, ordinary priests and politicians that these orders forgot their goals and turned from defenders of the Christian faith in the next feudal overlords, who oppress their population, "taken by the sword", almost stronger than ordinary secular rulers.
  8. saygon66
    saygon66 30 May 2016 11: 51
    +4
    - The last Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, Albrecht of Brandenburg-Ansbach, the first Duke of Prussia, the son of Frederick I, Hohenzollern, the great-grandson of Prince Jagiello, and the great-great-grandson of the Russian princess Ulyana Tverskaya, died at the age of 77, March 20, 1568, in the castle Guards ... An outstanding personality ... He laid the foundation for the "Silver Library", opened the first gymnasium and university in 1544, supported Martin Luther (not King).
    1. nikon7717
      nikon7717 30 May 2016 15: 55
      +2
      Total. It seems you read the title Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, Albrecht Brandenburg-Ansbach, the first Duke of Prussia, son of Frederick I, Hohenzollern. Well, the German head of the order. And you look at the ancestors, it turns out - Slavic roots. The great-grandson of the Livs who came out of the Slavic tribe - Prince Jagiello - Grand Duke of Lithuania, aka King Vladislav II, founder of the Jagiellonian dynasty, who ruled in Poland until 1668. He lived correctly and lived in place of his ancestors. Tricky weave.
    2. nikon7717
      nikon7717 30 May 2016 15: 55
      +1
      Total. It seems you read the title Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, Albrecht Brandenburg-Ansbach, the first Duke of Prussia, son of Frederick I, Hohenzollern. Well, the German head of the order. And you look at the ancestors, it turns out - Slavic roots. The great-grandson of the Livs who came out of the Slavic tribe - Prince Jagiello - Grand Duke of Lithuania, aka King Vladislav II, founder of the Jagiellonian dynasty, who ruled in Poland until 1668. He lived correctly and lived in place of his ancestors. Tricky weave.
  9. electrooleg
    electrooleg 30 May 2016 11: 53
    +2
    By the star on the shield it is already clear who they are. You can not read but immediately with a club in the snout of such a "knight".
    1. saygon66
      saygon66 30 May 2016 15: 48
      0
      - And what did you see in the star on the shield?
      - This is not the Star of David (the Shield of David), this is the Star of Bethlehem that appeared in heaven at the time of Christ's birth, and brought the Magi to Him!
      - It’s a completely Christian symbol. We hang on every New Year tree ...
      1. saygon66
        saygon66 30 May 2016 21: 27
        0
        - It turns out that such shields were worn by the knights of the Dobrzynski (Dobrinsky) Order (!), Or the Brothers Warriors of Christ, Livonian against the Prussians (?!) ... The order was established on the initiative of the Polish king Konrad Mazowiecki, was partially conceived as a counterbalance to the Teutonic Order, but as a result was consumed last! (Something wrong happened with motivation, apparently ...)
  10. King, just king
    King, just king 30 May 2016 12: 13
    0
    Something is somehow modest and gray. Vyacheslav, was there no inspiration?
    1. saygon66
      saygon66 30 May 2016 12: 45
      0
      - It doesn’t look like the author ... It's just that the material is huge only according to the Teutonic Order ... And if you describe everything that happened in the Baltic states!
    2. kalibr
      30 May 2016 16: 02
      +1
      Such materials, by the way, are the most difficult to write. Everything "is", but it is necessary to systematize, what is the inspiration here? It's easy to write about the battle, and even on the basis of chronicles, but here you look stupidly, then you arrange everything you find by years and stupidly rewrite in your own words. But without systematization, too, nowhere, that's just doing it quite troublesome.
      1. saygon66
        saygon66 30 May 2016 16: 13
        0
        - Here's how articles about castles in Palestine and the Teutons resonate:
        - Montfort Castle is one of the residences of the order ...
        1. Mavrikiy
          Mavrikiy 30 May 2016 20: 26
          0
          Quote: saygon66
          - Here's how articles about castles in Palestine and the Teutons resonate:
          - Montfort Castle is one of the residences of the order ...

          Yes. Silent glanders, yes with a ton, from grateful descendants. And so that they roll over in hell, and they double the dose.
    3. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 30 May 2016 20: 18
      0
      Quote: King, just king
      Something is somehow modest and gray. Vyacheslav, was there no inspiration?

      But how can I tell you, in the EU there is a crisis, the loot is stuck, spiteful critics ..
  11. Crimea26
    Crimea26 30 May 2016 14: 05
    0
    And what does the lion-dog-unknown animal at the feet of the dead knights mean? They trample on it or simply rest against it (so as not to fall off the lid)))?
    1. saygon66
      saygon66 30 May 2016 14: 47
      +2
      - The trampled lion at the knight’s feet is a symbol of the fact that he died in battle ... those who died by natural death trampled on the dog’s feet ...
      1. Crimea26
        Crimea26 30 May 2016 18: 39
        0
        Thank. Yes, I’m looking - it’s like all the lions are being trampled on ... So that's it (in the photo) they perished in the battles ??
    2. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 31 May 2016 08: 54
      0
      This is an allegory of dog devotion to all ideals or overlord in life. Or the lion's valor in the case of a lion.
  12. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin 30 May 2016 16: 22
    +1
    Quote: saygon66
    The trampled lion at the knight's feet is a symbol of the fact that he died in battle ... those who died by natural death trampled on the dog's feet ...

    This is one of the versions. According to another, the animal symbolized the trampled enemy in general. The dead "in their bed" did not usually rely on anything. Crossed legs at the figure of a knight on the tomb - a participant in a crusade or died in it.
    1. saygon66
      saygon66 30 May 2016 16: 48
      +2
      - "This secret is great ..." Gravestones with crossed legs are found mainly on the graves of British knights ... in Europe, almost never ...
      1. kalibr
        30 May 2016 18: 29
        0
        This topic has already arisen here. I wrote to the British Effigy Society, but received no response. Either the society is gone, or I don’t want to answer.
        1. Mavrikiy
          Mavrikiy 30 May 2016 20: 34
          +1
          Quote: kalibr
          This topic has already arisen here. I wrote to the British Effigy Society, but received no response. Either the society is gone, or I don’t want to answer.

          -Well, as taught "matter does not disappear", count the information, and it is for the initiated. Provide information: a dog's head at the feet is a Polish count, or a lion's head is a German baron. Well, why put it on display. We know, but you are not supposed to be by rank. And it is right.
          1. saygon66
            saygon66 30 May 2016 20: 52
            0
            - I searched the web for information about this - just got even more confused!
            - It’s like a lion is everywhere, but because of the craftsmen of that time it looks like a dog ... because of the destruction of the tombstone it’s not possible to understand what kind of animal it is ... then the dog was run mainly on female tombstones - as a symbol of fidelity ... many plates were ordered even during the lifetime of the owner - what he ordered, they did. No canons, no instructions, and all research is not earlier than the end of the IX century!
            1. bocsman
              bocsman 27 September 2016 19: 21
              0
              Quote: saygon66
              - I searched the web for information about this - just got even more confused!
              - It’s like a lion is everywhere, but because of the craftsmen of that time it looks like a dog ... because of the destruction of the tombstone it’s not possible to understand what kind of animal it is ... then the dog was run mainly on female tombstones - as a symbol of fidelity ... many plates were ordered even during the lifetime of the owner - what he ordered, they did. No canons, no instructions, and all research is not earlier than the end of the IX century!


              Guys and hunting do you head dead to delve into? How many of them fell on our earth!
              And as a pig or a dog at the feet of these robbers and looters, their offspring put in the grave even more so! One thing is clear, they came to the Slavic lands with one goal - to rob, take away if they do not give it up, then kill and still take it away! And the Roman "godfather" for a small share, covered up robbery and murder with his "holiness"!
        2. Mikhail Matyugin
          Mikhail Matyugin 30 May 2016 23: 29
          +1
          Quote: kalibr
          wrote to the British Effigy Society, but received no reply. Either the society is gone, or I don’t want to answer.

          DRINK, DAMNS! drinks We found the grave of Aristotle!
        3. bocsman
          bocsman 27 September 2016 19: 27
          +1
          Quote: kalibr
          This topic has already arisen here. I wrote to the British Effigy Society, but received no response. Either the society is gone, or I don’t want to answer.


          "You, as a stinker, submit a petition to the Tsar for the Ethginians" !?
          1. 2-0
            2-0 9 November 2016 11: 49
            0
            "bocsman" !!! Rzhunimagu!

            Vyacheslav, this shot "Rudolf von Sachsenhausen".
            I didn’t understand, is it on the head on which the bascinet also has a bucket (i.e., a bucket on the bascinet), with a kind of swan, or did he pile a bucket for a pontus?
  13. Monarchist
    Monarchist 30 May 2016 21: 51
    +2
    Informative article
  14. The comment was deleted.