Military Review

Day of the military translator

39
Every year, May 21 in Russia celebrates the Day of the military translator. In our country, this holiday appeared relatively recently. The first time it was celebrated on 21 May 2000. The initiators of the introduction of this holiday were graduates of VIIA - Military Institute of Foreign Languages. This date was not chosen by chance. Even 21 May 1929, the deputy head of the People’s Commissar for Military and Maritime Affairs, Joseph Unshlicht, signed an order “On establishing the rank for the commanding staff of the Red Army“ military translator ”. This order finally legalized the profession that existed in the Russian army for several centuries.


The importance and relevance of the profession of a military translator at any time and in any army in the world is beyond doubt. There is nothing surprising in this, if we take into account the obvious fact - most of the wars on our planet were fought between peoples who spoke different languages. The main task of ordinary translators was to unite people and nations, but military translators always had their own specific specifics. The first institution, which was in charge of international relations and had translators in its staff, appeared in Russia in the 16th century. Then this institution was called the Ambassadorial Order (founded in 1549 year), he was engaged in military and diplomatic translation. His staff, consisting of interpreters 17 and 22 translators, worked with English, Armenian, Greek, Dutch, Italian, Latin, Mongolian, Persian, Tatar, Swedish and other languages. For Russia, which was at a crossroads between Europe and Asia, the profession of a translator has always had a special meaning.

Until a certain point in time, this practice was the same, with no significant differences. The changes were associated with the expansion of the borders of the Russian Empire. The access to the Baltic and Black Seas, to the territory of Central Asia and the Far East, led to the fact that in 1885, special courses were opened at the Department of Eastern Languages ​​of the Asian department of the Russian Foreign Ministry for the service of translators specifically for military service. These officer courses very quickly gained popularity. The competition among Russian officers who wanted to enroll in them exceeded 10 people by one place. Russian officers trained in courses served in the countries of Asia, the Caucasus, as well as in the newly annexed territories of the Asian military districts, where they were bailiffs, officers of the border guards, and heads of counties.

Day of the military translator


Another memorable milestone that contributed to the formation of a full-fledged personnel reserve of military interpreters for the Russian army in 1899 was the opening of the Eastern Institute in Vladivostok. In this educational institution, in addition to the obligatory French and English languages, the program for training Orientalist students involved the study of Korean, Japanese and Chinese. Languages ​​were chosen in accordance with the country specialization chosen by the student. Foreign language courses, which were opened directly at the headquarters of military districts, also made a significant contribution to the language training of officers in the interests of the army.

Military translators have always been actively involved in collecting various information about the situation in the countries of near and far abroad, were used as consuls and military agents, carried out intelligence activities. Practically all of the top officers of the Russian army in the 19th and early 20th centuries were fluent in foreign languages, so could independently conduct interrogations of prisoners of war. For example, this was the case during the First World War.

During the Spanish Civil War, along with Soviet instructors and volunteers, more than 200 military translators took part in it. At the same time, not only the military were among them, the translators were then actively recruiting citizens living in Spanish-speaking countries of the world, for many of them Spanish was always the native language. The lack of professionals among military translators was acutely felt even before the start of the Second World War. Yes, many personnel officers of the Red Army could carry out the initial interrogation of a prisoner, but their knowledge of the language was often limited to a small set of highly specialized terms or language skills at the school level.

In connection with the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, when training military interpreters, a large number of foreigners were involved in the teaching process, who taught students all the subtleties of dialects, as well as military terminology. During the war years, the work of military translators was fraught with considerable risk. But most often translators worked in the rear, in relative safety, they were in the headquarters of the formations, where they worked with military documents and participated in the interrogation of prisoners. At the same time, they often had to take part in reconnaissance searches, since when a “language” was captured, it was necessary to interrogate him immediately on the spot in order to obtain primary information and verify his value. Often it was necessary, since it was simply impossible to bring the prisoner to the location of the Soviet troops. In total, during the Second World War, tasks of varying degrees of complexity were performed by more than 5 thousands of military interpreters, many of whom died in battles with the Nazis.



It is worth noting that during the search of captured enemy soldiers, as well as those killed on the battlefields, their correspondence was often found. She was a very important source of information from which a lot of intelligence information could be gathered. Home German soldiers liked to send informative letters, which described everything that happens around them. They also indicated their psychological state - when they were confident of the upcoming victory, and when, on the contrary, they were close to a state of panic.

When working at the front and in the German rear, the military translators had a very important task - to psychologically crush their enemy. Often, military translators were attracted to influence the enemy soldiers on the front line with the help of a loudspeaker. With the participation of translators in the interrogation of Nazi prisoners, psychology also played a very important role - it was necessary to crush enemy soldiers and officers morally in order to “unleash their tongues” or call for a frank conversation, finding their own special approach to prisoners of war.

Military translators took part in the identification at the very end of the war of the corpses of the Nazi leaders - Hitler and Goebbels. In the bunker of the imperial office in Berlin, Soviet soldiers found a letter that was signed by Borman and Goebbels. This letter stated that Hitler committed suicide. According to the habit established in the Nazi environment, the cause of which was called the Fuhrer's poor eyesight, the letter was written in a rather large font. Soviet military translators had a chance to communicate with Hitler's assistants, the maintenance and medical personnel of the bunker, as a result of which they managed to collect a sufficient amount of eyewitness accounts that helped to identify the remains of Hitler and his closest assistant.

Military University of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation


After the end of World War II, there was still a huge field of work for military translators. There have always been, are and will be the so-called hot spots on the planet, new military conflicts of varying degrees of intensity are constantly breaking out. All of them require in one way or another the involvement of military translators. Military translators worked in Korea, Vietnam and Afghanistan, that is, everywhere where their services and good knowledge of foreign languages ​​were in demand.

Nowadays, a military translator is still a sought-after and difficult to learn profession. In addition to fluency in various foreign languages, specialists in this profession should be able to translate instructions for military equipment, various documents, and thoroughly understand military terminology. During hostilities, they can be involved in intelligence work, participate in interrogations of prisoners of military personnel, be included in groups that make raids to the rear of the enemy.

Today, in order to receive the specialty of a military translator, applicants must enter the Military University of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. VIIA, the Military Institute of Foreign Languages, which is now organizationally part of the structure of this university, is directly involved in the training of military translators.

Based on materials from open sources
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  1. Vladimirets
    Vladimirets 21 May 2016 06: 48
    +9
    Tolmachev happy holiday.
    1. Tatyana
      Tatyana 21 May 2016 18: 21
      +1
      Happy military translator day! drinks

      ***
      You are from the old interpreters
      Leading your profession
      To the meaning of alien speeches
      Presented to us in full translation.

      Being a military means
      Do not go off the front line.
      Let the enemies cry out of anger.
      There is an order - to go to battle!

      Protecting the earth again
      From the boots of alien soldiers
      Menacing, quiet and severe
      To die in the midst of storms and battles.

      The translator is also a warrior!
      The word is a sword and his shield!
      And therefore worthy
      He is his honor!
  2. VNP1958PVN
    VNP1958PVN 21 May 2016 06: 53
    +4
    The initiators of the introduction of this holiday were graduates of VIIII - Military Institute of Foreign Languages.
    Vladimir Volfovich, happy holiday! Well done, I have not forgotten my colleagues!
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. creak
      creak 21 May 2016 11: 21
      0
      And what does Zhirinovsky have to do with VIIII - he received his education at Moscow State University. Lomonosov and the military department ...
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. siberalt
      siberalt 21 May 2016 13: 58
      0
      I’ll drink a penny for the day of the military translator, and we hung out on the day of the military accordion player.
      Happy Holidays!
  3. Dmitry Potapov
    Dmitry Potapov 21 May 2016 07: 06
    +3
    Good and necessary profession!
    1. OlegV
      OlegV 21 May 2016 07: 33
      +4
      Nowadays, a military translator is still a sought-after and difficult to learn profession. In addition to fluency in various foreign languages, specialists in this profession should be able to translate instructions for military equipment, various documents, and thoroughly understand military terminology. During hostilities, they can be involved in intelligence work, participate in interrogations of prisoners of military personnel, be included in groups that make raids to the rear of the enemy.


      Yes .... really a difficult profession ...

      Happy holiday, experts in their field.
      Health to you and your families.
  4. Amurets
    Amurets 21 May 2016 07: 07
    +5
    Today is a day of continuous holidays: Pacific Fleet, Military translators, Polyarnikov. All of you, heroes of the anniversary, sincere congratulations. For your notable service, translators drinks
  5. Alexander Romanov
    Alexander Romanov 21 May 2016 07: 12
    +7
    Under Napoleon, French was studied in Russia.
    Under Hitler, German.
    Now every second person in Russia will be able to interrogate Amer without any particular problems. But they may have problems, it will be enough for our soldier to begin to give a damn answer to the questions of the American translator and his brain will crack.
    1. CORNET
      CORNET 21 May 2016 08: 00
      +8
      Quote: Alexander Romanov
      Now every second person in Russia will be able to interrogate Amer without any particular problems.

      That's for sure, learn English guys! Happy holiday translators! drinks
    2. Amurets
      Amurets 21 May 2016 09: 25
      0
      Quote: Alexander Romanov
      But they may have problems, it will be enough for our soldier to begin to give a damn answer to the questions of the American translator and his brain will crack.

      And if you apply "Great and Mighty", as V. Vinokur says, then not only the skull will burst ...
    3. creak
      creak 21 May 2016 10: 46
      +1
      Quote: Alexander Romanov
      Now every second person in Russia will be able to interrogate Amer without any particular problems. But they may have problems, it will be enough for our soldier to start answering


      So every second? Well, well .. For interrogation, you must at least know not only basic English, but also the appropriate military terminology, the organizational structure of the US Armed Forces, to know where the prisoner is lying, etc.
      Military translation courses, the study of foreign armies in the preparation of military translators are organized for a reason - without a certain amount of knowledge in this area there will be no questioning, but a waste of time ...
      Well, if the same Amer, who has not even graduated from high school, and even a Negro or Hispanic, begins to speak and even using slang expressions, then our translator may crack the brain ..
      Professionalism is needed in any business - knowledge of the materiel is necessary for the translator ...
  6. The comment was deleted.
  7. sub307
    sub307 21 May 2016 07: 16
    +6
    I join in the congratulations!
  8. parafoiler
    parafoiler 21 May 2016 07: 18
    +3
    Happy holiday, comrades military commanders!
  9. Million
    Million 21 May 2016 07: 22
    +4
    You can’t do without translators at the front. Happy holiday!
  10. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 21 May 2016 07: 34
    +3
    The desired VUS! And therefore - Happy Holiday !!!!! Peace service - without interrogation of prisoners. Well, if you have to, translate!
  11. ALABAY45
    ALABAY45 21 May 2016 07: 39
    +5
    In the years of his tempestuous technical youth, he had to deal with technical and military translation. The teacher gave an example of the work of military translators: during the war, our intelligence services managed to intercept information about the arrival of 2 echelons of Spanish horsemen at the front-line station. The headquarters began to analyze. The first point was the political number - Franco openly sided with Germany. The second moment, the arrival of the cavalry to the front meant carrying out deep raids into our rear, which meant the upcoming offensive. Therefore, it was worth preparing for the German offensive. Only after careful processing of the "primary sources" was it established that the "Spanish horsemen" were a type of barbed wire and the Germans were going to go over to a defense in depth. These are the subtleties of military translation! hi
    1. evil partisan
      evil partisan 21 May 2016 08: 06
      +2
      Quote: ALABAY45
      These are the subtleties of a military translation
      what

      That is, if I understand correctly, if your "put bacon sprinkled with paprika on bread with Altai butter" is translated correctly, it will turn out: "I squeezed the last drop of ketchup onto a sausage three weeks ago and ate it from hunger" ... wink
      I know (or rather already knew ...) several people who worked as military translators. Everything - after the invasion. And all subsequently departed from foreign languages. With one of them was on an archaeological expedition. Incidentally, he once studied with the famous chess grandmaster Yu. Razuvaev. The famous TV presenter Gusev is also a military translator. In general - on the occasion of you, interpreters!
      1. ALABAY45
        ALABAY45 21 May 2016 11: 31
        +1
        From the dictionary of Anglo-American jargon: "Goy to the wagon" ... It seemed like - "get into the wagon" ?! Horseradish! "Stop drinking"! ... And, then, BACON! am do not sprinkle with paprika ... sprinkle with PERIOD! See you at the semifinals .... food marginal! hi
        1. evil partisan
          evil partisan 21 May 2016 12: 45
          0
          Quote: ALABAY45
          food marginal

          Gagrantua of the Khanty-Mansiysk spill!tongue
          1. ALABAY45
            ALABAY45 21 May 2016 13: 24
            +1
            "Gargantua" -! And, in general, do not bother ... No. I'm getting ready for the "mystery", the semi-final, you know ... You need to have time for the sterlet from the "deep" freezing, a little, in the "defrost" to put .. Chest, bitch, freezes in the trash! And then: stroganina, Czech beer (contribution), German (reparation), smoked perch, diode lighting, a gazebo for 8 persons, "plasma", under the roof, good old C-90 speakers, barbecue with elk liver and pickled onions , prepared firecrackers ...
    2. Orionvit
      Orionvit 22 May 2016 17: 57
      0
      A friend of mine in the 80s studied for a military translator, studied English and Arabic. He told me that the level of training is much higher than on a regular foreign language. So English was taught by an Englishman, an Arab Arab, a Chinese Chinese, and so on. Moreover, training was necessary with the study of the peculiarities of the mentality, slang and dialect of native speakers.
  12. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 21 May 2016 08: 12
    -1
    Happy holiday dear military translators!
    You can’t do without your specialty,
    I think that the most difficult languages ​​are eastern. But the Far East and the Middle East are two big differences, linguistic, religious, cultural.
    After all, military translators know not only how to leave countries, but also traditions, and many other things. ....
  13. Petrof
    Petrof 21 May 2016 08: 20
    +3
    for translators!
    1. Sergej1972
      Sergej1972 21 May 2016 21: 25
      0
      The Russian transcription is somehow peculiar and, in my opinion, not quite correct.
      1. Petrof
        Petrof 22 May 2016 05: 14
        0
        at the beginning of the phrasebook there was an explanation of how to apply it
        and in any case, it was recommended to check the pronunciation with the help of a knowledgeable German
        it's a phrase book for ordinary soldiers and junior commanders, not for translators at all
  14. The comment was deleted.
  15. hrapon
    hrapon 21 May 2016 08: 47
    +1
    The photo shows a familiar parade ground and "native" barracks. It is a pity "Nilton" did not get into the frame.

    With Praznik, friends!
  16. avg-mgn
    avg-mgn 21 May 2016 09: 06
    +2
    Happy holiday! Accept as a gift
    the translation is yours!
  17. Aaron Zawi
    Aaron Zawi 21 May 2016 09: 19
    +6
    A military translator known to all the people. wink
    1. Seren
      Seren 21 May 2016 09: 51
      +1
      I confess, I do not know him. Name, brother, say his name ..
      1. Aaron Zawi
        Aaron Zawi 21 May 2016 10: 15
        0
        Quote: seren
        I confess, I do not know him. Name, brother, say his name ..

        "Karabas Barabas". wink
    2. Pitot
      Pitot 21 May 2016 10: 23
      0
      They say so little about translators that I personally know almost no one. But many of them are just Heroes. Please give your last name and first name. I am ashamed ....
      1. Aaron Zawi
        Aaron Zawi 21 May 2016 10: 38
        +1
        Quote: Pitot
        They say so little about translators that I personally know almost no one. But many of them are just Heroes. Please give your last name and first name. I am ashamed ....

        You're laughing? request People's Artist of the USSR Vladimir Abramovich Etush. (Disabled WWII).
  18. aszzz888
    aszzz888 21 May 2016 10: 34
    +1
    "And if the translator is a lady! love
    Yes, not bad, let's face it!
    Then the specialist disappeared,
    Like a leaf fallen from a tree! " crying

    Specialist - Special Forces of the KGB of the USSR
    Kabul, Afghanistan. soldier
  19. japs
    japs 21 May 2016 13: 05
    +4
    Happy holiday, colleagues, military translators (ts) and former special propagandists (s)!
    Unfortunately, I didn’t know that we had our own holiday.
    Well, for us!
  20. evil partisan
    evil partisan 21 May 2016 15: 14
    0
    Quote: ALABAY45
    prepared firecrackers ...

    Well, well sad
    Better buy more vodka and processed cheese yes . Woe to fill ... crying
  21. esaul1950
    esaul1950 21 May 2016 18: 03
    +1
    With the professional holiday of all military translators, especially graduates of the IIII.
  22. Paranoid50
    Paranoid50 21 May 2016 19: 05
    +3
    Happy holidays, irreplaceable !!! No virtual "translator" will be able to delve into the subtleties and nuances of a foreign language, all the more so if these nuances are expressed only by intonation. Military translation, like technical translation, requires special knowledge "on the topic", otherwise you can translate this ... To this day, I remember with a kind word the department of foreign languages ​​of my native university, where languages ​​(English, French, German) were taught "with a bias", I personally learned "chemical English", and still really helps in my work ... PS I remembered a bike about a Soviet military adviser in Yemen, who translated the name of the ONE MEN SHOW cologne as "one man showed" ... Once again, happy holidays, translators !!!
    1. Parsec
      Parsec 21 May 2016 22: 46
      0
      Quote: Paranoid50
      I remembered a bike about a Soviet military adviser in Yemen, who translated the name of the ONE MEN SHOW cologne as "one man showed" ...


      MAN, NOT MEN


      You can’t joke with youth.
  23. Egevich
    Egevich 21 May 2016 20: 50
    +3
    although it may no longer be necessary, but still in the questionnaires I write - I speak English and Japanese fluently ..) whoever needs it will understand right away ...)
    Happy holiday, comrades! .. soldier drinks
  24. kon125
    kon125 21 May 2016 22: 23
    +3
    VVIIYa elite. Before I knew little, I missed a book by Andrey Konstantinov, the author of "Gangster Petersburg" about translators. This is the elite of power structures, wherever there are interests of Russia, in all conflicts, in those parts of the planet where it is hot, our military translators have been. Honor and Glory to them, many of whom died and remained unknown. Therefore, standing over to drink to the Military Translators, and for the fact that their Alma Mater, as before, was the forge of the elite. And those of them who died, Eternal Memory.