Aviation, modernization, aviation weapons
In its Block 60 variant, the Colombian Kfir fighter was considered technically advanced enough to be invited to the Red Flag 2012 exercises, during which he won several training battles with newer aircraft. The Colombian Air Force received the last of the 24 machines in the 2011 year, but now they want to purchase a few more from the presence of the Israeli Air Force
The very first Israeli “raids” in the field of military aviation date back to the end of the 50s, when Bedek began manufacturing the Tzukit aircraft (based on the French two-seater combat-training aircraft Fouga Magister). However, the first aircraft, fully designed and manufactured by the local industry, appeared in the middle of the 60-s as the Arava transport aircraft with a short take-off and landing.
At that time, it was manufactured by Israel Aircraft Industries, whose name was later changed to Israel Aerospace Industries, reflecting the company's activity in the space sector since 1988, when the Israeli satellite was put into orbit.
Today, the company occupies a large complex at the Ben Gurion Tel Aviv International Airport. She specializes in upgrades and overhauls of civil and military aircraft. To this end, it converted several civilian airliners into transport aircraft and military specialized aircraft, such as reconnaissance platforms, early warning radar aircraft and tankers. Along with the aircraft rework, a division of Israel Aerospace Industries, Bedek, carries out maintenance, repairs and overhauls of the aircraft’s hulls and engines.
The only purely military aircraft of completely Israeli origin was the Lavi fighter. The project was developed by Israel in 80-ies, but was stopped under pressure from the United States, because, although they participated in its financing, they also developed the F-16 fighter and therefore saw it as a competitor in the export market. Two of the three prototypes are preserved and exhibited in military museums. Lavi, by the way, means "Lion", while the name of its predecessor fighter Kfir means "Lion".
It is said that in its latest modification, Mach 2 + Kfir is one third cheaper at purchase and operation compared to the American F-16 fighter and, moreover, it has a smaller effective area of reflection. Other benefits include a broadband communication channel and a proximity warning system.
KFIR - LAHAV
The Kfir fighter created by Lahav (a division of IAI), in fact, is a deeply reworked French Mirage 5, which was originally intended for sale to Israel, but fell victim to an arms embargo. Shorten the long history Kfir, we can only say that it was equipped with a more powerful General Electric J79 engine, also installed on the F-4 Phantom. Kfir fighters were in service with the Israeli Air Force for just over 20 years, but were also exported to Colombia, Ecuador and Sri Lanka. In addition, several fighters bought the US Air Force and the Marine Corps for use as enemy aircraft during exercises and maneuvers.
All these years, the company Lahav has repeatedly upgraded the Kfir fighter jets, but recently developed a new set of electronics and weapons to bring the aircraft to modern standards. According to the company, for example, the new computer is more powerful than the on-board computer, which stands on the F-16 Block 60 fighter. Modernization proposals are intended not only for its current operators, but also for potential foreign customers, since Israel has a substantial supply of aircraft with a small touch. These aircraft could offer an interesting alternative to some countries that need to arm themselves with quite an effective fighter for a reasonable price. The Kfir Advanced Multirole Fighter variant, for example, was offered to Bulgaria as a response to the request for proposals of this country, released in the 2011 year. But in some cases, the presence of a J79 engine can reduce its export potential. At the end of 2015, information appeared that Argentina decided to buy Xfumx Kfir Block 18 fighters from the presence of the Israeli Air Force.
Kfir Block 60 fighter cockpit with multi-function display, cartographic indicator, on-board computer and modern display (projection of instrument readings) on the cockpit window glass
SKIMMER - LAHAV
The company's experience is not limited to military aircraft. The functional Skimmer kit from IAI Lahav is a retrofit package for transforming “simple” helicopters into sea support helicopters. Traditionally, sea-based helicopters are not cheap, and the Skimmer kit is the means by which countries, having an existing fleet of military helicopters, can remake some of their vehicles for these tasks. The Skimmer upgrade includes the installation of a multi-mode long-range sensor for maritime patrols, in this case, an EL / L-2022M maritime patrol radar maritime patrol manufactured by an IAI subsidiary of Elta Systems. Along with the radar, when upgrading Skimmer, equipment for self-defense is added, which includes a rocket attack warning system, dipole reflectors, infrared traps and radar warning receivers. Other special equipment includes submersible sonar, optoelectronics, anti-ship missiles and aircraft torpedoes. All of these components can be combined through a combat planning and control system. The company focuses on close cooperation with the crews of naval helicopters, as they actively participated in the creation of the Skimmer kit, which guarantees the optimal configuration for the tasks of the maritime support. This project may include alteration of the hull and complete "snagging" of the helicopter.
The first Colombian multitasking tanker B-767 in the photo is fueled by the Colombian fighter Kfir. It is equipped with a pipeline and underwing filling cones. The second aircraft is equipped with a retractable filling rod.
Refuelers - BEDEK
The company Bedek and its training aircraft Tzukit (Thrush, was in service in the 1982-210 years, the 52 aircraft was released) was already mentioned. Since then, this IAI unit has switched to the maintenance and modification of larger aircraft, both civilian and military. Bedek specialized in converting airliners into fuel tankers and specialized aircraft; The latter category includes early warning aircraft, radio intelligence, radio intelligence, sea patrols and anti-submarine warfare.
Bedek is responsible for servicing all Israeli Air Force transport aircraft, whose fleet consists of Gulfstream, Hercule and B-707 tankers. Since 1969, Bedek has begun reworking the next-generation B-767 tankers, one already sold to Colombia and two to Brazil. The second Colombian tanker will be equipped with a filling rod. To be precise, these aircraft B-767 received the designation Multi Mission Tanker Transport (multitasking transport aircraft tanker). This suggests that these aircraft can be used not only for refueling in the air, but by installing various modules, they can carry cargo, people, perform medical evacuation and even secret reconnaissance tasks. Bedek also specializes in so-called small tactical tankers based on G550, C5000 and B-737 models.
The main contractor for the Caew long-range radar detection aircraft based on G550 is Elta (IAI division)
EITAM - IAI ELTA
IAI’s newest early warning radar (DRLO) aircraft is Eitam based on Gulfstream G550, which replaced Phalcon based on B-707 on this post. It is also known as CAEW, in which the letter C (conformal means consistent) means that this aircraft has a more streamlined sensor layout than Phalcon. The Phalcon DRLO aircraft, on which the Elta EL / M-2075 radars were installed from the very beginning, is no longer in service with Israel. There are only systems officially sold abroad, for example in Chile, where it is known by the designation Condor.
The EXTAM EARTH aircraft, based on the G550, has greater operational flexibility with a significant reduction in operating costs compared to its predecessor, as well as a maximum flight duration in the 9 patrol area at a range of 100 nautical miles from the base. The radar with an active EL / M-2085 phased antenna array from Elta is installed on Eitam. Israel operates five aircraft, and it was also sold abroad (currently four) in Singapore and Italy (two). In Israel, at least, Eitam aircraft servicing is entrusted to Bedek.
The Rafael Spice 250 guided planning bomb has a range of 100 km. When installing a quad launcher, the F-16 fighter can carry 16 such bombs to destroy ground targets
The Israeli company Rafael is primarily associated with guided and unguided rockets, and since its founding in 1948, has developed numerous weapon systems, although Israel Military Industries, whose main field of activity is ground-based systems, has also been a supplier of “ air-to-earth. "
One of the systems that has gained great fame is undoubtedly the large Popeye airborne missile 1360 kg with tele- and infrared guidance, which entered service in the 1985 year. In the United States, it is also known as Have Nap AGM-142. Since then, Rafael has focused on the development of numerous new systems adapted to today's needs.
SPICE 2000 - RAFAEL
The company Rafael based on a set of guidance has developed a family of autonomous weapons of the air-to-ground class, launched outside the range of enemy air defense systems and designated Spice (Smart, Precise Impact and Cost-Effective - intelligent, accurate, inexpensive). After launch, a guided planning bomb with a Spice kit flies into the designated area using inertial / GPS guidance. At the stage of targeting, the system determines the location of the target using scene comparison technology (memorized images with reference to the terrain) and then relies on its tracking device until the target is hit, while the azimuth angles and meetings with the target are set in advance in order to put maximum damage.
The Spice 2000 kit (compatible with 2000 pounds warheads, such as the MK-84, RAP2000 or BLU-109) comes in the form of front and rear sections and allows you to deliver the warhead to the 60 km range with a stated circular deviation of less than 3 meters . The Spice 1000 wing kit, designed for combat units such as the MK-83, RAP1000 or BLU-110, further increases the range to "previously unattainable values."
The newest member of the Spice 250 family is equipped with an optical-electronic homing head (GOS), developed for previous versions of the family. A new guided bomb is launched from the Smart Quad Rack quad quad launcher. Each pylon thus carries up to four missiles, and one F-16 fighter can carry up to 16 bombs. The launcher has a data channel for receiving navigation data after launch, as well as a demonstration of combat destruction due to the last shot before hitting the target. The “250” model, also equipped with a set of wings, has a range of 100 km. All variants of Spice are in service or ordered, and some already have successful experience in combat use.
Rocket Whip Shot guided by a laser beam with a mass of 15 kg is designed for use by light aircraft. IMI is in contact with various manufacturers of light air platforms, offering its Whip Shot rocket as a standard weapon system.
The newest option in the IMI portfolio is the Mars supersonic 500 kg supersonic guided missile
DELILAH AL - IMI
The Delilah AL air-to-ground turbojet, developed by the Advanced Systems Division, is still in service with the Israeli army. Specially designed to combat moving targets, this 2,71 meter-long rocket, with a wingspan of an 1,15 meter and an 187 kg mass, has a maximum range of 250 km. The rocket reaches the target area and then patrols there for more than 20 minutes in order to determine the priority target with an optical-electronic homing system, and then hits it with great accuracy. The Delilah rocket can gain altitude, go to the second round and re-attack its target and can communicate with the operator right up to the last stage of the attack. This weapon system was used as a base for developing variants of launching from helicopters, ships and ground installations. At the same time, a booster engine is added, which increases the starting mass to 230 kg and the length to 3,2 meters, but the technical characteristics are preserved. Delilah AL is currently part of the armament of the two-man attack aircraft of the Israeli Air Force.
MARS and WHIPSHOT - IMI
IMI has recently completed the development of a Mars supersonic missile for its fighter (Multi-Purpose, Air-launched Rocket System - a multi-purpose air-launched rocket launch system). A self-guided missile with a length of 4,4 meters, a range of 100 km and a mass of 500 kg (120 kg is assigned to the warhead) is equipped with a GPS navigation system. For light attack aircraft, IMI developed the “affordable” Whip Shot system with a 15 kg mass, which is induced from an aircraft over a wireless data channel; The optoelectronic capture system of this rocket accompanies the target until the moment of impact.
Tamir missile target interception
Although other companies, such as IAI and Elta, are actively involved in Israeli air defense programs (the latter is known for its radars), Rafael remains an important active figure in a number of projects that have received international recognition, despite being limited only to Israel.
IRON DOME - RAFAEL
The Iron Dome gained worldwide fame in November 2012, when it successfully intercepted missiles launched from the Gaza Strip by the militarized organization Hamas. The need for a project like the Iron Dome was first talked about in the 90s after the launch of attacks by the Lebanese Hezbollah group in northern Israel. The anti-missile system ideas that had been in the air for some time in 2004 ended up turning into the Iron Dome. The emergence of this system is largely due to the then head of the Israeli Army’s Research Directorate, General Daniel Gold, who was a vehement supporter of the ground-to-air missile system. Two years later, during the second Lebanese war of 2006, the need for such a system grew substantially. Then Hezbollah fired some 4000 rockets on northern Israel, whose victims were Israeli 44; in addition, 250000 people were evacuated during the conflict. However, northern Israel was not the only area affected by violent rocket attacks. From 2000 to 2008, Hamas often bombarded southern Israel with rockets and mines from the Gaza Strip, and 12000 carried out such attacks. Finally, in February, 2007, the Iron Dome complex was chosen as a platform to combat short-range unguided rockets, thus giving the green light to Rafael’s development.
The development and procurement of the Iron Dome was jointly funded by Israel and the USA. Israel allocated funds for the purchase of the first two systems, and the next eight were funded by the United States. A few years later, Washington made a number of financial commitments to support the Iron Dome complex. In May, 2010, the Congress voted to allocate 205 million dollars for the purchase of Iron Dome batteries. In May, 2012 was allocated another 680 million dollars. And in June 2012 of the Year, the US Senate Committee on the Armed Forces included additional 210 million dollars in its financing plan.
And for what all these huge funds are paid? According to the company Rafael, the Iron Dome complex can intercept missiles at ranges up to 70 km. In addition, during the test the mortar mines were also intercepted. The effectiveness of the Iron Dome was clearly demonstrated at the end of 2012, when he managed to shoot down three of the four missiles over Tel Aviv. It is important to note that the Iron Dome architecture is designed in such a way that the complex avoids intercepting missiles that fly according to calculations to deserted areas, and among other things, it is effective in fighting both serial missile launches and single projectiles. For example, from 1500 missiles fired in November 2012, 500 missiles were intercepted, while the rest, without causing damage, fell in the desert or at sea.
The Iron Dome complex includes a Tamir interceptor missile, a command and control center, a launcher, and an EL / M-2084 surveillance, tracking and guidance radar from Israel Aerospace Industries Elta Systems (described below). One radar and one control center can serve two missile launchers. The radar indicates the Tamir target coordinates to the rocket and provides for updating the data during the flight, although the anti-missile has its own radar and performs the interception of the target independently at the final stage.
The Israeli Air Force currently has nine Iron Dome batteries. Funding (as already noted, a significant part is allocated by the United States) provides for the purchase of a total of 15 systems.
Last news regarding the Iron Dome complex. 18 May 2016, the information appeared on the successful tests of the sea-based Iron Dome missile defense system, which received the designation C-Dome. Tests were conducted in February 2016. The C-Dome maritime missile defense system was first introduced in October 2014 at the Euronaval naval armament exhibition in Paris.
The Iron Dome complex of Rafael became famous at the end of 2012, when it successfully intercepted missiles fired from Gaza at Israel by Palestinian militias. The system has saved many lives by intercepting these missiles.
Iron Dome Tamir missile was unveiled at Eurosatory 2008
The missile system of the company Rafael David's Sling is designed to combat short-range missiles and traditional air threats.
DAVID'S SLING - RAFAEL
As an addition to the Iron Dome, there is the David’s Sling missile defense complex, also developed by Rafael. According to a company representative, it is designed to intercept short-range ballistic missiles, traditional air threats and “everything that flies in the atmosphere and that is not intercepted by the Iron Dome complex”. The David’s Sling complex, developed with the assistance of the American company Raytheon, includes the EL / M-2084 radar from IAI Elta Systems, the Stunner anti-missile, the corresponding launchers and the fire control center. Stunner is a direct action missile with a bi-directional data channel. The anti-missile system Stunner has a radar and optical electronic guidance system and has an effective range from 70 to 250 km. This means that Stunner can intercept threats that cannot be intercepted by the Tamir anti-missile (see above). Rafael won a contract to develop the David's Sling complex in 2006, and American Raytheon, according to some sources, provided invaluable assistance in the development of the launcher. If the Iron Dome complex has proven itself to combat short-range threats, the David’s Sling complex’s task is to intercept high-altitude targets at a longer range, such as, for example, ballistic missiles developed as part of a secret Iranian program arms mass destruction. According to the manufacturer, the deployment of David’s Sling complex will end in 2016.
The characteristic shape of the bow of the anti-missile Stunner, which is part of the complex David's Sling
The demonstration of the Spyder complex at the Paris Air Show 2015 exhibition says that Rafael is taking part in programs for creating short-range air defense systems by using existing Derby and Python air launch missiles. In the bottom photo is the Derby rocket (below) and the Python-5 rocket.
BARAK-8 - IAI
Thanks to the work on David’s Sling missile defense systems and the Iron Dome, Israel has become one of the few rocket technology developers and has entered the technologically advanced US, European and Russian club in this regard. While both of the systems described above are designed for ground defense, Israeli companies also produce maritime defense systems. For example, Israel Aerospace Industries has teamed up with the Indian defense development organization DRDO to create the Barak-8 shipborne anti-aircraft missile.
The development of an anti-aircraft missile system began in 2007 after signing a joint development contract worth 330 million with equal funding from the two countries. Barak-8 comes in two versions: land and ship-based. The ship variant has a range of 70 km and a ceiling of 16000 meters, whereas a land launch missile has a range of 120 km. The rocket can reach speeds up to 4,5 Mach numbers and destroy its target using a high-explosive fragmentation warhead of 60 kg with a laser fuse. In the Indian Navy, the rocket can be deployed on the Kolkata project missile destroyers, where it will be combined with the Barak-1 longer range surface-to-air missile and the IAI Elta EL / M-2248 MF-STAR radar. in the ship complex weapons.
Israel has teamed up with India to develop a Barak-8 naval anti-aircraft missile. A missile with a range of about 70 km will enter the weapons complex of the missile destroyers of the Kolkata project of the Indian fleet
ARROW-II / III - IAI
The Israeli anti-missile defense program Arrow began in the 80-ies with the goal of combating the ballistic threats that at that time were coming from Iraq. Arrow was put on operational duty in 2000 year. IAI became the prime contractor of the entire Arrow program (as in some programs of the already mentioned missile systems), and the American side, in particular, Boeing, assisted in the development. Cooperation began at 1986 after a Memorandum of Understanding was signed between Israel and the United States, sharing financial risks between the two countries.
The Arrow initiative went through several stages: the initial version of the Arrow-1 passed several flight tests in the 90-x, where it reportedly reached the range of 50 km. Development continued, and the Arrow-1 variant further evolved into the next Arrow-II version. Tests of this rocket showed its ability to hit a target missile at a distance of 100 km. The development process ended with the manufacture of the first Arrow-II division, the readiness of which was announced at the turn of the century. Since then, the Arrow-II has undergone several improvements (or, according to foreign terminology, "Block"), including the Arrow-II Block-II variant, which could already hit targets at an altitude of 60 km, and the Arrow-II Block-III variant, which tests showed ability to work as a dispersed weapon system with separate Arrow launchers working to destroy a common target. Later, after refinement, the system received the designation Arrow-II Block-IV, after which it was able to shoot down Iranian medium-range ballistic missiles (1930 km) Shahab-3. Finally, in the Arrow-II Block-V variant, the capabilities of the Arrow-II and Arrow-III variants were combined (see below). Currently, the Arrow complex includes the anti-rocket Arrow-II, which is capable of intercepting targets in the atmospheric and extra-atmospheric trajectory segments. The Arrow anti-missile system includes four mobile launchers for 6 missiles, a launch control center, a command post, an early warning radar and an EL-2080 Green Pine radar from IAI Elta.
Starting from 2006, when conducting atmospheric and extra-atmospheric tests of an anti-missile Arrow-II, it hit 100% of typical targets of ballistic missiles. The development of the extra-atmospheric anti-missile Arrow-III is currently ongoing. To date, the only test launch of the Arrow-III antimissile, held in February 2013, has been carried out. If Arrow-II can provide protection at the level of a theater of military operations, the complex in the Arrow-III variant can provide strategic protection at the national level. The theory of combat use of Arrow-III involves locking the anti-missile after launching for some time in space, after which, when it detects an anti-missile missile, it hits the target. Arrow-III can use the launchers and control point of the previous version of the Arrow-II; Arrow-III rocket will go into service in 2018 year.
Although the Arrow anti-missile system was conceived back in the 80s, it performed several successful test hooks. IAI is currently working on the next version of Arrow-III
Radar Elta ELM-2084 is trained at the factory before being shipped to the Iron Dome unit
RADAR - ELTA
The main manufacturer of Israeli radar stations is a division of Israel Aerospace Industries Elta Systems, abbreviated IAI Elta Systems. This company supplies EL / M-2084 multitasking radar for the Iron Dome and David's Sling. This three-dimensional active-phased-array radar (AFAR) performs either a scan of each 120 ° sector or a circular scan for all 360 ° with 30 rotations per minute. When operating in a surveillance mode, the radar can detect targets at ranges up to 474 km and at altitudes up to 30,5 km. When working in the mode of determining the location of weapons systems, it detects targets at a distance of 100 km. Radar can detect and track up to 1200 targets in air defense mode and up to 200 targets per minute in determining the location of weapons.
The radar of the Elta EL / M-2080 Green Pine airspace review is relatively larger than the EL / M-2084 model. This low-frequency radar with AFAR has a range of up to 500 km. It is used in the Arrow family of complexes, and was sold to India in addition to Israel. The company Elta along with the production of ground-based radar also produces a family of maritime surveillance radar MFSTAR. It includes a three-dimensional radar EL / M-2258 Alpha AFAR (Advanced Lightweight Phased Array Radar), which can detect low-flying missiles at a distance of 25 km and traditional threats at high altitudes at a distance of up to 120 km. The court-mounted Alpha radar weighing 700 kg covers in azimuth 360 ° and in elevation 70 °. The Alpha is complemented by the Elta EL / M-2248 fixed shipborne radar, also part of the MFSTAR family. This flat-panel radar with AFAR with an electronically controlled beam installed on the corvettes of the project "Sa'ar" of the Israeli Navy. The integration of the new radar aboard the ship takes several months. Reduced side lobe levels of the antenna pattern and fast frequency tuning protect these radars from electronic countermeasures.
RADAR - RADA ELECTRONICS
Although the company IAI Elta is the largest manufacturer of radar systems in the country, there are other firms that produce high-performance equipment. These include Rada Electronics, offering CHR and MHR radars. These are programmable multitasking surveillance radars using AFAR antennas. Radar can track and scan targets in any direction in the +/- 40 ° sector in azimuth. To provide a circular view on 360 ° it is possible to use several radars. The MHR family includes the RPS-40 (enemy fire detection), RPS-42 (tactical aerial reconnaissance) and RHS-44 (land and air border violation) options. Radar CHR is part of the complex of active protection Iron Fist from the company Israel Military Industries. A radar in time division mode can simultaneously generate pulse streams and monitor several targets, for example, detecting mortar fire and then detecting drones with switching within a few milliseconds.
SPARROWS - RAFAEL
Although the non-armament air-to-ground weaponry, it is worth mentioning the Sparrow family of target launch rockets, since they are used to test missile defense systems not only by Israel, but also by other countries. The Black, Blue and Silver Sparrow models mimic short-range ballistic missiles, respectively Scud-B, Scud-C / D and Shibab. Sparrow rockets have a length from 4,85 to 8,39 meters and a starting weight from 1275 to 3130 kg. They were used, for example, in testing the Samp / T missile system (based on Aster) from MBDA.
Anti-aircraft missile system Red Sky-2
Middle Air Defense and IMI company
Although IMI does not produce ground-to-air weapons, its portfolio includes a passive system under the designation Red Sky-2, which can significantly increase the effectiveness of man-portable air defense systems thanks to an infrared sensor that performs the functions of observation and detection. The scanner has a maximum range in ideal conditions (weather conditions and targets themselves affect IR systems) over 15 km, field of view in azimuth 8,3 ° and in elevation 11 °. With a scanning speed of 36 ° / s, the system review area is 360 ° in azimuth and ± 25 ° in elevation, but the sanitation sectors can be programmed from 30 ° to 180 ° in azimuth and from 11 ° to 22 ° in elevation. The scanner is installed on a tripod and provides target information to the target tracking device and the launcher, which has a thermal imaging camera with instant magnification and a laser range finder. A launcher with two missiles is mounted on a tripod providing angles in the azimuth 360 ° and in the elevation angle –10 ° / + 70 °. A typical scheme to protect the forward base includes three launchers and one scanner, each installation covering approximately 150 ° -160 °, thereby ensuring overlap. The control unit for one operator provides target detection within the range of the missile and its launch. The control unit can be connected to the network of operational control of the highest echelon.
To be continued