Military Review

Coffee for the front

Afghanistan, Iran, Yemen, Mongolia, Tuva helped the Soviet Union for free

During the years of the Great Patriotic War, many countries and peoples assisted the USSR, even being officially neutral in that war.

Brief reports of this can be found in the Soviet wartime press. There were some very laconic articles in small editions. Why did Soviet historiography not complain about these facts? First, the Cold War that began in 1946, and those countries that did not openly support the USSR, were considered by our leadership as a kind of “wagering” of anti-Sovietism and subsequently of the NATO bloc. Naturally, such a foreign policy line limited the possibilities of Moscow and its allies, but Stalin did not recognize compromises at that time. True, in early April 1952, almost 50 countries, in most developing countries, participated in the first international economic meeting in Moscow, initiated by the Soviet leader, whose decisions - first of all about the single financial and economic space of the USSR and friendly countries - became the prototype of the present BRICS. But after 1953, the formation of an anti-dollar, anti-imperialist bloc, Moscow began to increasingly prefer "countries of socialist orientation", where pro-Soviet bureaucratic regimes were implanted with a rare exception without taking into account political and economic realities. And they decided to “forget” about the decisions of the 1952 meeting in Moscow until the collapse of the USSR. Unlike Beijing ...

Secondly, the Soviet propagandists in the second half of 40-x - mid-50-x neglected developing countries, considering them as a kind of buffer zone between the West and the East. Therefore, their position in relation to the USSR during the Second World War was either ignored or qualified as insignificant. Although it was she who contributed to the creation of a single anti-imperialist alliance of states - long, we emphasize, before the creation of NATO and its regional analogues (CENTO, SEATO, ANZUK, ANZUS). Moscow understood this by 1952, but by that time hostile military alliances already could be said to have grounded the USSR and its allies. And many developing countries have fallen into orbit of the influence of these blocks.

As is known, the USSR even in the years of the Great Patriotic War provided all possible assistance to China, who had fought since July 1937. But he tried not to remain in debt. Thus, in the 1943 year, by decision of the Chinese leadership, three batches of electric power equipment from the United States, intended for the country under the Lend-Lease, were redirected to the Soviet Union. As stated by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, due to the enormous needs of the defense and rear of the USSR. Incidentally, this is noted in the memoirs of the then head of the US Lend-Lease Committee Edward Stetinnius: “The third Lend-Lease program is related to the generation of electricity for Soviet military plants in the Urals and in the German-devastated areas reclaimed today by the Red Army. This program began with three generators manufactured by us for China, but the Chinese allowed 1943 to transfer them to Russia. ”

Iceland in 1943 refused about half of the supply of fish oil from the USA and Canada, asking to include this volume in the northern convoys in the USSR. In Reykjavik, they said that the USSR really needed this product, including Leningrad, which heroically withstands the onslaught of the Nazis. In addition, in the USSR, Icelanders sent fishing gear, herring, mackerel, cod, wool - mostly free of charge.

Coffee for the frontIraqi Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Nuri Said in the same year ordered to transport up to 60 percent of the total number of river military vessels through neighboring Iran to the USSR flotilladelivered to a country from the USA. Up to 30 percent of the volume of wheat imported into Iraq from Canada and Australia at the beginning of 1944 by the same program, the authorities asked to be transported to the USSR, where, according to their statement, the food supply problem was aggravated (by the way, in the same year Baghdad and Moscow established diplomatic relations, and Iraq entered the war with Germany and Italy in early 1943).

In 1942, the rulers of Himalayan Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan included up to eight thousand tons of jute from British India to the USSR, four thousand tons of citrus fruit, about 20 tons of wool (yaks and musk oxen) and about 10 tons of medicinal herbs. Moreover, the authorities of these countries came out for the non-obligatory payment of these goods by the USSR. The same approach was shown by the King of Afghanistan M. Zahir Shah, including in Xench – 1943 deliveries in 1944 – 200 years about 100 tons of cotton, 30 tons of vegetables and fruits, almost 10 tons of wool (of different types), 20 tons of coal and about 60 tons of potash salt. Large amounts of similar assortment of assistance provided Iran. XNUMX percent of its shipments were gratuitous.

In the 1943 – 1944 years, the neutral kingdom of Yemen included in the Lend program for the USSR up to 25 tons of mocha (Yemen is the birthplace of this variety), more than 15 tons of fish, 10 tons of different types of wool and about 10 tons of cotton. Up to 70, Percentage of Supply, Yemen has designated as grant aid to the Soviet Union. The then head of Yemen, Imam Yahya, said: “We remember how the USSR helped to protect our country from foreign (British-Saudi, then Italian. - AB) invasion at the end of the 20s (the Soviet-Yemeni agreement was signed in 1928) “On Friendship.” - AB). Therefore, in a difficult period for the USSR, we must provide all possible assistance in return. ”

Deliveries to the USSR were not only under Lend-Lease. In 1942 – 1944, they were carried out by Ethiopia, Liberia, and Brazil, which were part of the anti-Hitler coalition. Neutral Sweden from 1943-th increased exports (mainly through Iran) to the USSR at prices that were five to ten percent lower than world prices, with a partial delay in counter deliveries or payments. At negotiations with Stalin 15 on June 1946, Staffan Söderblüm said: “Sweden knows who it owes to preserve its independence and neutrality - the heroic struggle of the USSR against the aggressors and, of course, the heroism of Leningrad's people who have been subjected to severe tests.”

The varied, almost entirely gratuitous assistance to the Soviet Union from independent Mongolia and (until August 1944) of Tuva, by many estimates, by the total cost was almost 40 percent of lend-lease supplies to the USSR for the same 1942 – 1944 years. Ulan Bator also provided all possible assistance to China, who had fought with Japan since 1937, actively participated in the defeat of the Kwantung Army and liberated a number of regions of Northern China.

If we exclude fragmented, short-circuited articles and brochures on Soviet assistance from Mongolia, the first studies and books of the proper level and circulation appeared in the USSR only at the end of 60, and the corresponding история Tuva remained a white spot until 2010 – 2011.
All these countries and peoples eternal gratitude!
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 22 May 2016 07: 27
    Thanks to Mongolia and Tuva! Especially for the Horses - they helped out great! Thank you for the article! We are good - remember!
    1. avt
      avt 22 May 2016 09: 52
      Quote: Volga Cossack
      Thanks to Mongolia and Tuva! Especially for the Horses - they helped out great!

      Yes, they generally fought on the Eastern Front! That's where Mongolia is with Tuva, and where is the front. And with the Japanese, so almost the entire male population went!
      1. Volga Cossack
        Volga Cossack 22 May 2016 11: 11
        The Mongols and Tuvintsev always respected ....... good people! I know that they fought the same ....... Germans nicknamed Tuvintsev as our marines as a black death.
        1. Talgat
          Talgat 22 May 2016 17: 58
          Well. in fact, many of them did not fail at all

          Tuva has become an integral part of the Russian Federation, Mongolia is the 16 republic under the USSR - and now it has close ties with Russia and the Eurasian Union - it is not alone in China, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Tatars generally consider the Mongol as their brothers - despite the difference in language.

          Iran also now benefits from one fact of the existence of the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan - the most important fragments of the USSR for it. But the Russian Federation and the KZ do not just support him morally or with arms - the KZ generally became a strategic partner of Iran and the leadership of both countries announced this and took real steps in recent years - in general, Iran has returned that help many times
      2. The comment was deleted.
  2. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 22 May 2016 07: 46
    .Very good positive article. Countries that were not giants expressed their position. Helped than they could. Exotica. I'm glad I found out.

    Everything unknown must be pulled out of hiding places and take its appropriate place.
  3. Vadim Zhivov
    Vadim Zhivov 22 May 2016 08: 49
    Human memory is short, and propaganda does its dirty deed. The article is really very informative and necessary as never before. The history is being rewritten for themselves by "all and sundry" ... Thanks to the author ... +++ hi
  4. demiurg
    demiurg 22 May 2016 08: 50
    Thank you for the article.
    Those who write that 10 tons is a penny, send the same 10 tons to any country you sympathize with. What the country had then sent. And Mongolia and Tuva special thanks.
  5. Vladimirets
    Vladimirets 22 May 2016 08: 51
    "Since 1943, neutral Sweden has increased its exports (mainly through Iran) to the USSR at prices five to ten percent lower than world prices, with a partial delay in counter deliveries or payments."

    "Neutral" and "noble" Sweden traded with Germany even more successfully, and not through Iran, but directly. A pile of trade agreements, the most valuable military products and the free transit of German troops across its territory are the greatest "merits" of Sweden. Only from 1943-44 (when the turning point became obvious) did the Swedes begin to disown the Germans. No.
    1. Vladimirets
      Vladimirets 22 May 2016 20: 40
      Of the two minuses, will anyone object?
      1. iouris
        iouris 22 May 2016 21: 10
        Sweden's neutrality is not formally formalized. Starting from 1MB, Sweden is the European state of the USA, a channel for access to the warring states. Critical technologies for the production of military equipment were deployed in Sweden.
        After WW2, Sweden, which made good money in the war, pursued an extremely aggressive policy towards the USSR. Aircraft of the Swedish Air Force constantly probed the radar field of the USSR Air Defense Forces from Kaliningrad to Tallinn. In the summer of 1981 or 1982, a Swedish intelligence officer flew over the Riga Training Center with impunity (and brazenly!). Goering's wife was from Swedish high society. Former UN Secretary General Kofi Anand is a member of the Wallenberg family. Raoul Wallenberg was taken by "Smersh" in Budapest and disappeared (apparently Stalin's political intelligence received through him very important information about the cooperation of industrial circles of all countries with the Nazis).
        Stockholms Anschilda Bank financed the giant ball bearing concern SKF ("The whole world drives our bearings"), and the directors of SCF in the United States were Goering's relative, Hugo von Rosen, and William L. Beth, deputy head of the US military production department ...
        1. Basil50
          Basil50 23 May 2016 11: 59
          If the Swedes set it up cheaply, this is * just in case *, not otherwise. The Swedes in WWII were STORED so much from the purchased RUSSIAN EMPIRE that they immediately got out of the poor kingdom into * middle peasants *. Only the Swedes guessed to buy the right Jews from the Germans from concentration camps. Wallenberg was a reseller in this particular trade.
        2. The comment was deleted.
  6. Basil50
    Basil50 22 May 2016 09: 14
    About free aid to the Soviet Union they no longer remember after the military coup in 1953. Then it was fashionable about AND IN STALIN to remember only * bad *, and they tried to skip the fact that the Soviet Union and the Communist Party were perceived as the hope of mankind, so many people and countries helped free of charge and not only financially.
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 22 May 2016 10: 13
      Yes, probably a lot has been perverted and perverted. Until now, not everyone has been honored and not all exposed. I read in my childhood in ITU, published in the 50s, that the first 3 Socialist countries --- the USSR, Mongolia and Tuva --- united against Hitler. Unfortunately, she disappeared during the move. But in the TSB, published in the 83rd year, this information is not available, although I searched for it in various articles.
  7. Sergej1972
    Sergej1972 22 May 2016 10: 53
    I’ve read about Tuva, about its help to the Red Army in Soviet times. It was not a blank spot.
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 22 May 2016 11: 22
      Well, some people in Soviet times only said "mom, dad" ...
  8. Igor V
    Igor V 22 May 2016 13: 09
    In the Mongolian tradition, livestock is divided into cold-mouthed and warm-muzzle. In the cattle transfer acts, the Mongols asked the Soviet side to arrange everything as a warm-mouthed person, by weight. For example, instead of goats, write bulls. According to their customs, it is forbidden to give FRIEND to livestock. So even according to the documents it is now difficult to assess the full range of assistance to Mongolia.
  9. Igor V
    Igor V 22 May 2016 13: 23
    In June 1941, many Mongol officers filed reports about sending them to the Red Army. The management rejected all reports, citing the fact that the millionth Kwantung army was standing at the border, but the reports were written again. Then Minister Choibalsan gathered these officers, tried to dissuade, but they argued so that where else to learn military art, if not in the Red Army. The small people's hural turned to the Soviet government with this flaw. The appeal reached Stalin, and he resolved on condition that they serve on a common basis. So there appeared officers who were considered Buryats, Mongols, Tuvans, there were many nationalities in the Soviet Union.
  10. Pimply
    Pimply 22 May 2016 15: 03
    When I see the phrase "by many ratings", as a rule, it hides only the author's own conviction
    1. Igor V
      Igor V 22 May 2016 16: 37
      Quote: Pimply
      When I see the phrase "by many ratings", as a rule, it hides only the author's own conviction

      And when I see such a comment, I see a complete ignorance of the question by the commentator.
    2. The comment was deleted.
  11. cdznjckfd
    cdznjckfd 22 May 2016 16: 23
    Yemen is one of the poorest countries, the more valuable is the help, in fact the latter was given, the article is a huge plus, did not know about many facts, for example, about the help of Afghanistan.
  12. torkov66
    torkov66 23 May 2016 05: 50
    All in a bunch ... and actually, a land lease is not free aid, but a sale to a warring country for gold. These guys and Nazi Germany supplied strategic products and had factories there.
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 23 May 2016 09: 12
      Products can not always be equated with money. Recall post-perestroika coupons. In some transmission on ☆ it was that after the war until the mid-60s there were not enough products anywhere, in the USA, England, Germany and so on ....
  13. Akuzenka
    Akuzenka 28 May 2016 19: 00
    and the corresponding history of Tuva remained a blank spot until 2010-2011.

    The author is mistaken. As a child, in 1984, he saw a documentary on television, just about Tuva. About how she helped in the war, how the soldiers of Tuva fought at the front and how she entered in 1944 and the composition of the USSR.