Military Review

Chinese miracle of the Soviet assembly

24
Well then charge, exclaimed Zhou Enlai


The colossal assistance of the Soviet Union to China in the 50-s has led to the creation of an industrial, scientific-technical and personnel base, with which the country made a stunning breakthrough into the 21st century.

This fully applies to the nuclear industry, the creation of which allowed the People's Republic of China to join the club of nuclear-missile powers - albeit not on an equal footing with the USSR and the USA, but still with serious combat potential.

Today it is no secret that right up until the sharp deterioration in Soviet-Chinese relations at the turn of 50 – 60-s, Moscow provided Beijing with access to critical information. It began with a secondment of a team of specialists from Arzamas-1958 to China in June of 16. It was headed by one of the leading weapons scientists Minsredmash Evgeny Negin, who soon became the chief designer of nuclear warheads at KB-11. The Chinese decided to devote to the wisdom of the device of a nuclear bomb of the 1951 model of the year - apparently, the plutonium type RDS-2 (power - about 40 kilotons), which was an improved version of the first domestic atomic RDS-1. It was a compromise solution. On the one hand, the attempt to "present" the outdated RDS-1 to Beijing could turn into Mao Zedong's dissatisfaction, but on the other hand, the secrets of more modern designs bombs than the RDS-2 did not want to give even such a reliable ally as the People's Republic of China.

True, further verbal, although very valuable information provided by the seconded Soviet specialists to colleagues from the Third Ministry of Mechanical Engineering (Minsredmash in Peking), the matter did not go. Sending a nuclear bomb, a set of documentation for it, and samples of test equipment and technological equipment to China was canceled almost at the very last moment. But everything was immersed in sealed-up cars and, under security, waited in the wings in Arzamas-16. But then, already in June of 1959, Khrushchev and Mao held a meeting at an elevated tone, which resolutely canceled plans for the earliest possible supply of China’s People’s Liberation Army with nuclear weapons. weapons Soviet-style. However, the scientific and technical groundwork created in the PRC with our support (including training specialists in the best universities of the USSR) allowed the Chinese to independently create and test the first uranium charge with a power of 16 kilotons (it was installed on a special tower) on October 1964. He was called “22-59” with an unambiguous hint of a disastrous meeting date for Mao, when Nikita Sergeevich refused his counterpart to provide nuclear weapons. They say, "China can and itself" (by analogy with one of the transcripts of the abbreviation RDS - "Russia makes itself").

Kiloton "East Wind"

Chinese miracle of the Soviet assemblyIf the Chinese themselves did not receive the nuclear weapons from the USSR, the delivery vehicles were in time. First of all, we are talking about ground-to-ground ballistic missiles. In 1960, China began the deployment of operational-tactical Dunfen-1 (Dunfeng - East Wind), which were Chinese copies of the Soviet Р-2 adopted by the Soviet army in 1952. Samples in a small amount was transferred to the PRC and then mastered Chinese defense industry. Almost simultaneously, the deployment of more advanced missiles of the same class, the P-11, began. The party P-11 was supplied from the USSR in an amount sufficient to equip several missile regiments.

While P-2 was considered obsolete, then P-11 was modern at the time. In the USSR, both for the former and for the latter, both conventional and nuclear equipment were provided. The experience gained in the operation of the P-2 and P-11 rockets, however, without nuclear stuffing, allowed the Chinese to create in 1966 a new type of their armed forces - the Second Artillery, that is, the rocket forces. The conspiracy name "Second Artillery" ("dier paobin") was coined by Premier of the PRC Zhou Enlai.

The transfer of documentation to the first Soviet medium-range strategic missile P-5M played a particularly important role in the appearance of the "dier paobin". She served as a prototype for Dunfen-2. This is the first sample of Chinese nuclear missiles. 27 October 1966, the combat crew of the Second Artillery, launched a Dunfyn-2 rocket in nuclear equipment, which, flying a kilometer 894, struck a conventional areal target at the test site near Lake Lobnor. The power of the explosion was 12 kilotons. In the same year, the rocket was put into service, but the Second Artillery was able to launch its operational deployment only in the 1970. Serial missiles carried nuclear warheads with 15 – 25 kilotons. The Dunfyn-2 missiles were intended mainly to destroy targets in the territory of the Soviet Far East and American military bases in Japan. They served until the end of the 80-s, after which they were removed from combat duty and stockpiled.

There were Elahs - “Huns” became


In 50, China received from the USSR, near 500, IL-28 front-line jet bombers, and in 1967, it began an independent serial production of these obsolete but simple and reliable aircraft. In China, they are called "Hun-5" (H-5). The first Chinese IL-28 was built on the basis of Soviet documentation and with the help of equipment supplied by the USSR as early as 1962, however, the “cultural revolution” significantly delayed the introduction of machines into the series. Among the several hundred "Hun-5" were the carriers of the nuclear weapon "Hun-5" - analogues of our IL-28A. On board the “Hun-5” 27 on December 1968, the 3 megaton hydrogen bomb was tested.

An even more serious Soviet contribution to the creation of Chinese nuclear power was the receipt in 1957 by China of a license for the production of the Tu-16 long-range bomber, which entered service with the Soviet Air Force in 1953. The aircraft was given the national name "Hong-6" (H-6). The first Chinese-built aircraft from Soviet parts was transferred to the army in 1959. It was he who dropped on May 14, 1965, the first Chinese military nuclear bomb with a charge of 35 kilotons over the Lobnorsky test site. And on June 17, 1967, with the help of Khun-6, a Chinese thermonuclear 3,3-megaton bomb was tested, which had a two-phase charge based on uranium-235, uranium-238, lithium-6 and deuterium. But the large-scale production of the Khun-6 bombers, due to the troubles of the "cultural revolution," was only possible to organize in 1968. And today, these aircraft, having undergone a number of original upgrades and received cruise missiles for equipment, make up 100 percent of the strategic fleet (up to 120 pieces of H-6H, H-6M and H-6K), as well as naval missile carrier (30 H-6G) aviation PLA.

Chinese aircraft designers managed to turn even the Soviet MiG-19 fighter aircraft (produced in thousands) under license in the PRC into a carrier of nuclear weapons. True, under the atomic bomb he “went” not in its original form, but as the attack aircraft “Qiang-5” (Q-5) created on its basis. This aircraft was put into mass production at the end of 1969. Deliveries of attack aircraft "Tsian-5" to the troops began in 1970, and aviation units deployed near the border with the USSR began to receive them urgently. Among the “Qiang-5” were the small-scale nuclear weapons carriers “Qiang-5A” with the deployment of a tactical nuclear bomb with a capacity of up to 20 kilotons in the bomb bay (in a semi-submerged state). Such a bomb in the eight-kiloton version was dropped at the Lobnor test site 7 on January 1972.

Where did the "wave" come from?


Totally exotic in stories World military-technical cooperation looked like the transfer of the PRC submarines - carriers of ballistic missiles. We are talking about the diesel submarines of the 629 project (according to the NATO nomenclature - Golf), the documentation for which was donated to China in the 1959. Relations between Moscow and Beijing were already “sparkling” with might and all, when in 1960 the shipyard in Dalian completed the first Chinese submarine of this type received from the USSR (according to some data, sank in 1980). The second one was also assembled from Soviet units and sections, having been commissioned in the 1964 year.

China was given six combat and one training ballistic missile of the R-11FM surface launch for these submarines. The P-11FM was a naval modification of the P-11 ground tactical missile of the ground forces and was equipped with a 10 kiloton nuclear warhead in the Soviet Navy. However, China has not received YABC for these missiles.

Submarines of the 629 project were used in China for testing submarine-launched ballistic missiles. The remaining submarine in 1982 was refitted, during which three mines under the P-11FM were replaced by two for Junlan-1 (Juelan - Big Wave), and then by one for Juan-2.

At the end of the 50-s, the possibility of transferring the 659 nuclear submarine to China — our first atomicines with cruise missiles — was considered, in parallel with their entry into the USSR Navy (the Pacific Fleet received the K-45 in 1961). However, this was not destined to come true, and the Chinese had to build their own nuclear submarines, which appeared much later, with the support of French technology.
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  1. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 21 May 2016 07: 20
    +7
    Thanks for the story. I found out something completely new for myself.
    The “big brother's” generosity simply knew no bounds.
    1. Bongo
      Bongo 21 May 2016 09: 25
      +5
      Quote: Reptiloid
      Thanks for the story. I found out something completely new for myself.
      The “big brother's” generosity simply knew no bounds.

      Some of what is stated in the publication "to put it mildly" is not true, and the rest is superficial and very crumpled. negative
      OTR P-11 was never delivered to the PRC in significant quantities and of course they could not be equipped with "several regiments".
    2. Oorfene Deuce
      Oorfene Deuce 21 May 2016 09: 34
      +4
      Quote: Reptiloid
      The “big brother's” generosity simply knew no bounds.

      What is true is true ...
      The basis of the Chinese military-industrial complex was created by the USSR. In addition, he handed out weapons for a pittance (debts were written off anyway) to any African beggars who allegedly expressed a desire to follow the path of "communist" development. It was believed that this was ideologically justified ...
      I recalled that a colleague once told me, while serving in the Navy (in the late 80s and early 90s), they drove an aircraft-carrying cruiser from TF to the SF (which I don’t remember right now), stopped at the naval base in Luanda (Angola). I speak of local aborigines seen enough - they are WILD! What is there nafig socialism? They live in a primitive communal system ...
      In part, such a policy continues today ... The same Ukraine, which is watering us with mud, is sometimes provided with various economic nishtyaks. I do not understand this attitude. Although there is something ... I understand that the interests of big capital are involved there, and they spit on the rest.
      1. Sergej1972
        Sergej1972 21 May 2016 12: 49
        +1
        I don’t know, just the Angolans, Mozambicans, residents of Guinea-Bissau, that is, the former Portuguese colonies, oddly enough (after all, Portugal was not the richest country) they always somehow looked more civilized against the general African background.
    3. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 21 May 2016 12: 09
      -1
      Quote: Reptiloid
      Thanks for the story. I found out something completely new for myself.
      The “big brother's” generosity simply knew no bounds.

      Come on. We needed it.
  2. D-Master
    D-Master 21 May 2016 07: 59
    +6
    How generously we gave away technologies developed with national money, and how then we stupidly threw friendship obtained by blood and fabulous gifts. Break with China after the 20 Congress of the CPSU - Khrushchev's catastrophic mistake ... Burn in hell the father of corn ...
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 21 May 2016 08: 55
      +4
      Russia, the USSR acted nobly and generously. And now some people call it "sucker". Not just the next correspondent.
      Russia, the USSR cared about other countries, really like an older brother. Such, apparently, Russian, Russian, Soviet nature, character. I think that China did not betray the USSR explicitly. Yes, I used it, but I kept the Idea of ​​Socialism, changing it, adding to it.
      I know that the maize is to blame for a broken relationship, but I don’t know why.
      "Stalin is the father of nations."
      "Stalin and Mao are brothers forever!"
      The Chinese mentality is as follows: it is extremely criminal and immoral to scold father, boss, ruler, mentor, and elder in general. Culture shock? Rejection of the process of debunking the cult of personality, also a restructuring when our rulers have spoiled all the good things that were in the past.
      1. Sergej1972
        Sergej1972 21 May 2016 12: 51
        -1
        Stalin was also criticized in the PRC in the 60-70s, and now. Of course, not as much as ours. But the Chinese did not create an idol from it.
        1. Mavrikiy
          Mavrikiy 21 May 2016 19: 08
          +1
          Quote: Sergej1972
          Stalin was also criticized in the PRC in the 60-70s, and now. Of course, not as much as ours. But the Chinese did not create an idol from it.

          All had one criticism of Yugoslavia, China, Korea, Cuba, and Vietnam. Crack a nuclear bomb in the United States, because you can! And our rulers provided help, but at the same time did not solve the problems. And the problems were solved by our allies themselves with our help.
          What an idol for Stalin the Chinese would throw a bomb, China would have Taiwan. And what would happen to the world and the USSR is not important. These are all allies. Alien hands, but it’s okay, this is life and we know it.
      2. Mavrikiy
        Mavrikiy 21 May 2016 19: 23
        0
        Reptiloid (1) RU Today, 08:55 ↑
        "I know the corn man is to blame for the broken relationship, but I don't know why."
        Actually, it's pointless. I know, but I don’t know. It would be more correct to say: they say, heard, read that they are guilty. Look how he built international relations after Stalin, he ruined everything in principle. Now they are already writing "the Trotskyist has seized power", very similar.
        I remember Stalin: "Ivan the Terrible, he was a very correct tsar, but he did not kill 4 boyar families and this is the result. They poisoned me." Stalin was also poisoned by Khrushchev and company. So how could Khrushchev not slander Stalin?
  3. Yak28
    Yak28 21 May 2016 08: 02
    0
    Quote: Reptiloid
    The “big brother's” generosity simply knew no bounds.

    This is not generosity, the country of LOH is fate, now Russia also helps many countries free of charge, forgives debts to many countries, many republics of the former USSR continue to live at the expense of Russia. All its existence, Ukraine watered Russians, Russia and Putin personally, Ukraine spread under the most probable the enemy, Ukraine stole gas, received money from Russia and much more, a lot of Ukrainians worked and still work in Russia, and Putin is talking about fraternal people lol .All of this kind of help is that in the USSR, what in Russia is being done at the expense and to the detriment of Russian citizens.
    1. sa-ag
      sa-ag 21 May 2016 08: 55
      +3
      Quote: Yak28
      All this kind of help is in the USSR and in Russia at the expense and expense of Russian citizens.

      Yes, if Russia would not have helped anyone, it would not have affected the well-being of citizens plus it would have been the same as now
  4. Riv
    Riv 21 May 2016 09: 38
    +5
    Of course, Stalin did not suffer from excessive credulity and all reflections on the topic of "suckers" are groundless. Stalin needed a counterweight to the United States in the Pacific. After Japan's surrender, only China was suitable for this role. The Korean War showed that victory is by no means guaranteed by numerical superiority. Therefore, China received both modern technologies for those times and the help of specialists.
    Well, everything else is the Chinese themselves. Nobody built a heavy industry for them. It is not enough to get the blueprints for the tank. We still need to make it out of something. The matter is spoiled, of course, by the Chinese approach: "Let's start, and then how will it turn out" (have you seen the tests of the Chinese "Amulet"?) - but not only the Chinese suffer from it.
    1. lesnik1978
      lesnik1978 21 May 2016 16: 33
      +2
      Just built. He built car factories for the production of trucks and much more.
  5. Yak28
    Yak28 21 May 2016 09: 54
    +6
    Quote: Reptiloid
    Russia, the USSR cared about other countries, really like an older brother

    It’s only when the elder brother fell ill in 1991, who escaped from him (the elder brother), who simply watered his brother. I personally remember how it was fashionable to pursue Russophobic policies in the former fraternal republics and survive the Russians. And it was worth creating infrastructure in Central Asia? Teach them to read and write, write up the alphabet for them? They were still backward in development and have remained (you won’t be very nice). The Caucasus is the same. The USA pulled money from its allies, and we invested money in our own in a bottomless barrel .The most interesting Russia does not learn anything, since the year 91 it has been breastfeeding Ukraine, keeping its plants afloat, selling energy resources for nothing, giving money, giving citizens of Ukraine the opportunity to work in Russia, turning a blind eye to the inappropriate behavior of the leaders of Ukraine and what? The result is known to everyone I hope the country is suck it is not forever
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 21 May 2016 12: 23
      +1
      Once upon a time, in the last months of last year, there were articles on the site on the Bulgarian topic. Then in some commentary on these articles, I wrote that when Big Brother felt bad, no one sympathized, but only shouted: "Give! Give! Give! "Although then our leadership could hide something.
      On the other hand, it is now possible to understand that it is very important that the USSR was surrounded by friendly countries, even if paid.
      About Ukraine. Without forcing to pay off the debt right now, it turns out that it does not receive from the IMF, therefore, further degradation of the ukrofashists and their supporters.
      1. Mavrikiy
        Mavrikiy 21 May 2016 13: 19
        0
        Reptiloid (1) RU Today, 12:23
        "About Ukraine. Without forcing to pay the debt right now, it turns out that it does not receive from the IMF, therefore, further degradation of the ukrofashists and their supporters."
        Clarify, painfully ornate.
        1. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 21 May 2016 14: 33
          0
          After all, Putin says that not a slow repayment of debt will worsen the lives of people in Ukraine.
          And the IMF makes the absence of debt an indispensable condition for the tranche.
          Such an asymmetry.
  6. sergo1914
    sergo1914 21 May 2016 12: 27
    +2
    The second artillery was made by Baumanka graduates. There were many of them in the early fifties. Then they drove everyone. And not only the Chinese. But they managed to teach.
  7. Sergej1972
    Sergej1972 21 May 2016 12: 55
    +2
    I got the impression that, despite all the poverty and backwardness, in the scientific and educational relation of the PRC already in the 50-60s. was an order of magnitude higher compared to the countries of the "third world". Yes, the enormous Soviet scientific and technical assistance, yes, the enormous potential of the mobilization economy. But it was impossible to do without their specialists, their "bright minds".
  8. Super Black
    Super Black 21 May 2016 14: 13
    -2
    What for is all this help? We finish the last pants ourselves, and help all the monkeys.
  9. Silhouette
    Silhouette 21 May 2016 14: 42
    +2
    In my opinion, providing China with the opportunity to master nuclear technology is the biggest mistake of the Soviet leadership. I have never met any clear justification for the need for this. The second mistake was the creation of Israel.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 21 May 2016 21: 33
      +1
      "The second mistake was the creation of Israel." ////

      Not creation, but recognition in the UN. Soviet vote in favor helped to recognize
      Israel is legally at the UN. Thanks! And "de facto" Israel has already been created.
      It also helped that the USSR did not prevent the Czechs from sending German to Israel
      weapons from Czech warehouses. And for that too - thanks! drinks
  10. certero
    certero 21 May 2016 22: 03
    +1
    Quote: Reptiloid
    after all, utin says that not a slow repayment of debt will worsen the lives of people in Ukraine.

    It seems that your Russian is badly "sewn" Update the version :), where the particles are not and will not be used correctly. Example: not slow, but fast - the particle is "not" separately, immediate payment, that is, immediately, without delay - the particle is "not" together.
  11. St_tov
    St_tov 22 May 2016 03: 44
    0
    Regarding friendship forever, Moscow-Beijing, the Yangtze voice is heard on the Volga. The older brother turned into an older sister. And the elder sister should not hesitate to sacrifice herself in the name of the family. The CCP as the heir to the CPSU, and the People's Republic of China raised the fallen banner from the hands of the USSR. Well, Siberia is there, the Far East - as the legal successor. Here is such a simple summary. An optimist teaches English, a pessimist teaches Chinese, and a realist teaches AK. In Baghdad, everything is calm (s).