Military Review

22 June 1941 of the Year and Tehran-43. Part of 1

22 June 1941 of the Year and Tehran-43. Part of 1

All this was prepared by the fate of the RAU graduate. 95-year-old artillery colonel in the reserve Alexander Z. Karpenko lives on the most literary street (Pogodin) in Rostov-on-Don, writes shrill poems about the war and about the situation in Russia. His fate is exceptionally happy: he met the war at the 22 outpost on June 1941, and survived. He provided security for the Tehran Conference as part of the mountain rifle regiment in 1943, and returned home after the war.

Alexander Zakharovich was born on 20 on June 1921, in the village of Popovka, Kashar District, Rostov Region. In the same lean and hungry year, the family decided to move to live in Rostov. At first they rented a small house, and then bought a house in the Dachny village, on the corner of Privokzalnaya and Chernyshevsky streets. His father, Zakhar Ivanovich, began working as a carter in one of the city artels - drove grain for sinking, various building materials. Later, when collective farms began to be created, he joined the Kalinin collective farm, the central estate of which was located on Shirokoy Street (now Lenin) on the territory of today's Ministry of Internal Affairs hospital.

In 1929, Alexander Karpenko went to the first class of school number XXUMX named after the Paris Commune. He studied well, loved to draw, wrote poetry, even began to attend a literary circle at the House of Pioneers on Engels Street (today it is Bolshaya Sadovaya Street).

In the 1938 year, after graduating from 9 classes of secondary schools, Alexander enters the Artillery Special School No. XXUMX: she was on Engels Street in the former women's real school near the CPSU regional committee (later, during the war, this building was destroyed). Only boys attended this school. They dressed in a special form - pants with red piping and a gymnast. Classes were like a regular school, but there was still a military instructor, with the help of which the military историяacquired the ability to use small weaponsIn the summer, the boys went along with the cadets of the artillery school to field camps, where they learned the basics of artillery in practice.

Upon completion of the special school, he becomes a cadet of the Rostov Artillery School. The school had three divisions, each of them had three battalions of 100 men. We studied for two years. Weekdays are lectures, drill and physical training, the study of the material part of the guns. And also horse training - vaulting, cutting of the vine, training trot without stirrups and brushing horses twice a day. The stables were located in the area of ​​the present area of ​​the Second Five-Year Plank near the Temernik River. After the first course - a trip to the camps. After the second course - graduation.

In early May, 1941, Lieutenant Karpenko, after saying goodbye to his parents and bride, went to the Kiev Special Military District as a platoon commander of the regimental battery 263 of the Domashkin Infantry Regiment of 25 of the Chapayev Division stationed in Bessarabia on the border with Romania.

The situation at the border was very difficult. Scout planes with black crosses on planes flew almost every day to the border regions of the USSR. On the other side of the border, almost in the open, the field corps of the German and Romanian armies concentrated to strike east. Therefore, explanatory work was constantly carried out in army units aimed at strengthening military discipline and increasing combat readiness. Everyone was preparing for war, talk about it was constantly. But no one knew when everything would start.

In the first half of June, 1941, the rifle regiment, in which Alexander Zakharovich served, participated in field exercises near the large Gypsy village. The main purpose of the exercise was to work out the interaction with the frontier posts. The regimental battery carried out an imitation of firing, carried out engineering work related to the shelter and camouflage of personnel, equipment, ammunition.

20 June 1941, Alexander is 20 years old. I wanted to celebrate this event with my friends, but because of the maneuvers we decided to celebrate on Sunday, June 22, when they return to the main “apartments”. But 21 Jun they were ordered to remain in their places. And in the evening, they, having picked more fresh grass, settled down for the night. This smell of freshly cut grass, a huge spacious field, the smell of wormwood, thyme - were especially piercingly remembered - it all filled with strength.

“And as if we didn’t sleep,” says Alexander Zakharovich. - Suddenly, everyone woke up from a terrible roar. I also thought that this was a continuation of the teachings. The field telephone rang. It was our commander who was at the observation post located on the Prut River. He ordered: "Batteries, to battle!" And immediately the second team - to open fire. We were told that some military units were crossing the border. Border guards and our infantry units are fighting. In several places they even converge in hand-to-hand combat. Most likely, we thought it was a provocation, as in Khalkhin Gol. This is how the Great Patriotic War began for me.

In the area where their regiment was located, the Germans' repeated attempts to cross the border were stopped. The southern front, which included the 25-I Chapayev Division, fought border battles for 28 days. Only when there was a threat of encirclement, the division received an order to withdraw in the direction of Odessa-Nikolaev.

And the bloody battles continued at each site. One day in July, Alexander Zakharovich was ordered to push two guns on a direct lead to destroy enemy infantry. Our retreating troops did not even have time to dig in, to build a line of defense, as significant enemy forces approached. We had to gain time. Considering the special importance of the combat mission and the danger, the best gunners from among the Communists and Komsomol members were picked up. Having prepared the guns for firing shot, at high speed they rushed towards the enemy. For 200-250 meters before the enemy's positions turned around and on the move opened heavy fire. The buckshot caused enormous damage to the enemy infantry, their attack was disrupted, and the calculation, having shot all the ammunition, returned to the regiment without loss. Not even the wounded. For this operation, Alexander Zakharovich was awarded the Order of the Patriotic War, II degree.

“A participant in the battles with the German invaders from the first days of the war in the Prut River area, acted as a firing platoon commander in the 263 Infantry Regiment. In battles to the west of the village of Zapadnaya Ananyeva, Odessa region, commanding a fire platoon, they directly destroyed one vehicle with German soldiers and, before 10, brought ammunition and food, says its award list. - In the battle on the Dniester River in the area of ​​the village of Glinnaya, from an open firing position, it reflected the enemy’s counterattacks, having received a concussion, remained in battle formations, continuing to carry out the task. In the battles for crossing the Southern Bug River near the city of Nikolaev on August 13, 1941 destroyed several vehicles with enemy infantry and was seriously wounded when leaving for an open position. ”

16 August was tasked to take a fighting position at the Varvarovsky Bridge, which was the only crossing over the Southern Bug. To support the defending regiment, the gunners fired intensively at the infantry and enemy armored personnel carriers. In this battle, Alexander Zakharovich was badly wounded: a large fragment of his left shoulder blade was wrenched, without miraculously touching his heart. And a lot of small fragments riddled the left hand. Soldiers ran up, hastily bandaged and took a two-wheeled cart to the hospital. It was located in the suburb of Nikolaev - Varvarovka.

Several huts were adapted for the operating room, and the wounded lay on the ground in the garden under the trees. A few hours after Alexander Zakharovich was operated on, an emergency evacuation of the hospital began. Transport was not enough, and it was decided to leave the most seriously wounded to the local residents. He was unconscious, emerged from the fever just when passing by the doctors said: "We also leave this behind." Barely moving his lips, he whispered: "Do not leave." But there were no more seats in the car, and he, with the heaviest wounding of his back, with great difficulty, was put in the cab to the chauffeur. Alexander Zakharovich practically did not remember the next way to Tsyurupinsk: he was losing consciousness all the time from pain. I remembered only a few stops. Locals gathered in the villages, mostly women, carried water, milk, took away and buried the dead.

For a long time he was treated in hospitals of Tsyuryupinsk, Kerch, Rostov, Teberda.

From Tsyurupinsk sent to Kerch, carried on platforms. And already from Kerch - to Rostov. The hospital was located in the hotel "Rostov" on Budennovsky Avenue. At the end of October, 1941, when the Germans seized the city for the first time in a week, the hospital was evacuated to Teberda in advance.

Alexander Zakharovich recovered only to the second liberation of his hometown, he was sent to Rostov, on leave after being wounded. Their train only reached suburban Bataysk, further the roads were destroyed. All the bridges were destroyed, but the ice on the Don River was strong, and Alexander Zakharovich moved to the right bank. The city was still burning, many buildings were destroyed, broken machinery lay around, dead horses. With alarm, he came home. Fortunately, the mother and sister were alive, and my father had been mobilized before and was now fighting somewhere near Sambek. His bride Leah was also alive.

Alexander Zakharovich was registered at the commandant's office, and a month later he passed a medical commission, which recognized him as partially fit for a second degree - he did not have a left shoulder blade. At all. He was sent to work as an instructor at the military enlistment office of the village of Samara in the Rostov region. Groups of military training were organized, rifles were studied, they learned to throw grenades. Then Alexander Zakharovich was transferred to Rostov, to the Proletarian military registration and enlistment office. Here, too, he conducted classes in military affairs, at night he was on duty on the streets of the city: they checked the blackout and caught saboteurs.

He was appointed head of the march echelon with 1640 soldiers, who was heading to the Gorky region, to the Gorokhovets camps to form anti-tank anti-tank regiments.

Start of operation "Tehran-43"

And then in the front headquarters he was given a direction - to lead the battery of the reserve artillery regiment. This regiment trained personnel for artillery units, the training lasted 20-25 days. Then they were sent along the Georgian Military Road to Azerbaijan, to the Evlak station. There they stayed a month. In the fall of 1942, they moved to the Balajary station near Baku. Then the train was filed directly to the sea pier and they started to be loaded onto the steamer - they sailed to Krasnovodsk, and from there they sent to Tashkent, to the city of Chirchik. They settled in the barracks, again began intensive work on training for artillery.

And then he was sent to Tashkent for the assembly point. And here began a completely incomprehensible movement for him at the beginning. They gathered about 30 people, and all the commanders. Again they were sent to Krasnovodsk, from which they had just arrived, again on the steamer. All were lost in conjectures, why was it necessary to confuse the tracks so much, why was it necessary to return to the same routes? And only on the ship they were told that they were sailing to Iran.

It is known that in August 1941 of the year, Iran, according to the sixth article of the Soviet-Persian treaty, Soviet troops were brought in to secure the southern borders: “Both High Contracting Parties agree that if third countries try by means of armed intervention, carry out a capturing policy on the territory of Persia or turn the territory of Persia into a base for military actions against Russia, if this would threaten the borders of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialism or the Allied powers, and if the Persian Government, after being warned by the Russian Soviet Government, does not itself have the strength to avert this danger, the Russian Soviet Government will have the right to deploy its troops into Persian territory in order to take the necessary military measures in the interests of self-defense. February 26 1921.

They arrived in the port of Bender Shah, located in the northern province of Iran.

Alexander Zakharovich received a new assignment there in the 313 th Mountain Rifle Artillery Regiment - he was appointed deputy regiment commander for artillery.

The regiment was located on the territory of the Shah's residence, in the small town of Babolsray on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea.

One day in early November 1943, the regiment was declared a combat alarm. Shooting units with full display and equipment advanced into the mountains. The guns of the regimental artillery, mortars, ammunition for small arms, projectiles, food and fodder were carried on mules. For this, the cargo was securely fastened to special saddles.

The main time was spent on movement and maneuvering in the mountains. It was especially hard in rainy weather. Wet rocks and stones made it difficult to move, the high mountains affected. Small and large halts somewhat restored strength, but steep ascents and descents were exhausting.

Sometimes they made stops: they deployed according to combat calculations and conducted training offensive or defensive "battles", and then moved forward again.

The main task was to ensure secrecy and complete readiness for combat.

Facilitated the implementation of the tasks that the regiment was well prepared. In peacetime, he was part of the troops of the Central Asian Military District and had a good experience in the mountains. The regiment had a special group of signalers who kept in touch with the higher headquarters all the time.

At this pace, the exercises lasted about ten days and ended unexpectedly in the first days of December 1943.

To be continued ...
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  1. Ivan Tartugai
    Ivan Tartugai 17 May 2016 08: 51
    Quote from the article:
    One day in July ( 1941 years ) Alexander Zakharovich received the order to put forward two direct fire guns to destroy the enemy infantry ....
    ... For this operation, Alexander Zakharovich was awarded Order of the Patriotic War II degree.

    The Order of the Patriotic War - the military order of the USSR, was established by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR "On the establishment of the Order of the Patriotic War of the I and II degrees" of May 20, 1942.
    There must have been another reward.
    1. efimovaPE
      17 May 2016 10: 19
      He has an award sheet from 1944 of the year. I saw it myself.
      1. Fat
        Fat 18 May 2016 03: 33
        The article turned out to be good. Your artilleryman, Alexander Zakharovich, could well have been awarded the Order of the Patriotic War II degree, so to speak, retroactively, after the events described. But at 41, even a presentation for such an award was impossible. This is a belated recognition by the command of the warrior's merits.
  2. Fat
    Fat 18 May 2016 03: 46
    Order of the Patriotic War II degree awarded
    Who personally destroyed by artillery fire 1 heavy or medium, or 2 light tanks (armored vehicles) of the enemy, or as part of the gun crew - 2 heavy or medium, or 3 light tanks (armored vehicles) of the enemy;
    Who destroyed enemy firepower with artillery or mortar fire, ensuring the successful operations of our troops;
    Who crushed at least 3 enemy batteries with artillery or mortar fire;
    Who destroyed at least 2 enemy aircraft with artillery fire;
    Awarding the Order of the Patriotic War can be repeated for new feats and distinctions.