Military Review

The semi-submerged "transport strategist" of the Middle Kingdom: how the Americans ran into the "Guan Hua Kou"

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The largest Chinese semi-submersible landing craft platform ship "Guang Hua Kou." The 68-meter wide deck allows you to take large loads, for example, a large oil platform, up to 3 ships of the "frigate" or "destroyer" class onto the platform. The “gate” (the space between the rear mooring superstructures) allows to increase the length of the payload (with a width of up to 35,7 m) to 208,4 m, i.e. transport can transport ships of the cruiser or helicopter carrier classes. Semi-submersible transports of this class will be able to support connections fleet China absolutely anywhere in the oceans, which opens the first stage of the global presence of China in the "Big Game"



When the military command of a developed state with the status of a regional superpower talks about conducting a strategic military operation using its own fleet, or about the participation of its naval forces in the naval coalition grouping, the question immediately arises of the autonomy indicators of the naval formation, also its combat stability, which depends on a great many factors of this most complex floating "organism": from the performance characteristics and network-centric abilities of shipboard BIUS to properly calculated arsenes s missile / torpedo / artillery weapons, logistics and food supplies of fresh water. The calculation should be based on the enemy’s predetermined shock and defensive potentials, as well as the remoteness of the theater of military operations from its own and friendly air bases and naval bases. Often, all the resources of a naval or carrier strike group prepared for a military operation correspond to or exceed the means at the disposal of the enemy, but often there are exceptions that require a better technological level of their own naval air defense missile systems, PKRC, PLUR, etc. This option is valid for the hypothetical opposition of Russia with NATO. The presence of a sufficient number of support ships, rescue ships, special purpose ships, mine-sweeping ships, hospital ships, or the implementation of these functions in ships of the main classes is very important for AUG and KUG.

The displacement of support and special-purpose vessels is also of great importance for autonomy, among which semi-submerged sea transports / landing platforms / dry docks capable of carrying repair, food and armory connection base for tens of thousands of kilometers, transfer landing units (dozens of high-speed boats with infantry, patrol boats, hovercraft), take on board the ships of the “corvette”, “SK”, and “frigate” classes for sea speed elimination of malfunctions associated with damage to the hull below the current waterline, or on movers and steering elements located on the baller. Of course, the type of ships to be lifted depends on the displacement of a semi-submerged ship.

Thus, the Dutch semi-submerged cargo ships MV “Blue Marlin” and its sistership MV “Black Marlin” managed to distinguish themselves with a worthy number of unique cargo traffic; especially the first. In 2000, he delivered the destroyer DDG-67 USS Cole, destroyed by explosives, with an Al Qaeda inflatable motor boat in the port of Aden, in Pascagulu, USA; The displacement of the Cole is about 8500 tons, the length of 153,92 m, which required the diagonal placement of the destroyer relative to the 157,2 meter deck of the transport dock (taking into account the mooring equipment). In the 2007 year, he delivered a naval floating multifunctional radar anti-ship missile system and highlight SBX-1 from Pearl Harbor to Alaska. But these vessels are commercial, and now consider the military options.

USNS Montford Point (T-MLP-1), a US semi-submerged transport vessel, often referred to in the US Navy as a Mobile Landing Platform (MLP, Mobile Landing Platform), despite the displacement of 78000 tons and length in 233 m (with 50 width m) , capable of carrying up to 600 tons of cargo and up to 320 infantrymen. On deck, there are up to two berths for LCAC amphibious hovercraft. Each 185 ton hovercraft can carry 1 MBT M1A2 SEP, up to 3 amphibians of KMP USA AAV-7, up to 5 155-mm M-777 howitzers, or up to 180 infantry; The T-MLP-1 is capable of transporting any type of shock transport helicopter and convertible V-22 "Osprey". Montford Point can deliver these vehicles over a distance of up to 9000 miles, plus hundreds of thousands of liters of fresh water and diesel, but the 600 ton load raises some doubts about the repair and recovery capabilities for other types of small and medium displacement warships.

Another thing is a Chinese semi-submerged cargo ship / landing platform "Guang Hua Kou", which was launched at the shipyard "Guangzhou Shipyard International" 28 on April 2016 of the year. Here it is immediately evident that the US Navy’s Spratly archipelago in the South China Sea “reloaded and monitored”. Compared to what we saw from photo reports from Guangzhou, Montford Point looks like a “moderate middling”. “Guang Hua Kou” has just a huge “carrier-based” displacement - in 98 thousand tons. According to preliminary estimates, the length of the deck is 177 m, width is 68 m, which corresponds to the Dutch “heavy cargo”, the length of the entire ship is about 245 m; with a slightly longer length, the Chinese ship is much more load-bearing, capable of working with frigate / destroyer class ships, as well as transporting large quantities of weapons for shipboard strike forces.


The main dimensions of the cargo elements of the advanced transport dock of the Chinese fleet "Guang Hua Kou"


Before the advent of Guan Hua Kou, the US and NATO naval forces were the only owners of this type of ships, but now the situation is changing dramatically. The Guangzhou shipyard is planning to launch far more than one semi-submersible dock of this class, as indicated by the pace of the emergence of new projects of surface warships of the Chinese Navy, as well as the available equipment, along with China's ambitions in the Indian Ocean and the APR. Without hesitation for a long time, I can accurately assume that the range of this powerful dock will exceed 12 thousand miles. This will allow the future Chinese KUG and AUG to feel very confident up to the ocean approaches to the Atlantic Ocean or Alaska; in the case of support by our submarine component and icebreaker fleet, the Chinese fleet will be able to participate in the “Arctic race”, especially since there are already prerequisites for this.

So, the Chinese Shanghai Research Center of the Polar Regions has been working hard for 27 for years to study the polar regions of our planet, their flora, fauna, and also natural resources. Initially, emphasis was placed on the Antarctic, but due to the emergence of territorial ambitions in Europe and North America on the Arctic shelf, the center also focused on the Arctic.

In particular, China is firmly interested in the huge energy resources located in the Arctic shelf, which, according to the center's report, can be delivered in “fast and convenient ways”. After this, the heavenly Empire actively began to establish trade and economic ties with Iceland and Denmark (the latter being the leading player of the Arctic Race), investing specifically in the mining facilities of Greenland. Quickly forgotten in Beijing and about a convenient southern sea exit to the Antarctic, arguing that the PRC is located in the Northern Hemisphere. In October, the 2015, 3 Chinese Navy warships, namely, the destroyer URO, Type 052C “Jinan” (152 board), missile frigate Type 054 “Yiyan” (548 board), and the support vessel “Qyangdangu”, after the anti-piracy operation in Aden Gulf, sent on a visit to the ports of the northern states of Europe - Denmark, Sweden and Finland. This entry was not accidental. First, the Chinese sailors checked and at the same time demonstrated the nautical qualities and endurance of their modern fleet ships in the conditions of northern latitudes and unusual meteorological conditions. Secondly, China showed interest in the North Atlantic, where the strategically important sea routes of countries participating in the “Arctic Race” intersect, everything is very significant. Very neatly, “on official duty”, the Chinese, for a moment, probe the “ground” on which, perhaps, in the foreseeable future, they will have to act in the North Atlantic theater of operations, and the submersible guided hulls of the “Guan Hua Kou” class will become indispensable helpers in these activities.
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  1. godofwar6699
    godofwar6699 18 May 2016 06: 52
    +7
    what kind of child chooses names, like the Semi-submerged "transport-strategist" of the Celestial Empire: how did the Americans run into Guang Hua Kou? fool
    1. vadim dok
      vadim dok 18 May 2016 16: 39
      +2
      It’s just to ruin America! Moreover, I can’t do anything, but my big brother ...
      1. Juborg
        Juborg 30 October 2016 15: 03
        0
        No one, no one, did not want to offend, you are our defender, humiliated and insulted. Who, besides you, will intercede for America. The article provides a statement of the fact, but how you deduced such a formula in your brain is clear to you alone. And in fact, the ship is good, although its seaworthiness is questionable, given its width and almost flat bottom, like the "Zamvolta".
  2. oxotnuk86
    oxotnuk86 18 May 2016 07: 21
    +6
    And we are renting so that we can transfer two nuclear submarines from the distant one by the northern route for repairs to Severo Dvinsk. Why are they so substituted or "Mistrals" do not teach anything? They got rid of their own, apparently there was a fat offer.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 18 May 2016 12: 18
      +1
      Quote: oxotnuk86
      And we are renting in order to transfer two nuclear submarines from the far one by the northern route for repair to Severo Dvinsk.

      Heh heh heh ... you still remember - what vessel we rented then.
      The trans-shelf is a docking vessel designed to transport oversized cargo. Built in 1989, the ship became the champion of that time with a deadweight of 40 tons.
      The trans-shelf vessel was built at the Värtsilä shipyard in Turku (Finland) for the Soviet Union. The trans-shelf worked in the Far East, Kholmsk became the port of registry. Since 1997, the trans-shelf was leased to Weissmuller, then it was rented by Dockwise.
      The trans-shelf became the property of the Dutch company Dockwise Shipping in 2004. On July 23, 2004, the name was changed to Transshelf and the port of registry became Willemstad.
  3. Mengad
    Mengad 18 May 2016 07: 29
    +5
    A good boat. Russia would not hurt to have at least one such in its composition.
    1. PHANTOM-AS
      PHANTOM-AS 18 May 2016 08: 46
      +17
      Quote: Mengad
      A good boat. Russia would not hurt to have at least one such in its composition.

      Against the backdrop of our successes in the construction of small class ships, the lag in the ships of the ocean zone, without comparison with other countries, is not particularly noticeable.
      In fact, the fleet of the Russian Federation exists, exclusively, thanks to the inheritance of the USSR, and even that one practically managed to practice.
  4. Pre-cat
    Pre-cat 18 May 2016 08: 34
    +2
    Yes, we would like a couple - to the north and the Pacific Ocean.
  5. cdznjckfd
    cdznjckfd 18 May 2016 09: 04
    +5
    Considering the speed with which the Chinese are stamping ships, the alignment on the Pacific T VD will change dramatically in a couple of years
  6. Blondy
    Blondy 18 May 2016 09: 13
    +5
    Quote: The cat is half-educated
    Yes, we would like a couple - to the north and the Pacific Ocean.

    Dreams Dreams. Yes, our economy will not systematically pull, given the overhead of drank and corruption.
    1. PHANTOM-AS
      PHANTOM-AS 18 May 2016 10: 11
      +6
      Quote: Blondy
      Dreams Dreams. Yes, our economy will not systematically pull, given the overhead of drank and corruption.

      Yeah, we have priority oil tankers from Korea.
      Oil is the blood of an oligarchic economy.
  7. godofwar6699
    godofwar6699 18 May 2016 09: 13
    +5
    ship that will assist in natural emergency response good
  8. arkadiyssk
    arkadiyssk 18 May 2016 09: 14
    +3
    About "capable of taking on board up to 600 tons of cargo" is this a slip of the tongue in which 2 zeros were lost?
    Displacement is 78 kilotons.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 18 May 2016 12: 22
      +1
      Quote: arkadiyssk
      About "capable of taking on board up to 600 tons of cargo" is this a slip of the tongue in which 2 zeros were lost?
      Displacement is 78 kilotons.

      PMSM, that's right:
      capable of taking on board up to 600 tons of cargo and up to 320 foot soldiers

      These are figures for the capacity of the interior of the vessel. And they are small - for the majority of the body is the platform.
  9. veteran66
    veteran66 18 May 2016 09: 42
    +12
    "Before the advent of Guang Hua Kou, the US Navy and NATO were the only owners of this type of ship, but now the situation is changing dramatically." Why is this jubilation? If only our shipbuilders boasted of such successes. China is far from our ally, although it is not yet an enemy.
    1. cap
      cap 18 May 2016 10: 22
      0
      Quote: veteran66
      "Before the advent of Guang Hua Kou, the US Navy and NATO were the only owners of this type of ship, but now the situation is changing dramatically." Why is this jubilation? If only our shipbuilders boasted of such successes. China is far from our ally, although it is not yet an enemy.


      That's right, but let's not forget: the enemy of my enemy, my friend. (Quotation marks here)
      Of course, such a ship would not hurt us.
      1. vadim dok
        vadim dok 18 May 2016 16: 43
        +1
        China is not an enemy of the United States, but a reliable trading partner! Remember those loans that China did not give to Russia, as well as the trillions of goods turnover in these countries.
  10. Backfire
    Backfire 18 May 2016 10: 21
    -2
    Quote: Mengad
    A good boat. Russia would not hurt to have at least one such in its composition.
  11. exo
    exo 18 May 2016 12: 24
    0
    A useful ship. At the same time, taking into account the dual purpose, it is very beneficial for the state. It can also be used in the national economy.
  12. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 18 May 2016 12: 38
    +4
    These platform ships are not just transports. In the landing operation, their main purpose is to serve as a base for hovercraft and floating berth for transshipment of cargo from transports to these boats.
    The main advantage of such vessels is the ability to use conventional transports when landing on an unequipped shore. Not landing ships with docking chambers for the DKAVP, but ordinary TRs, which under normal conditions require a more or less equipped harbor for unloading. No need to capture the port, no need to build floating moorings - you can just bring the TR to the platform and start loading heavy loads onto it, which will then be delivered ashore using the DKAVP. In this case, the platform does not need to be brought ashore (over-land landing).
    Such platforms are especially valuable for the Yankees - not only for the Marines, with their system of "warehouse ships" (on which the heavy weapons and reserves of the Marine Expeditionary Force are stored), but also for the ground forces, which are transferred by transports of the Maritime Command.
    In fact, when using such a platform, the areas of possible unloading of equipment and supplies from conventional transports expand to the size of areas available for landing from specialized ships.
  13. sinoptic
    sinoptic 18 May 2016 13: 01
    0
    They would make combat semi-submersible ships.
    EPR and thermal signature at a minimum.
    When necessary, rises, attacks, hides again.

    Usually, in response to such a proposal, experts say that such a thing already exists and it is called a submarine.
    Ready to object.
    1. Such a semi-submersible boat is much cheaper than a submarine. For the hull is not needed for swimming at a depth of 200-400m.
    2. Such a ship would have air defense, which, by definition, is not available in submarines.
    3. Such a boat would use water to protect against RCC.
    ... such advantages come to mind first, I think the list can be continued.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 18 May 2016 13: 16
      +3
      Quote: sinoptic
      They would make combat semi-submersible ships.
      EPR and thermal signature at a minimum.
      When necessary, rises, attacks, hides again.

      Dzhevetsky approves! smile
  14. dropout
    dropout 18 May 2016 13: 23
    0
    It’s hard to miss on such a target.
    1. yehat
      yehat 18 May 2016 13: 50
      0
      it’s hard to pick up a cannon on such a target.
    2. donavi49
      donavi49 18 May 2016 14: 01
      +1
      Today, without much difference, such a colossus or a small 1500 ton corvette.

      Only here is the problem, such ships do not act alone in a combat situation (they cannot). They do not even operate in the first KUG / AUG, but in the second echelon, with the exception of the American cartoon.

      MLP - by amphibious assault forces = USPU, so the Americans came up with a mulk to use MLP to amplify the first landing wave.

      However, even in this form, the MLP does not threaten much, for the landing takes place after shelling by the Axes, massive air strikes, direct attack by the KUG / AUG aircraft of the area selected for landing. Yes, and the ships themselves are covered by destroyers, frigates and corvettes + KUG / AUG.

      Well, the main purpose is a mobile receiving port for large military transports. That is, the buildup of forces on a broken bridgehead, the transfer of the necessary property, directly from ocean transport, through the MLP to the shore.
  15. iouris
    iouris 18 May 2016 14: 10
    +1
    Has China developed to the point that it wants to "open up" America? Well, or Europe. Once upon a time, the Chinese did not succeed due to force majeure, but now the time has come.
  16. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 18 May 2016 15: 57
    +6
    China is developing simply frighteningly fast.
    Navy ocean ships they launch faster
    than about these ships are published articles on "VO".

    With a fright, and Japan woke up from hibernation.
    And American admirals, I think, have nightmares at night
    on the approaching "ranks" of Chinese frigates. belay
  17. Blondy
    Blondy 18 May 2016 18: 10
    0
    Quote: voyaka uh
    With a fright, and Japan woke up from hibernation.
    And American admirals, I think, have nightmares at night
    on the approaching "ranks" of Chinese frigates.

    Remember Damansky - and they will torment you.
    1. yehat
      yehat 18 May 2016 19: 00
      +3
      Do you remember about Damansky?
      how the new tank was presented to the Chinese for research.
      how the border guards unexpectedly stayed 1-1 against a far superior number of opponents
      Damansky is completely jambs and sewing jambs, which is why heroes appeared.
      It would be much better if everything went smoothly, predictably, with a minimum of losses and voltage, but it turned out as always. Do you think they don’t remember that?
      Each such episode provokes to try again, assures that the Russians are just LUCKY.
      but we did not draw conclusions, and many years later with Georgia again the heroism of people under heavy artillery fire and the famous photo of a machine gunner on the road.
      You can’t hope for this, someday we’ll stumble and the Germans in the 41st showed how painful it is.
  18. polkovnik manuch
    polkovnik manuch 19 May 2016 10: 49
    0
    Yeah! Now we are reaping the results of dermocratic transformations in mother Russia. To build such vessels shipbuilding capacities are needed, and we have them, as they say; the cat cried. Soviet shipyards need deep modernization, practically did not build anything new, and a lot of things are just .... ....! Now we are trying to bite ourselves by the elbow, it seems close and at the same time, nothing happens. Why not work out the issues of acquiring and building a shipyard for example with China, or with South Korea in the Far East? There are no convenient bays? - so these are excuses. There are no brains, also excuses. Perhaps there is not enough money, so for this you can force the raw magnates to fork out for the needs of the Motherland.