Military Review

"Eternal Peace" between Russia and the Commonwealth

47
330 years ago, 16 May 1686, the “Eternal Peace” between Russia and the Rzeczpospolita was signed in Moscow. The world summed up the Russian-Polish war of 1654 — 1667, which went beyond the Western Russian lands (modern Ukraine and Belarus). The 13-summer war ended the Andrusovo truce. "Eternal Peace" confirmed the territorial changes made under the Andrusovo Treaty. Smolensk forever departed to Moscow, left-bank Ukraine remained a part of Russia, Right-Bank Ukraine remained part of the Commonwealth. Poland abandoned Kiev for good, receiving compensation for this in 146 thousand rubles. Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth also refused to protect the Zaporizhian Sich. Russia broke off relations with the Ottoman Empire and was supposed to start a war with the Crimean Khanate.


Poland was the old enemy of the Russian state, but during this period the Port became a stronger threat for it. Warsaw has repeatedly made attempts to conclude an alliance with Russia against the Ottoman Empire. Moscow was also interested in creating an anti-Turkish union. War of 1676-1681 with Turkey strengthened the desire of Moscow to create such a union. However, repeated negotiations on this issue did not achieve a result. One of the most important reasons for this was the resistance of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth to the Russian demand to finally abandon Kiev and some other territories. With the resumption of the war with Porto in 1683, Poland, in alliance with which Austria and Venice were, developed vigorous diplomatic activity with the aim of attracting Russia to the anti-Turkish league. As a result, Russia entered the anti-Turkish alliance, which led to the beginning of the Russian-Turkish war 1686-1700.

Thus, the Russian state finally secured a part of the West Russian lands and annulled preliminary agreements with the Ottoman Empire and the Crimean Khanate, joining the anti-Turkish Holy League, and also pledged to organize a military campaign against the Crimean Khanate. This was the beginning of the Russian-Turkish war 1686-1700, the campaigns of Vasily Golitsyn to the Crimea and Peter to Azov. In addition, the conclusion of the “Eternal Peace” became the basis of the Russian-Polish alliance in the Northern War of 1700-1721.

prehistory

For several centuries Poland was the traditional opponent of the Russian state in the West (Rzecz Pospolita - the state association of Poland and Lithuania). The Commonwealth during the crisis, Russia captured the vast West and South Russian regions. In addition, the Russian state and Poland fought hard for leadership in Eastern Europe. The most important task of Moscow was to restore the unity of the Russian lands and the divided Russian people. Even during the reign of Rurik, Russia returned some of the previously lost territories. However, Smoot at the beginning of the XVII century. brought new territorial losses. As a result of the Deulinskiy truce 1618, the Russian state lost the repulsed from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania at the very beginning of the XVI century. Chernigov, Smolensk and other lands. Attempt to win them in the Smolensk war 1632-1634. to success has not led. The situation was aggravated by the anti-Russian policy of Warsaw. The Russian Orthodox population of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was subjected to ethnic, cultural, and religious discrimination by the Polish and opolyachenny gentry. The majority of Russians in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth were practically on the status of slaves.

In 1648, an uprising began in Western Russian regions, which escalated into a national liberation war. He was headed by Bogdan Khmelnitsky. The rebels, consisting mainly of Cossacks, as well as burghers and peasants, won a series of serious victories over the Polish army. However, without the intervention of Moscow, the rebels were doomed, since Rzeczpospolita had a huge military potential. In 1653, Khmelnitsky turned to Russia with a request for help in the war with Poland. October 1 1653, the Zemsky Sobor decided to satisfy the request of Khmelnitsky and declared war on the Commonwealth. In January, 1654, in Pereyaslav, took place the famous Rada, in which the Zaporozhye Cossacks unanimously spoke in favor of joining the Russian kingdom. In the face of the Russian embassy, ​​Khmelnitsky took the oath of allegiance to Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich.

The war began successfully for Russia. She had to solve a long-standing national task - the unification of all Russian lands around Moscow and the restoration of the Russian state in its former borders. By the end of 1655, all Western Russia, except for Lvov, was under the control of Russian troops and the hostilities were transferred directly to the ethnic territory of Poland and Lithuania. In addition, in the summer of 1655, Sweden enters the war, whose troops captured Warsaw and Krakow. Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was on the verge of a complete military-political disaster. However, Moscow is making a strategic mistake. In the wake of dizziness from success, the Moscow government decided to return the land that the Swedes had seized during the Troubles. Moscow and Warsaw signed the Vilna truce. Earlier, 17 May 1656, the Russian Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich declared war on Sweden.

Initially, Russian troops have achieved some success in the fight against the Swedes. But in the future the war was fought with varying success. In addition, the war resumed with Poland and Khmelnitsky died in 1657. Partly opolyachennaya Cossack officers immediately began to conduct a "flexible" policy, betraying the interests of the masses. Getman Ivan Vyhovsky spread to the side of the Poles and Russia faced a whole enemy coalition - Rzeczpospolita, Vyhovsky Cossacks, Crimean Tatars. Soon, Vyhovsky was displaced, and his place was taken by Yury’s Khmelnitsky son, who first spoke on the side of Moscow, and then took the oath of allegiance to the Polish king. This led to a split and struggle among the Cossacks. Some relied on Poland or even Turkey, others on Moscow, others fought for themselves, creating bandit formations. As a result, Western Russia became a field of bloody battle, which completely devastated a large part of Little Russia. The Kardis Peace Treaty was concluded with Sweden in 1661, which established the borders envisaged by the Stolbovo Peace 1617. That is, the war with Sweden only dispersed the forces of Russia and was wasted.

In the future, the war with Poland went on with varying success. Russia lost a number of positions in Belarus and Little Russia. On the southern front, the Poles were supported by Cossack traitors and the Crimean horde. In 1663-1664 a large march of the Polish army led by King Jan-Kazimir in conjunction with the detachments of the Crimean Tatars and the right-bank Cossacks to Left-Bank Malorussia took place. According to the strategic plan of Warsaw, the Polish army delivered the main blow, which, together with the Cossacks of the Right Bank hetman Pavel Teteri and the Crimean Tatars, seizing the eastern lands of Little Russia, was to attack Moscow. Auxiliary blow was delivered by the Lithuanian army of Mikhail Pats. Pats was supposed to take Smolensk and connect with the king in the Bryansk area. However, the campaign, which began successfully, failed. Jan Casimir suffered a heavy defeat.

Problems started in Russia itself - the economic crisis, the Copper Riot, the Bashkir uprising. Poland was no better off. The Commonwealth was devastated by wars with Russia and Sweden, raids of Tatars and various gangs. The material and human resources of the two great powers were exhausted. As a result, at the end of the war, the forces were basically only enough for small skirmishes and battles of local significance both in the northern and in the southern theater of military operations. They did not have much importance, except for the defeat of the Poles from the Russian-Cossack-Kalmyk troops in the Battle of Korsun and in the Battle of the White Church. The depletion of both sides took advantage of the Port and the Crimean Khanate. Right-bank hetman Peter Doroshenko raised a revolt against Warsaw and declared himself a vassal of the Turkish sultan, which led to the beginning of the Polish-Cossack-Turkish war 1666 — 1671.

Bloodless Poland lost to the Ottomans and signed the Peace of Buchach, according to which the Poles refused the Podolsk and Bratslav provinces, and the southern part of the Kiev voivodship retreated to the right-bank Cossacks of Hetman Doroshenko, who was a vassal of Porta. Moreover, militarily weakened Poland pledged to pay tribute to Turkey. Insulted proud Polish elite did not accept this world. In 1672, a new Polish-Turkish war began (1672 — 1676). Poland was defeated again. However, the Zhuravensky Treaty of 1676 somewhat softened the conditions of the previous, Buchach peace, abolishing the requirement that the Ottoman Empire be paid annually to the Commonwealth. Commonwealth conceded to the Ottomans Ottomans. Right-Bank Ukraine-Little Russia, with the exception of Belotserkovsky and Pavolochsky districts, passed under the authority of Turkish vassal - Hetman Peter Doroshenko, thus becoming an Ottoman protectorate. As a result, for Poland, the Port has become a more dangerous enemy than Russia.

Thus, the depletion of resources for further military operations, as well as the general threat from the Crimean Khanate and Turkey, forced the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Russia to negotiate peace, which began in 1666 and ended with the signing of the Andrusovo truce in January 1667. Smolensk passed to the Russian state, as well as lands that had previously been ceded to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth during the Time of Troubles, including Dorogobuzh, Belaya, Nevel, Krasny, Velizh, Seversk land with Chernigov and Starodub. Poland recognized for Russia the right to Left-Bank Ukraine. According to the agreement, Kiev temporarily transferred to Moscow for two years (Russia, however, managed to keep Kiev for itself). Zaporizhzhya Sich passed under the joint management of Russia and the Commonwealth. As a result, Moscow was able to recapture only a part of the original Russian lands, which was a consequence of the managerial and strategic mistakes of the Russian government, in particular, the war with Sweden was a mistake, which dispersed the forces of the Russian army.

On the way to the "Eternal Peace"

At the turn of the XVII-XVIII centuries. two old adversaries, Russia and Poland, faced the need to coordinate actions in the conditions of the strengthening of two powerful enemies - Turkey and Sweden in the Black Sea and Baltic regions. At the same time, both Russia and Poland had long-standing strategic interests in the Black Sea and Baltic regions. However, for success in these strategic areas, it was necessary to unite efforts and carry out internal modernization, primarily of the armed forces and government, in order to successfully resist such strong enemies as the Ottoman Empire and Sweden. The situation was aggravated by the crisis phenomena in the internal structure and internal policy of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Russia. It should be noted that the Polish elite could not get out of this crisis, which ended with the complete degradation of the state system and the divisions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (the Polish state was liquidated). Russia was able to create a new project, which led to the emergence of the Russian Empire, which ultimately solved the main tasks in the Baltic States and the Black Sea region.

Already the first Romanovs began to look more and more to the West, to adopt the achievements of military science, science, and also elements of culture. Tsarevna Sophia continued this line. After the death of the childless tsar Fyodor Alekseevich, the boyars of Miloslavskiy headed by Sophia organized the Strelets revolt. As a result of September 15, 1682, the princess Sofya, the daughter of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, became regent for the juvenile brothers Ivan and Peter. The power of the brothers almost immediately became nominal. Ivan Alekseevich was from childhood a painful and incapable state government. Peter was small, and Natalya and her son moved to Preobrazhenskoye to protect themselves from a possible strike.

Tsarevna Sofya in historical popular science and fiction is often presented in the form of a sort of babischi. However, this is an obvious slander. She came to power at the age of 25, and portraits convey to us the image of a somewhat plump, but pretty woman. Yes, and the future Tsar Peter described Sophia as a man who “could be considered both bodily and mentally perfect, if not for her boundless ambition and an insatiable thirst for power.”

Sophia had several favorites. Among them stood Prince Vasily Vasilyevich Golitsyn. He received the Ambassadorial, Discharging, Reitarsky and Foreign Land orders, concentrating in his hands enormous power, control over foreign policy and armed forces. He received the title of the “Royal press and state great ambassadorial affairs as a saver, middle boyar and governor of Novgorod” (actually, the head of the government). The Kazan order was received by B. A. Golitsyn, a cousin of V. V. Golitsyn. The Strelets order was headed by Fyodor Shaklovity. A native of the Bryansk children of boyars, who owed his exaltation only to Sophia, was infinitely devoted to her (perhaps, like Vasily Golitsyn, was her lover). Sylvester Medvedev was exalted, becoming advisor to the queen on religious issues (with the patriarch Sophia was in cold relations). Shaklovity was the “loyal dog” of the tsarina, but practically all state administration was entrusted to Vasily Golitsyn.

Golitsyn was a Westerner of that time. The prince admired France, was a real frankofil. The Moscow nobility of that time began to imitate the Western nobility in every way: the fashion for Polish outfits remained in fashion, perfume became fashionable, the craze for coats of arms began, the highest chic was considered to acquire a foreign carriage, etc. Golitsyn was the first among such noble-Westerners. Notable people and rich citizens, taking an example from Golitsyn, began to build houses and palaces of the western type. Jesuits were admitted to Russia; Chancellor Golitsyn often held closed meetings with them. Catholic liturgy was allowed in Russia - the first Catholic church was opened in the German Quarter. Golitsyn began to send youth to study in Poland, mainly in Krakow Jagiellonian University. There they were taught not technical or military disciplines necessary for the development of the Russian state, but Latin, theology and jurisprudence. Such personnel could be useful in transforming Russia to Western standards.

The most active Golitsyn was noted in foreign policy, as in the domestic policy the conservative wing was too strong, and the tsarina restrained the prince’s reformist fervor. Golitsyn actively negotiated with Western countries. And during this period, the war with the Ottoman Empire was almost the main business of Europe. In 1684, the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, the king of Bohemia and Hungary, Leopold I sent diplomats to Moscow, who began to appeal to the “brotherhood of Christian sovereigns and invited the Russian state to join the Holy League. This alliance consisted of the Holy Roman Empire, the Republic of Venice and the Commonwealth and opposed Porte. A similar proposal from Moscow came from Warsaw.

However, the war with a strong Turkey then did not meet the national interests of Russia. Poland was our traditional enemy and it still owned huge Western Russian territories. Austria was not a country for which our soldiers were worth shedding blood. With Istanbul only in 1681, the Bakhchisarai peace treaty was concluded, which established peace for 20-year terms. The Ottomans recognized the Left Bank Ukraine, Zaporozhye and Kiev for the Russian state. Moscow has significantly strengthened its position in the south. The Turkish Sultan and the Crimean Khan pledged not to help the enemies of the Russians. Crimean horde pledged to stop the raids on Russian lands. In addition, the Port did not take advantage of a series of troubles in Russia, the struggle for power in Moscow. Russia at that time was more profitable not to get involved in a direct battle with Porto, but to wait for its weakening. Land for development was more than enough. It was better to focus on the return of the original Russian territories in the west, taking advantage of the weakening of Poland. In addition, the Western "partners" traditionally wanted to use the Russians as cannon fodder in the fight against Turkey and get all the benefits from this confrontation.

Golitsyn, with joy, took up the opportunity to enter into an alliance with the "progressive Western powers." The Western powers turned to him, called him friends. Therefore, the Moscow government set only one condition for joining the Holy Alliance, so that Poland signed the “eternal peace”. True, the Polish gentry indignantly rejected this condition - they did not want to permanently abandon Smolensk, Kiev, Novgorod-Seversky, Chernigov, Left-Bank Ukraine-Little Russia. As a result, Warsaw itself pushed Russia away from the Holy League. Negotiations continued throughout the 1685 year. In addition, in Russia itself there were also opponents of this union. Many boyars, who feared a prolonged war of attrition, opposed participation in the war with Porto. Against the alliance with Poland was the hetman of the Zaporozhian Troops, Ivan Samoilovich. Little Russia only a few years lived without the annual raids of the Crimean Tatars. Getman pointed to the treachery of the Poles. In his opinion, Moscow should have stood up for Russian, Orthodox Christians, who were subjected to oppression in the Polish regions, to repel the Russian ancestral lands from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth - Podolia, Volyn, Podlasie, Podgorie and all Chervona Russia. Patriarch Joachim of Moscow was against the war with Porto. At that time, a religious and political issue that was important for Ukraine-Ukraine was being resolved - Gideon was elected Metropolitan of Kiev, he was approved by Joachim, and the consent of the Patriarch of Constantinople was required. This important event for the church could be disrupted in case of an altercation with Porto. However, all the arguments of Samoylovich, Joakim and other opponents of the alliance with the Poles, the Pope and the Austrians were noted off.

True, the Poles, who were rejecting "perpetual peace" with Russia, continued to persist. However, at this time the affairs of the Holy League went bad. Turkey quickly recovered from defeat, mobilized, attracted troops from Asian and African regions. The Turks temporarily took Cetinje, the residence of the Montenegrin bishop. Turkish troops defeated the Commonwealth. Polish troops suffered retreating, the Turks threatened Lviv. This forced Warsaw to agree on the need for an alliance with Moscow. In addition, the situation of Austria was complicated. The French king Louis XIV decided to take advantage of the fact that Leopold I was stuck in the war with Turkey and developed vigorous activity. Leopold, in response, concludes an alliance with William of Orange and begins negotiations with other sovereigns in order to create an anti-French coalition. For the Holy Roman Empire there is a threat of war on two fronts. Austria, to compensate for the weakening of the front in the Balkans, intensified diplomatic efforts against the Russian state. Austria is also increasing pressure on the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania, Jan III Sobieski. The Pope, Jesuits and Venetians worked in the same direction. As a result, the joint efforts of Warsaw doge.

"Eternal Peace" between Russia and the Commonwealth

Prince Vasily Golitsyn

"Eternal World"

At the beginning of 1686, a huge Polish embassy arrived in Moscow, almost a thousand people, led by Poznan voivode Krzysztof Gzhimultovsky and Lithuanian Chancellor Marcian Oginsky. Prince Vladimir V. Golitsyn represented Russia in the negotiations. The Poles initially began to insist on their rights to Kiev and Zaporozhye. But in the end gave way.

The agreement with the Commonwealth was achieved only in May. 16 May 1686 was signed Eternal Peace. By its terms, Poland refused to claim the left-bank Ukraine, Smolensk and Chernihiv-Seversk land with Chernigov and Starodub, Kiev, Zaporozhye. The Poles received compensation for Kiev in 146 thousand rubles. Northern Kiev region, Volyn and Galicia remained in the Commonwealth. Southern Kyiv and Bratslavshchina with a number of cities (Kanev, Rzhishchev, Trakhtemirov, Cherkasy, Chigirin, etc.), i.e., the land heavily devastated during the war years, was to become a neutral territory between the Commonwealth and the Russian Kingdom. Russia tore up treaties with the Ottoman Empire and the Crimean Khanate, entered into an alliance with Poland and Austria. Moscow pledged, through its diplomats, to promote entry into the Holy League - England, France, Spain, Holland, Denmark and Brandenburg. Russia pledged to organize campaigns against the Crimea.

"Eternal Peace" was promoted in Moscow as Russia's greatest diplomatic victory. Prince Golitsyn, who concluded this contract, was showered with favors, received 3 thousand peasant households. On the one hand, there were successes. Poland recognized for Russia a number of its territories. Now it is possible to strengthen positions in the Black Sea region, and in the future in the Baltic States, relying on the support of Poland. In addition, the contract was personally beneficial to Sofia. He helped to approve her status as a sovereign queen. During the hype raised about the "eternal peace", Sophia appropriated the title of "All Great and Other Russian Autocrat." A successful war could further strengthen the position of Sophia and her group.

On the other hand, the Moscow government has allowed itself to be drawn into someone else's game. The war with Turkey and the Crimean Khanate at that time was not needed by Russia. Western "partners" used Russia. Russia had to start a war with a strong enemy, and even pay a lot of money to Warsaw for their own lands. Although the Poles at that time did not have the strength to fight with Russia. In the future, Rzeczpospolita will only degrade. Russia could calmly look at the wars of the Western powers with Turkey and prepare for the return of the rest of the original Russian lands in the west.

By signing Eternal Peace with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1686, Russia began a war with Porto and the Crimean Khanate. However, the Crimean campaigns 1687 and 1689. did not lead to success. Russia just wasted resources. It was not possible to secure the southern borders and expand ownership. The Western partners gained from the fruitless attempts of the Russian army to break through to the Crimea. The Crimean campaigns allowed for some time to divert significant forces of the Turks and the Crimean Tatars, which was beneficial to Russia's European allies.


Russian copy of the treaty of Russia and the Commonwealth of the "Eternal Peace"
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  1. Armored optimist
    Armored optimist 16 May 2016 06: 41
    +8
    The Psheks always remember how we smashed them, but about the troubled times and the attempt to seize the Russian throne, they are modestly silent.
  2. Pitot
    Pitot 16 May 2016 07: 21
    +5
    Ahh, the Geyropov jackals, who are weaker at a certain moment, throw themselves at those ....
  3. captain
    captain 16 May 2016 08: 30
    +9
    An informative article, especially in terms of with whom Russia has signed an agreement on joining Russia. The structure of Russia asked the Cossacks and the oath on their behalf was given by B. Khmelnitsky. The only remark to the author of the concept of Ukraine at that time was not.
    1. reservist
      reservist 16 May 2016 13: 08
      +4
      Quote: captain
      there was no concept of Ukraine at that time

      were Polish voivodships, became Little Russia
  4. Basil50
    Basil50 16 May 2016 08: 36
    +5
    Thanks to the AUTHOR and the EDITOR for the publication. But the author is not quite right in the reasons why the Romanovs were so eager for * Western values ​​*. At that time, the only achievement of the West was an absolute monarchy and universal enslavement of the people. This is exactly what they studied in Poland, and * successfully * applied to RUSI, all the peasants were enslaved and serfs became the basis of wealth, including among the clergy. What was needed was a force holding everyone in obedience. It was then that the * soldier * began to be introduced, when the serf with a gun carried out any order.
    In technical terms, Russia was ahead of many countries. In Europe at that time, most of the guns were made in Russia. The invited specialists from the West were mainly PR specialists, whom even then were prepared in huge numbers in Europe, all of these * younger sons * of nobles who had a chance of a career in the church or in the * public service of the authorities. The most striking representative of such specialists is Lefort at Peter. It was these * experts * who concocted the history of RUSI as something ashamed of, today their ideological descendants are trying to introduce just such ideas, the 90s have shown what this leads to, but they are not appeased.
    1. xan
      xan 16 May 2016 11: 09
      +1
      Quote: Vasily50
      In technical terms, Russia was ahead of many countries. In Europe at that time, most of the guns were made in Russia. The invited Western experts were mainly PR specialists,

      Complete nonsense. Vasya, learn to draw conclusions on indirect facts. And they are like that - Russia could not win the war against Poland, which, moreover, was at war with Sweden as well. They could not deal with Turkey and Crimea. Reforms were needed. After Peter, Russia for 100 years has not fought on its territory, and this despite the fact that it has not climbed out of wars almost constantly. Under Narva, the entire old Russian militia army fled, and only the new Peter's regiments stood and fought. This is also a fraudulent history experts invented?
      1. Basil50
        Basil50 16 May 2016 14: 35
        +4
        Xanu. Under NARVA, all the officers surrendered and soldier regiments handed over their weapons on their orders, but the guard regiments withdrew weapons and banners.
        And about the wars with the Poles. The heroism of the Rusi soldiers even then did not raise doubts and wars were fought * from defense *. The task of capturing Warsaw was not set.
        1. xan
          xan 16 May 2016 20: 12
          -2
          Quote: Vasily50
          Under NARVA, all officers surrendered

          What kind of army where all the officers surrender? Peter from the good life of foreigners scored?
          Quote: Vasily50
          And about the wars with the Poles. The heroism of the Rusi soldiers even then did not raise doubts and wars were fought * from defense *. The task of capturing Warsaw was not set.
          Vasya, you don’t know military history. In the Time of Troubles, 40 thousand of our fled from 12 thousand Poles and opened the road to Moscow. And this is when other Russians defended Smolensk. What kind of army, where some are fighting, others are running? The hero of this defense of the Smolensk voivode Shein was executed by the king for another Smolensk company for having allowed the decomposition of the army under his command. And before Peter such examples are a dime a dozen. After Peter, the Russian army did not know such a disgrace 200 years until the WWII.
          1. Basil50
            Basil50 16 May 2016 22: 10
            -1
            Xanu.
            Under NARVA, foreign officers hired by Peter surrendered.
            In troubled times, the Romanov clan was noted precisely as traitors.
            Juggling the basis of * tiligent * argumentation, as demonstrated.
            1. xan
              xan 17 May 2016 22: 12
              0
              Quote: Vasily50
              Xanu.
              Under NARVA, foreign officers hired by Peter surrendered.
              In troubled times, the Romanov clan was noted precisely as traitors.
              Juggling the basis of * tiligent * argumentation, as demonstrated.

              Clearly, there is nothing to write about.
      2. The comment was deleted.
    2. DimerVladimer
      DimerVladimer 16 May 2016 13: 49
      +1
      Quote: Vasily50
      In technical terms, Russia was ahead of many countries. In Europe at that time, most of the guns were made in Russia. The invited specialists from the West were mainly PR specialists, whom even then were trained in Europe in


      A strange opinion, exactly the opposite of the opinion of historians ...

      What was technically progressive in Russia at that time?
      Fleet? He was absent. Artillery? Not numerous and diverse. Fuseys? - They copied foreign ones.
      Organization of the troops? - Very deplorable results of wars.
      Only under Peter Alekseevich Russia began to build a truly modern fleet, artillery, create a modern army.
      What are some breakthrough Russian technologies at that time?
      Hemp, oil, critical iron? - it was under Peter Alekseevich that they began to export to Europe, England.

      And even now Russia lags behind in many KEY technical areas, aviation (90% of the airlines' fleet is foreign aircraft), mechanical engineering (50% of construction machinery and equipment are imported), automobile construction (well, the quality of domestic carts is not familiar by hearsay, boyars are all on German "carriages" - a historical habit, apparently), machine tool building (in most Japan or Europe, machine parks - acceptable accuracy and resource), electronics (well, not on Russian chipsets, computers from which we write, with imported software and through American protocols and servers goes traffic).
      While there is not much Russian technological influence on the world - we have to work and work on it!
      1. Basil50
        Basil50 16 May 2016 14: 46
        +2
        About technological lag, this song is old and completely technically illiterate. It is sometimes astounding how designer refinements are seen as something breakthrough. About the 90s, when betrayal and theft was the basis of political activity, we all remember. Though with difficulty and gradually, but in RUSSIA they revive production, and that which is produced, technologically, sometimes ahead of the whole planet. The idol of all * Democrats * buys engines for NASA and this is not only in the space industry.
        1. DimerVladimer
          DimerVladimer 17 May 2016 13: 22
          +1
          Quote: Vasily50
          ro technological lag this song is old and completely technically illiterate. It is sometimes astounding how designer refinements are seen as something breakthrough.

          Another stubborn PTUshnik? You are so strong in technical matters - what kind of education do you have?
          Work hard, enlighten the process engineer in space rocket technology - what are we ahead of the rest in this?
          Well, I’ll give you a concrete example: my native Makeyevskoe design bureau made a solid-fuel analogue of Trident-1 (32-37 tons) and made a monster with a starting mass of 100 tons (including ARS) with a similar payload (10 separable blocks with a payload of 100 kt) from where and the largest submarine missile carriers appeared - among the common people "Typhoon".
          Yes - there is a difference between the two missiles:
          - the payload weight of the R-39 is similar to Trident-1 (with the same charge power),
          - our astro correction blocks and controls are 10 times heavier than the American ones (the elemental base is like this - well, we know how to do it better)
          - fuel tank shells are heavier (a weak school of materials science compared to the American one)
          - solid fuel with the worst specific gravity and storage parameters (they didn’t reach the American parameters - we have the worst chemistry, fuel cracks during long-term storage)
          In total, we have two products: Trident-1 with a mass of 32 tons and product R-39 (also known as RSM-52) - a monster-shaped solid fuel rocket with worse accuracy and less efficiency.
          This "monster" had the only advantage - it could "shoot" from under a 1.5 meter layer of ice without the submarine surfacing (doubtful advantage). A special APC system covered the blocks at launch and could penetrate a sufficient size of wormwood for the rocket to exit from under the ice.
          Total we have a monster-like SLBM, a monster-like carrier (typhoon / Shark) with a monstrous construction price.
          It was on such monstrous projects with unreasonable price that the USSR went bankrupt.

          https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A0-39

          what is the "modern" mace?
          In terms of energy-mass perfection, the Bulava loses to the first generation Trident somewhat: the starting mass of the Bulava is 36,8 tons, the cast weight is 1150 kilograms. The Trident-1 has a starting weight of 32 tons, the cast weight is 1360 kg.
          http://topwar.ru/16711-zagadki-trezubca.html

          Trident-2 with a full set of BB (14 pieces of 100 ct each) throws at 7838 km, weighs 59 tons. CVO with astro correction 120 m.
          R-39 (10 BB for 100 ct) throws at 8300 km. weighs 100 tons. KVO 350-500 m.
          Well, where do we have an advantage in technology?
          1. Mavrikiy
            Mavrikiy 18 May 2016 18: 25
            +2
            DimerVladimer (1) RU
            Oh hello to you, the navel of the Earth in rocket and space technology. I apologize for violating your serene repose on the clouds, laurels, figvah, well, where there are still celestials. We don’t know. However, greetings to you from the Urals, from the technological engineer of the space rocket (through a hyphen, it will be more correct) technology. I will try to answer your most tricky question:
            "Work hard, enlighten the engineer-technologist in rocket and space technology - in what are we ahead of the rest of the planet?"
            And remembering the advantages of answering a question with a question, let me ask this: What is your specialty? Not the most advanced in the world? Or yours from the word "racket"? Then it is clear, court, fireworks ... And I thought I was lucky, an interesting person. Yes. And in our time they taught the Motherland to love. And "Rodina" was not an empty phrase, but 1/6 of the land, and it was mine. And I would tear anyone's throat for her. Yes, we do not store what we have, but having lost we cry.
            Yes, regarding:
            NPP - we were the first and are.
            Space - we were and are the first.
            Submarines, including nuclear submarines - we were the first and are.
            Icebreakers - we were and are the first.
            Tankers - we were the first.
            Pipelines - we were and are the first.
            Airplanes, tanks, guns, riflemen - were and will be.
            We had the best machine tool industry, so the West bought and razed it to the ground.
            All the best worked for the defense industry, so the first went under the ax. And after 25 years of bacchanalia, ask - where? This is mean.
            As for Trident and Bulava, if we went to school, we must remember that we have always had parity with the States. They developed solid fuel, we have liquid ones. Remember the advantages and disadvantages? The rulers said "to catch up and overtake on solid fuel", and here you are with perestroika, so we slurp. The states have "money, chickens do not bite, but we" well, in general, do not have enough.
          2. Days
            Days 23 May 2016 19: 05
            0
            Lies.

            If you didn’t repeat liberal articles, but at least bother to read the text to which you link, you would see that Trident-1 gives a distance of 2000 km less (not to mention the general technological level, greater at Mace: the amazing power of combat more blocks in two times plus active maneuvering combat units).

            And for Trident-2, the indicated maximum range refers to the lightened combat load. At full load (the casting mass is 2,5 times higher than that of Bulava, while the trotyl equivalent of blocks is still higher in Bulava) Trident-2 flies 1500 km less than Bulava. Table on page 28: http://plrc.org/docs/011117D.pdf

            In total, the Mace bypasses both Tridents by head, both in range and TNT equivalent of warheads, and in terms of missile defense capabilities. At the same time, it has very modest dimensions.
        2. DimerVladimer
          DimerVladimer 17 May 2016 13: 44
          +1
          Quote: Vasily50
          The idol of all * Democrats * buys engines for NASA and this is not only in the space industry.


          I already wrote that purchasing cheap engines in Russia is not the most expensive article for pragmatic Americans.
          They will build their engine in the end, but the costs of its development and debugging will be beaten off for 20 years - this is not too rational.
          1. Basil50
            Basil50 17 May 2016 16: 49
            +1
            dimer.
            Well, what to do? If you and your ideological associates worked there, it is not surprising that all developments on sea-based missiles were not a secret and a lot of things surfaced in France and Israel 30 years ago.
      2. Rivares
        Rivares 16 May 2016 15: 29
        +2
        Quote: DimerVladimer
        Only under Peter Alekseevich Russia began to build a truly modern fleet, artillery, create a modern army.

        This is in the opinion of the Germans paid for by Peter Alekseevich, who, not even knowing the Russian language, wrote you a story that you are gratefully citing here) Compared pre-Roman Russia when serf slavery was not introduced. Naturally, the serfdom on which the Romanov autocracy was based introduced the territory of Russia into the technically lagging states. And even under Pyotr Alekseevich, thanks to "remarkable" reforms, the population decreased by 2 times, and became impoverished many times over.
        1. reservist
          reservist 16 May 2016 16: 15
          +1
          Quote: Rivares
          under Pyotr Alekseevich, thanks to the "remarkable" reforms, the population decreased by 2 times

          why not 3 or 4?
          1. Mavrikiy
            Mavrikiy 16 May 2016 22: 46
            -1
            Quote: reservist
            Quote: Rivares
            under Pyotr Alekseevich, thanks to the "remarkable" reforms, the population decreased by 2 times

            why not 3 or 4?

            And you are not in a hurry, look carefully, think, do not be lazy, that you bring and .... oh miracle! True!
            1678 - 1646 = 32 years. an increase of 9,6 - 7,0 = 2 million people, an increase of 6%. Let 37,14% per year. By 1,0, we were supposed to be more than 1762 million people. Yes Yes. The hungry years, pestilence at all times, but such reforms ....
            1. reservist
              reservist 17 May 2016 11: 16
              0
              tell, pls, how did you get 100 million by 1762?

              if every 32 years an increase of 37%, then we get
              in 1710 (1678 + 32) 9.6 * 1.37 = 13.2 million
              in 1742 (1710 + 32) 13.2 * 1.37 = 18.0 million
              in 1774 (1742 + 32) 18.0 * 1.37 = 24.7 million
              1. Mavrikiy
                Mavrikiy 18 May 2016 05: 38
                0
                Quote: reservist
                tell, pls, how did you get 100 million by 1762?

                if every 32 years an increase of 37%, then we get
                in 1710 (1678 + 32) 9.6 * 1.37 = 13.2 million
                in 1742 (1710 + 32) 13.2 * 1.37 = 18.0 million
                in 1774 (1742 + 32) 18.0 * 1.37 = 24.7 million

                Well, I was in a hurry and was wrong. (He took the average for 32 years, and it is overpriced.) But you are wrong, too.
                Come from the beginning. Progression, as you know, is geometric.
                An = A1 * K (to the power of n-1). Sorry for another write could not.
                An = 9,6 million hours, A1 = 7,0 million hours from here 1,37 = K (to the power of n-1).
                Counting over the years is long and boring, about thirty years is rude. I offer 10 years.
                1678-1646 = 32g, let it be 30, then we will round it down.
                So 1,37 = K in a cube. from here K = 1,11
                Therefore, 1688 - 9,6 * 1,11 = 10,65
                1698 - 10,6 * 1,11 = 11,8
                1708 - 11,8 * 1,11 = 13,1
                1718 g. - 14,5
                1728 - 16
                1738 - 17.8
                1748 - 19,8
                1758 - 27,1
                1768 - 30,0
                1782 - 33,3
                Once again I apologize, but a loss of 10 million hours is also 30%.
                1. reservist
                  reservist 18 May 2016 11: 31
                  0
                  at K = 1.105 it will be a little more precise
                  1646 g. - 7.0
                  1656 - 7.0 * 1,105 = 7.7
                  1666 g. - 8.5
                  1676 g. - 9.4
                  1686 - 10.4
                  1696 - 11.5
                  1706 - 12.7
                  1716 - 14.1
                  1726 - 15.6
                  1736 - 17.2
                  1746 - 19,0
                  1756 - 21,0
                  1766 - 23,2
                  1786 - 25,6

                  but anyway it is impossible to assert that "it was reduced by 2 times" ...
                  1. Mavrikiy
                    Mavrikiy 18 May 2016 18: 40
                    0
                    reservist RU
                    Ok, thanks for the chat, but ....
                    1762 - 18 million hours
                    you have 1756 - 21,0 million hours, 1766 - 23,2 million hours. It was as if the Patriotic War was under-conducted. I doubt that with success.
                    1. reservist
                      reservist 18 May 2016 20: 11
                      0
                      here you also need to consider the resettlement to new lands
                      Russians are in the same Siberia, Kuban, New Russia, etc. not from tubes appeared, but moved there from central Russia
        2. xan
          xan 16 May 2016 20: 25
          0
          Quote: Rivares
          This is in the opinion of the Germans paid by Peter Alekseevich who, not knowing even the Russian language, wrote you a story that you are gratefully quoting here)

          The Empire began with Peter. After him, they have not fought for 100 years on their territory, annexed vast territories, jammed everyone from whom they had previously received. Did the Germans invent this too?
          Quote: Rivares
          Doromanov Russia was compared when slavery was not introduced. Naturally, serfdom on which the Romanov autocracy was based introduced the territory of Russia into technically backward states.

          Doromanovskaya Russia almost quacked during the Time of Troubles, including due to the weak army as a derivative of the economy. As soon as serfdom was introduced, they began to clearly collect taxes. Serfdom was then in all of Europe. Romanov Russia is a Russian Empire with vast territory and glorious military history.
          1. Mavrikiy
            Mavrikiy 16 May 2016 23: 03
            0
            Quote: xan
            Quote: Rivares
            This is in the opinion of the Germans paid by Peter Alekseevich who, not knowing even the Russian language, wrote you a story that you are gratefully quoting here)

            The Empire began with Peter. After him, they have not fought for 100 years on their territory, annexed vast territories, jammed everyone from whom they had previously received. Did the Germans invent this too?
            Quote: Rivares
            Doromanov Russia was compared when slavery was not introduced. Naturally, serfdom on which the Romanov autocracy was based introduced the territory of Russia into technically backward states.

            Doromanovskaya Russia almost quacked during the Time of Troubles, including due to the weak army as a derivative of the economy. As soon as serfdom was introduced, they began to clearly collect taxes. Serfdom was then in all of Europe. Romanov Russia is a Russian Empire with vast territory and glorious military history.

            Why are you so. "Grunt." In troubled times, everyone almost quacks. One hundred-year war is worth something. And we, if you remember, had anarchy. After the Autocrat Ivan the Terrible, the boyars (olegarchs) really wanted to establish Polish orders, limit the tsar's power and make a mess similar to the Polish one. And you are wasting Ivan's army in vain. Read the story. The economy is distant, so we are at war. With whom it is strengthened in the war, except for the pirates. Serfdom in Europe? Listen to A.I. Furtsev , it doesn't hurt, but it's very interesting. 2 hours and all your delirium will dissipate.
            1. xan
              xan 17 May 2016 21: 48
              -1
              Quote: Mavrikiy
              Well, why are you so. "Grunt." In troubled times, everyone almost quacks. One hundred-year war is worth something. And here, if you remember, there was anarchy. After the Autocrat Ivan the Terrible, the boyars (olegarchs) really wanted to establish Polish orders, limit the tsar's power and make a mess similar to the Polish one. And you are wasting Ivan's army in vain. Read the story. The economy is distant, so we are at war. With whom it is strengthened in the war, except for the pirates.

              It amazes people who read about the historical sequence of facts and events, and cannot independently conclude why one follows from the other.
              Quote: Mavrikiy
              Serfdom in Europe? Listen to Furtsev A.I. It doesn’t hurt, but it’s very interesting. 2 hours and all your nonsense will dissipate.
              Found authority. I know when serfdom was abolished in European countries. In some European countries, serfdom was even worse than in Russia, although it was canceled earlier.
        3. Morrrow
          Morrrow 18 May 2016 22: 09
          0
          This is a myth about the population.
      3. Mavrikiy
        Mavrikiy 16 May 2016 22: 07
        +1
        Quote: DimerVladimer
        Quote: Vasily50
        In those


        While there is not much Russian technological influence on the world - we have to work and work on it!

        Yes ... In the forest born to the West prayed.
        Space, aircraft, tanks, chemistry, fusion, etc. are not mine. By the way, without our calculations "stealth" would not have taken place. Americans were picking their noses for another 30 years.
        I will say for metallurgy. Of the 90 basic decisions that world modern metallurgy stands on, 68 are made in the USSR. For example, continuous casting of steel. This is ours. Yes Yes. They themselves were not built, but they bought plants in Japan, Germany, Italy. So in everything. We invent, discover, and they introduce and call us names. And you sing along. Shame on my friend.
        1. Basil50
          Basil50 16 May 2016 22: 20
          0
          * Daddy * there is no shame, they work out the order. For some reason, their own squalor is spreading to everyone. So it is customary in * creative bohemia * they themselves do not know how, but criticize or invent about the true creators of filth this is as much as you like. They themselves are being recorded in the * elite * and lectured upon.
        2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 18 May 2016 17: 07
      0
      Quote: Vasily50
      Thanks to the AUTHOR and the EDITOR for the publication. But the author is not quite right in the reasons why the Romanovs were so eager for * Western values ​​*. At that time, the only achievement of the West was an absolute monarchy and universal enslavement of the people. That's exactly what they studied in Poland, and with * success * were used in RUSI.

      Vasily .... Monarchy in Poland? What are you speaking about? In Poland free nobility. Change the theory.
      1. Basil50
        Basil50 19 May 2016 09: 39
        0
        You will be surprised, but there were kings in Poland, and there were queens and their children and courtiers, right up to the division of Poland as a state.
        In Europe, the foundation of the state was always considered the nobility and the clergy, the rest were in varying degrees of slavery and were considered only as * tax *. This is precisely the kind of state * dispute * that the Romanovs accepted.
        But what did you hear or read about educational institutions in pre-Romanov Rusi? And what have you heard about the textbooks? Only trained people can manage the state and they were trained, they had teachers and textbooks. And about the healers of that, Doromanovskaya Rusi, have you ever heard anything? For four hundred years, * Germans * and their followers have been talking nonsense about those times, and to get a certificate of higher education all students repeat these nonsense. Not everyone is then able to recognize this situation in history.
      2. The comment was deleted.
  5. Alexey-74
    Alexey-74 16 May 2016 09: 16
    +3
    To the author plus. A lot of interesting things. Of course, many people know about eternal peace, only all these cease-fires were not observed, and at the slightest change in the situation, or if there were benefits, the benefits were instantly torn. In the 17th century, all of Europe, Russia and the Ottomans were cowardly from constant wars.
  6. qwert
    qwert 16 May 2016 09: 20
    +2
    And also one minus slapped. Who does it go here on other people's articles and minus? request
  7. uskrabut
    uskrabut 16 May 2016 10: 20
    +2
    I would recommend this wonderful article for reading to Ukrainians, they will not hurt to know the history and make sure once again that Ukraine as a state did not exist in those "ancient times".
    1. reservist
      reservist 16 May 2016 13: 28
      +1
      so they already seem to have long ago invented an alternative history with the "Cossack state" ...
    2. Lankaster
      Lankaster 16 May 2016 13: 51
      -2
      Quote: uskrabut
      I would recommend this wonderful article for reading to Ukrainians, they will not hurt to know the history and make sure once again that Ukraine as a state did not exist in those "ancient times".

      So what? In those "ancient times" many states did not exist, but now they do. You need to live in the present, and not delve into the past constantly.
      1. Morrrow
        Morrrow 18 May 2016 22: 12
        0
        Separatist formations are unacceptable.
  8. Turkir
    Turkir 16 May 2016 10: 34
    +4
    Samsonov correctly chooses interesting topics, for which he thanks.
    You can’t cover everything in short articles, this is understandable.
    By the way, Peter pursued the same foreign policy as Vasily Golitsin.
    1. cap
      cap 16 May 2016 10: 47
      +4
      Quote: Turkir
      Samsonov correctly chooses interesting topics, for which he thanks.
      You can’t cover everything in short articles, this is understandable.
      By the way, Peter pursued the same foreign policy as Vasily Golitsin.

      Interesting article. There is something in this that makes one think about the present day.
      Polish fascismPolish fascism
      история

      That something like this.
      1. xan
        xan 16 May 2016 11: 13
        +2
        Quote: cap
        That something like this.

        We will deal with the fascists ourselves.
  9. Dmitry 2246
    Dmitry 2246 16 May 2016 10: 53
    +1
    The Holy Alliance is a prototype of NATO.
    And always when they try poorly to use our country, as in Afghanistan.
    Carefully show our teeth and ensure the industrial development of the state.
  10. Robert Nevsky
    Robert Nevsky 16 May 2016 11: 14
    +1
    Guys, I had a friend on the face - polka ...
    And we corresponded in Russian. This made a big impression on me - she was fluent in Russian.
    Well, maybe until 1990, she studied Russian at school, I don’t know.
    Maybe the Russian state still needs to do more Slavic and Russian propaganda in Poland and other Slavic countries ...
  11. King, just king
    King, just king 16 May 2016 12: 59
    -3
    Popadalovo somehow.

    This is me about the use of Russian troops in the interests of other countries.
    This is what kind of war you don’t poke, you’ll be sure to fall into the English-Austro-German interests.

    Our Great Peter - what kind of jade to fight in the German principalities?
    Catherine Anna - there-ships, they didn’t seem to have time, except for the war for the Polish inheritance.
    Elizabeth - again with the Germans grappled in a stupid coalition. The profits are zero.
    Catherine - well, what kind of jade to climb into the anti-French coalition again, Louis felt sorry for him. Poland - the eternal source of unrest - why was it needed?
    Pavel - well done, sorry killed.
    Alexander I - well, why did you have to quarrel with Napoleon, to carry chestnuts? The pluses are zero. If only the Louvre took it out - to Moscow.
    Nikolai - the incompetent Crimean War.
    Alexander II - the little brothers saved, but these little brothers failed. The sense is zero. They shod completely, as best they could
    Alexander III - all went ... we are peaceful, well done.
    Nicholas II is that. Moron out. With the Japanese - yo-mine. With the Germans - what? for other people's interests.
    1. reservist
      reservist 16 May 2016 13: 16
      +1
      Quote: King, just king
      Our Great Peter - what kind of jade to fight in the German principalities?

      Remind pls when and in which German principalities Peter the Great fought?
      1. King, just king
        King, just king 16 May 2016 16: 39
        0
        Look at what kind of literate and pestering people have gone now. IN SWEDISH POMERANIA, although she is some kind of Swedish ...! In the Principality of MEKLENBURG. I hope you will not specify whether the king himself fought there or his troops ...

        As for the minuses, if the minusers read. What kind of people are you. You write, for which minus, indicate the position. No - minus and into the bushes on a quiet. Not interested.
        1. reservist
          reservist 16 May 2016 17: 25
          0
          Thank you for clarifying, but Russia's protectorate over the duchy of Mecklenburg is just one of the episodes of the 21-year-old Northern War, in which not only Russia fought against Sweden ...

          then it is strange that in your list of "wars of Russia for other people's interests" there is no Stalin and the Manchu operation of 1945.

          PS minus is not mine
          1. King, just king
            King, just king 16 May 2016 20: 38
            +1
            Yes, of course, Comrade Stalin could push the Anglo-Saxons, but what would it change? The Kwantung only buried deeper into the ground, it would have to be destroyed anyway. And if the army had flooded us in the last so-called kamikaze fervor? And we keep troops in the West.
            Well, it would be possible to invite the US ground units to help, but then it would be necessary to share not only Korea.
            1. reservist
              reservist 17 May 2016 10: 51
              0
              Well, Peter probably also had his own "showdown" with his allies in the anti-Swedish coalition ...
              1. King, just king
                King, just king 17 May 2016 12: 48
                0
                Correctly. Only in the 45th after the war we brought and kept Mao in power, got half of Korea, secured Mongolia. And what did Peter get from the one not yet conquered?
                1. reservist
                  reservist 17 May 2016 16: 09
                  0
                  so the question is probably not only what I got, but what I expected to get ...
                  if, after taking the capture of Wismar (the last Swedish fortress in Germany), the Allies carried out a joint landing in Sweden itself, then maybe the results of the war would have been different ... but ... if only ...
                  1. King, just king
                    King, just king 17 May 2016 17: 59
                    0
                    Expectations were not commensurate with the effort expended.
                    1. reservist
                      reservist 17 May 2016 20: 47
                      0
                      the one who does nothing is not mistaken ...

                      “All students of science at the age of seven graduated normally, but our school had three times. However, thank God, it ended so well, how better it is to be impossible ”
                      (c) Peter the Great
    2. The comment was deleted.
      1. King, just king
        King, just king 16 May 2016 20: 41
        -2
        Citizen hap, learn to be polite. What a boorish appeal to a stranger. The forum and the Internet allow you not to get a penny in your pig?
        1. xan
          xan 17 May 2016 22: 21
          -1
          Quote: King, just king
          Citizen hap, learn to be polite. What a boorish appeal to a stranger. The forum and the Internet allow you not to get a penny in your pig?

          Answer the matter, king! I answered you, and you moved off the topic in a simple way by sticking out your own politeness. Although the Ukrainian flag explains a lot.
          1. King, just king
            King, just king 18 May 2016 08: 14
            -1
            Fucked! You have already been told.
            1. xan
              xan 18 May 2016 08: 50
              -1
              Quote: King, just king
              Fucked! You have already been told.

              Drain counted, soft
              1. King, just king
                King, just king 18 May 2016 08: 56
                -1
                Hit with happiness head against the wall. Accelerate only. I don’t even put a minus in your reply, zapadlo.
                1. xan
                  xan 18 May 2016 20: 42
                  0
                  Quote: King, just king
                  Hit with happiness head against the wall. Accelerate only. I don’t even put a minus in your reply, zapadlo.

                  Yes, you don’t put cons, but you’ll immediately write down the answers. You are some kind of loser.
  12. DimerVladimer
    DimerVladimer 16 May 2016 14: 00
    +1
    I did not like the article - such an interesting period, but it was revealed superficially, a presentation at the level of a textbook of the history of the USSR - with ready-made conclusions. It might make sense to make several parts more detailed. A very difficult period.
    1. xan
      xan 16 May 2016 20: 42
      -1
      Quote: DimerVladimer
      I did not like the article - such an interesting period, but it was revealed superficially, a presentation at the level of a textbook of the history of the USSR - with ready-made conclusions. It might make sense to make several parts more detailed. A very difficult period.

      I agree. In my opinion, one of the most interesting periods in the history of our country. But then the scribble will stretch over many articles. This must be studied independently.
  13. Flea market
    Flea market 17 May 2020 06: 11
    0
    Author, you write:
    left-bank Ukraine remained part of Russia; right-bank Ukraine remained part of the Commonwealth

    Why are you misleading readers?
    What is "Left Bank Ukraine", which supposedly remained a part of Russia?
    What is "Right-Bank Ukraine", which supposedly remained a part of the Commonwealth?
    Give a quote from the Treaty, where it is mentioned there, and exactly as you presented here - with capital letters, as if it were states!
    No states "Left-Bank Ukraine" and "Right-Bank Ukraine" existed in nature. You are misleading our children (yours too, if you have them).
    Such as you are the falsifiers of our past. And then amiably surprised that we do not know anything about ourselves, they say, everything is distorted ... Yes, with such pseudo-historians and distorted
  14. Flea market
    Flea market 17 May 2020 06: 30
    0
    Quote: Lankaster
    In those "ancient times" many states did not exist, but now they do. You need to live in the present, and not delve into the past constantly

    Do you offer to forget your past? Do you propose to forget your ancestors - grandfathers, great-grandfathers, great-great ...? Then start with yourself, forget yours, and we will see how it, to you, mankurts, lives without roots and then draw our conclusions