Poland was the old enemy of the Russian state, but during this period the Port became a stronger threat for it. Warsaw has repeatedly made attempts to conclude an alliance with Russia against the Ottoman Empire. Moscow was also interested in creating an anti-Turkish union. War of 1676-1681 with Turkey strengthened the desire of Moscow to create such a union. However, repeated negotiations on this issue did not achieve a result. One of the most important reasons for this was the resistance of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth to the Russian demand to finally abandon Kiev and some other territories. With the resumption of the war with Porto in 1683, Poland, in alliance with which Austria and Venice were, developed vigorous diplomatic activity with the aim of attracting Russia to the anti-Turkish league. As a result, Russia entered the anti-Turkish alliance, which led to the beginning of the Russian-Turkish war 1686-1700.
Thus, the Russian state finally secured a part of the West Russian lands and annulled preliminary agreements with the Ottoman Empire and the Crimean Khanate, joining the anti-Turkish Holy League, and also pledged to organize a military campaign against the Crimean Khanate. This was the beginning of the Russian-Turkish war 1686-1700, the campaigns of Vasily Golitsyn to the Crimea and Peter to Azov. In addition, the conclusion of the “Eternal Peace” became the basis of the Russian-Polish alliance in the Northern War of 1700-1721.
For several centuries Poland was the traditional opponent of the Russian state in the West (Rzecz Pospolita - the state association of Poland and Lithuania). The Commonwealth during the crisis, Russia captured the vast West and South Russian regions. In addition, the Russian state and Poland fought hard for leadership in Eastern Europe. The most important task of Moscow was to restore the unity of the Russian lands and the divided Russian people. Even during the reign of Rurik, Russia returned some of the previously lost territories. However, Smoot at the beginning of the XVII century. brought new territorial losses. As a result of the Deulinskiy truce 1618, the Russian state lost the repulsed from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania at the very beginning of the XVI century. Chernigov, Smolensk and other lands. Attempt to win them in the Smolensk war 1632-1634. to success has not led. The situation was aggravated by the anti-Russian policy of Warsaw. The Russian Orthodox population of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was subjected to ethnic, cultural, and religious discrimination by the Polish and opolyachenny gentry. The majority of Russians in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth were practically on the status of slaves.
In 1648, an uprising began in Western Russian regions, which escalated into a national liberation war. He was headed by Bogdan Khmelnitsky. The rebels, consisting mainly of Cossacks, as well as burghers and peasants, won a series of serious victories over the Polish army. However, without the intervention of Moscow, the rebels were doomed, since Rzeczpospolita had a huge military potential. In 1653, Khmelnitsky turned to Russia with a request for help in the war with Poland. October 1 1653, the Zemsky Sobor decided to satisfy the request of Khmelnitsky and declared war on the Commonwealth. In January, 1654, in Pereyaslav, took place the famous Rada, in which the Zaporozhye Cossacks unanimously spoke in favor of joining the Russian kingdom. In the face of the Russian embassy, Khmelnitsky took the oath of allegiance to Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich.
The war began successfully for Russia. She had to solve a long-standing national task - the unification of all Russian lands around Moscow and the restoration of the Russian state in its former borders. By the end of 1655, all Western Russia, except for Lvov, was under the control of Russian troops and the hostilities were transferred directly to the ethnic territory of Poland and Lithuania. In addition, in the summer of 1655, Sweden enters the war, whose troops captured Warsaw and Krakow. Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was on the verge of a complete military-political disaster. However, Moscow is making a strategic mistake. In the wake of dizziness from success, the Moscow government decided to return the land that the Swedes had seized during the Troubles. Moscow and Warsaw signed the Vilna truce. Earlier, 17 May 1656, the Russian Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich declared war on Sweden.
Initially, Russian troops have achieved some success in the fight against the Swedes. But in the future the war was fought with varying success. In addition, the war resumed with Poland and Khmelnitsky died in 1657. Partly opolyachennaya Cossack officers immediately began to conduct a "flexible" policy, betraying the interests of the masses. Getman Ivan Vyhovsky spread to the side of the Poles and Russia faced a whole enemy coalition - Rzeczpospolita, Vyhovsky Cossacks, Crimean Tatars. Soon, Vyhovsky was displaced, and his place was taken by Yury’s Khmelnitsky son, who first spoke on the side of Moscow, and then took the oath of allegiance to the Polish king. This led to a split and struggle among the Cossacks. Some relied on Poland or even Turkey, others on Moscow, others fought for themselves, creating bandit formations. As a result, Western Russia became a field of bloody battle, which completely devastated a large part of Little Russia. The Kardis Peace Treaty was concluded with Sweden in 1661, which established the borders envisaged by the Stolbovo Peace 1617. That is, the war with Sweden only dispersed the forces of Russia and was wasted.
In the future, the war with Poland went on with varying success. Russia lost a number of positions in Belarus and Little Russia. On the southern front, the Poles were supported by Cossack traitors and the Crimean horde. In 1663-1664 a large march of the Polish army led by King Jan-Kazimir in conjunction with the detachments of the Crimean Tatars and the right-bank Cossacks to Left-Bank Malorussia took place. According to the strategic plan of Warsaw, the Polish army delivered the main blow, which, together with the Cossacks of the Right Bank hetman Pavel Teteri and the Crimean Tatars, seizing the eastern lands of Little Russia, was to attack Moscow. Auxiliary blow was delivered by the Lithuanian army of Mikhail Pats. Pats was supposed to take Smolensk and connect with the king in the Bryansk area. However, the campaign, which began successfully, failed. Jan Casimir suffered a heavy defeat.
Problems started in Russia itself - the economic crisis, the Copper Riot, the Bashkir uprising. Poland was no better off. The Commonwealth was devastated by wars with Russia and Sweden, raids of Tatars and various gangs. The material and human resources of the two great powers were exhausted. As a result, at the end of the war, the forces were basically only enough for small skirmishes and battles of local significance both in the northern and in the southern theater of military operations. They did not have much importance, except for the defeat of the Poles from the Russian-Cossack-Kalmyk troops in the Battle of Korsun and in the Battle of the White Church. The depletion of both sides took advantage of the Port and the Crimean Khanate. Right-bank hetman Peter Doroshenko raised a revolt against Warsaw and declared himself a vassal of the Turkish sultan, which led to the beginning of the Polish-Cossack-Turkish war 1666 — 1671.
Bloodless Poland lost to the Ottomans and signed the Peace of Buchach, according to which the Poles refused the Podolsk and Bratslav provinces, and the southern part of the Kiev voivodship retreated to the right-bank Cossacks of Hetman Doroshenko, who was a vassal of Porta. Moreover, militarily weakened Poland pledged to pay tribute to Turkey. Insulted proud Polish elite did not accept this world. In 1672, a new Polish-Turkish war began (1672 — 1676). Poland was defeated again. However, the Zhuravensky Treaty of 1676 somewhat softened the conditions of the previous, Buchach peace, abolishing the requirement that the Ottoman Empire be paid annually to the Commonwealth. Commonwealth conceded to the Ottomans Ottomans. Right-Bank Ukraine-Little Russia, with the exception of Belotserkovsky and Pavolochsky districts, passed under the authority of Turkish vassal - Hetman Peter Doroshenko, thus becoming an Ottoman protectorate. As a result, for Poland, the Port has become a more dangerous enemy than Russia.
Thus, the depletion of resources for further military operations, as well as the general threat from the Crimean Khanate and Turkey, forced the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Russia to negotiate peace, which began in 1666 and ended with the signing of the Andrusovo truce in January 1667. Smolensk passed to the Russian state, as well as lands that had previously been ceded to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth during the Time of Troubles, including Dorogobuzh, Belaya, Nevel, Krasny, Velizh, Seversk land with Chernigov and Starodub. Poland recognized for Russia the right to Left-Bank Ukraine. According to the agreement, Kiev temporarily transferred to Moscow for two years (Russia, however, managed to keep Kiev for itself). Zaporizhzhya Sich passed under the joint management of Russia and the Commonwealth. As a result, Moscow was able to recapture only a part of the original Russian lands, which was a consequence of the managerial and strategic mistakes of the Russian government, in particular, the war with Sweden was a mistake, which dispersed the forces of the Russian army.
On the way to the "Eternal Peace"
At the turn of the XVII-XVIII centuries. two old adversaries, Russia and Poland, faced the need to coordinate actions in the conditions of the strengthening of two powerful enemies - Turkey and Sweden in the Black Sea and Baltic regions. At the same time, both Russia and Poland had long-standing strategic interests in the Black Sea and Baltic regions. However, for success in these strategic areas, it was necessary to unite efforts and carry out internal modernization, primarily of the armed forces and government, in order to successfully resist such strong enemies as the Ottoman Empire and Sweden. The situation was aggravated by the crisis phenomena in the internal structure and internal policy of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Russia. It should be noted that the Polish elite could not get out of this crisis, which ended with the complete degradation of the state system and the divisions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (the Polish state was liquidated). Russia was able to create a new project, which led to the emergence of the Russian Empire, which ultimately solved the main tasks in the Baltic States and the Black Sea region.
Already the first Romanovs began to look more and more to the West, to adopt the achievements of military science, science, and also elements of culture. Tsarevna Sophia continued this line. After the death of the childless tsar Fyodor Alekseevich, the boyars of Miloslavskiy headed by Sophia organized the Strelets revolt. As a result of September 15, 1682, the princess Sofya, the daughter of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, became regent for the juvenile brothers Ivan and Peter. The power of the brothers almost immediately became nominal. Ivan Alekseevich was from childhood a painful and incapable state government. Peter was small, and Natalya and her son moved to Preobrazhenskoye to protect themselves from a possible strike.
Tsarevna Sofya in historical popular science and fiction is often presented in the form of a sort of babischi. However, this is an obvious slander. She came to power at the age of 25, and portraits convey to us the image of a somewhat plump, but pretty woman. Yes, and the future Tsar Peter described Sophia as a man who “could be considered both bodily and mentally perfect, if not for her boundless ambition and an insatiable thirst for power.”
Sophia had several favorites. Among them stood Prince Vasily Vasilyevich Golitsyn. He received the Ambassadorial, Discharging, Reitarsky and Foreign Land orders, concentrating in his hands enormous power, control over foreign policy and armed forces. He received the title of the “Royal press and state great ambassadorial affairs as a saver, middle boyar and governor of Novgorod” (actually, the head of the government). The Kazan order was received by B. A. Golitsyn, a cousin of V. V. Golitsyn. The Strelets order was headed by Fyodor Shaklovity. A native of the Bryansk children of boyars, who owed his exaltation only to Sophia, was infinitely devoted to her (perhaps, like Vasily Golitsyn, was her lover). Sylvester Medvedev was exalted, becoming advisor to the queen on religious issues (with the patriarch Sophia was in cold relations). Shaklovity was the “loyal dog” of the tsarina, but practically all state administration was entrusted to Vasily Golitsyn.
Golitsyn was a Westerner of that time. The prince admired France, was a real frankofil. The Moscow nobility of that time began to imitate the Western nobility in every way: the fashion for Polish outfits remained in fashion, perfume became fashionable, the craze for coats of arms began, the highest chic was considered to acquire a foreign carriage, etc. Golitsyn was the first among such noble-Westerners. Notable people and rich citizens, taking an example from Golitsyn, began to build houses and palaces of the western type. Jesuits were admitted to Russia; Chancellor Golitsyn often held closed meetings with them. Catholic liturgy was allowed in Russia - the first Catholic church was opened in the German Quarter. Golitsyn began to send youth to study in Poland, mainly in Krakow Jagiellonian University. There they were taught not technical or military disciplines necessary for the development of the Russian state, but Latin, theology and jurisprudence. Such personnel could be useful in transforming Russia to Western standards.
The most active Golitsyn was noted in foreign policy, as in the domestic policy the conservative wing was too strong, and the tsarina restrained the prince’s reformist fervor. Golitsyn actively negotiated with Western countries. And during this period, the war with the Ottoman Empire was almost the main business of Europe. In 1684, the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, the king of Bohemia and Hungary, Leopold I sent diplomats to Moscow, who began to appeal to the “brotherhood of Christian sovereigns and invited the Russian state to join the Holy League. This alliance consisted of the Holy Roman Empire, the Republic of Venice and the Commonwealth and opposed Porte. A similar proposal from Moscow came from Warsaw.
However, the war with a strong Turkey then did not meet the national interests of Russia. Poland was our traditional enemy and it still owned huge Western Russian territories. Austria was not a country for which our soldiers were worth shedding blood. With Istanbul only in 1681, the Bakhchisarai peace treaty was concluded, which established peace for 20-year terms. The Ottomans recognized the Left Bank Ukraine, Zaporozhye and Kiev for the Russian state. Moscow has significantly strengthened its position in the south. The Turkish Sultan and the Crimean Khan pledged not to help the enemies of the Russians. Crimean horde pledged to stop the raids on Russian lands. In addition, the Port did not take advantage of a series of troubles in Russia, the struggle for power in Moscow. Russia at that time was more profitable not to get involved in a direct battle with Porto, but to wait for its weakening. Land for development was more than enough. It was better to focus on the return of the original Russian territories in the west, taking advantage of the weakening of Poland. In addition, the Western "partners" traditionally wanted to use the Russians as cannon fodder in the fight against Turkey and get all the benefits from this confrontation.
Golitsyn, with joy, took up the opportunity to enter into an alliance with the "progressive Western powers." The Western powers turned to him, called him friends. Therefore, the Moscow government set only one condition for joining the Holy Alliance, so that Poland signed the “eternal peace”. True, the Polish gentry indignantly rejected this condition - they did not want to permanently abandon Smolensk, Kiev, Novgorod-Seversky, Chernigov, Left-Bank Ukraine-Little Russia. As a result, Warsaw itself pushed Russia away from the Holy League. Negotiations continued throughout the 1685 year. In addition, in Russia itself there were also opponents of this union. Many boyars, who feared a prolonged war of attrition, opposed participation in the war with Porto. Against the alliance with Poland was the hetman of the Zaporozhian Troops, Ivan Samoilovich. Little Russia only a few years lived without the annual raids of the Crimean Tatars. Getman pointed to the treachery of the Poles. In his opinion, Moscow should have stood up for Russian, Orthodox Christians, who were subjected to oppression in the Polish regions, to repel the Russian ancestral lands from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth - Podolia, Volyn, Podlasie, Podgorie and all Chervona Russia. Patriarch Joachim of Moscow was against the war with Porto. At that time, a religious and political issue that was important for Ukraine-Ukraine was being resolved - Gideon was elected Metropolitan of Kiev, he was approved by Joachim, and the consent of the Patriarch of Constantinople was required. This important event for the church could be disrupted in case of an altercation with Porto. However, all the arguments of Samoylovich, Joakim and other opponents of the alliance with the Poles, the Pope and the Austrians were noted off.
True, the Poles, who were rejecting "perpetual peace" with Russia, continued to persist. However, at this time the affairs of the Holy League went bad. Turkey quickly recovered from defeat, mobilized, attracted troops from Asian and African regions. The Turks temporarily took Cetinje, the residence of the Montenegrin bishop. Turkish troops defeated the Commonwealth. Polish troops suffered retreating, the Turks threatened Lviv. This forced Warsaw to agree on the need for an alliance with Moscow. In addition, the situation of Austria was complicated. The French king Louis XIV decided to take advantage of the fact that Leopold I was stuck in the war with Turkey and developed vigorous activity. Leopold, in response, concludes an alliance with William of Orange and begins negotiations with other sovereigns in order to create an anti-French coalition. For the Holy Roman Empire there is a threat of war on two fronts. Austria, to compensate for the weakening of the front in the Balkans, intensified diplomatic efforts against the Russian state. Austria is also increasing pressure on the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania, Jan III Sobieski. The Pope, Jesuits and Venetians worked in the same direction. As a result, the joint efforts of Warsaw doge.
Prince Vasily Golitsyn
At the beginning of 1686, a huge Polish embassy arrived in Moscow, almost a thousand people, led by Poznan voivode Krzysztof Gzhimultovsky and Lithuanian Chancellor Marcian Oginsky. Prince Vladimir V. Golitsyn represented Russia in the negotiations. The Poles initially began to insist on their rights to Kiev and Zaporozhye. But in the end gave way.
The agreement with the Commonwealth was achieved only in May. 16 May 1686 was signed Eternal Peace. By its terms, Poland refused to claim the left-bank Ukraine, Smolensk and Chernihiv-Seversk land with Chernigov and Starodub, Kiev, Zaporozhye. The Poles received compensation for Kiev in 146 thousand rubles. Northern Kiev region, Volyn and Galicia remained in the Commonwealth. Southern Kyiv and Bratslavshchina with a number of cities (Kanev, Rzhishchev, Trakhtemirov, Cherkasy, Chigirin, etc.), i.e., the land heavily devastated during the war years, was to become a neutral territory between the Commonwealth and the Russian Kingdom. Russia tore up treaties with the Ottoman Empire and the Crimean Khanate, entered into an alliance with Poland and Austria. Moscow pledged, through its diplomats, to promote entry into the Holy League - England, France, Spain, Holland, Denmark and Brandenburg. Russia pledged to organize campaigns against the Crimea.
"Eternal Peace" was promoted in Moscow as Russia's greatest diplomatic victory. Prince Golitsyn, who concluded this contract, was showered with favors, received 3 thousand peasant households. On the one hand, there were successes. Poland recognized for Russia a number of its territories. Now it is possible to strengthen positions in the Black Sea region, and in the future in the Baltic States, relying on the support of Poland. In addition, the contract was personally beneficial to Sofia. He helped to approve her status as a sovereign queen. During the hype raised about the "eternal peace", Sophia appropriated the title of "All Great and Other Russian Autocrat." A successful war could further strengthen the position of Sophia and her group.
On the other hand, the Moscow government has allowed itself to be drawn into someone else's game. The war with Turkey and the Crimean Khanate at that time was not needed by Russia. Western "partners" used Russia. Russia had to start a war with a strong enemy, and even pay a lot of money to Warsaw for their own lands. Although the Poles at that time did not have the strength to fight with Russia. In the future, Rzeczpospolita will only degrade. Russia could calmly look at the wars of the Western powers with Turkey and prepare for the return of the rest of the original Russian lands in the west.
By signing Eternal Peace with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1686, Russia began a war with Porto and the Crimean Khanate. However, the Crimean campaigns 1687 and 1689. did not lead to success. Russia just wasted resources. It was not possible to secure the southern borders and expand ownership. The Western partners gained from the fruitless attempts of the Russian army to break through to the Crimea. The Crimean campaigns allowed for some time to divert significant forces of the Turks and the Crimean Tatars, which was beneficial to Russia's European allies.
Russian copy of the treaty of Russia and the Commonwealth of the "Eternal Peace"