Military Review

Deck aircraft in World War II: from Taranto to Midway. Part III

35
Battle of Midway Atoll


In the strategic plans of the Japanese command in the Pacific theater of operations - the seizure of the Midway Atoll, was to help establish complete control over all Hawaiian islands, force the Americans to leave the largest base of their naval forces in Pearl Harbor, create an immediate threat to the US territory and force the American side to sit at the table negotiations to conclude peace agreements on favorable terms.

The final decision of the Japanese command of the Midway Atoll was taken at the beginning of May 1942, a couple of days before the battle in the Coral Sea. In addition, directly, the capture of Midway envisaged an auxiliary (distracting) operation to capture two islands of the Aleutian Ridge (Attu and Kysk) and an air strike on the American base of Dutch Harbor.

For the operation, the main forces of the Japanese United fleet. The grouping of warships and support vessels totaled more than 150 units (including 11 battleships, 4 heavy and 4 light aircraft carriers, 19 cruisers and 66 destroyers). Deck grouping aviation included more than 355 combat aircraft.

On the main line, near Midway Atoll, a strike carrier carrier (commander Vice Admiral Nagumo) was to operate as part of four heavy aircraft carriers (Akagi, Kaga, Soryu and Hiryu) and 17 escort warships (in including 2 battleships and 3 cruisers) with the task of delivering an initial air strike on the harbor, antiaircraft artillery positions and, most importantly, on an air base, in order to destroy the heterogeneous aviation.

Airguns foursomed On board the aircraft carrier “Soryu” there were two new deck dive bombers “Yokosuka” D248Y “Susi” (the union code name “Judy”).


High-speed reconnaissance bomber "Yokosuka" D4Y1-C "Susi" (picture of the site wardrawings.be)

Deck dive bomber "Yokosuka" D4Y "Susi" ("Judy") was developed on the basis of technical reserve licensed, not gone into the series, the German bomber "Heinkel" Non-118. The aircraft was developed to replace the outdated Aichi dive biker D3A1 Val and made its first flight in the 1940 year. The car turned out to be high-speed: the 4 horsepower engine mounted on the D1Y1200 was accelerated by a bomber to a speed of 552 km per hour, comparable to the speed of the fighters of that time. “Judy” had a ceiling in 9900 meters and a normal range of 2535 km (maximum - 3890 km).


D4Y1 “Susi” (“Judy”) in the museum exposition, our days (Photo by j-aircraftmodel.ru)

The D4Y1 double speed bomber could carry one 250-kg or 500-kg bombs in the bomb bay as the main armament. Under the wing could be suspended two bombs on 30 kg. Before the engine hood, two 7.7-mm machine guns were installed simultaneously. Another 7.7-mm machine gun was placed on the turret at the rear of the cab.


D4Y1 “Susi” (“Judy”) at the air show, 2013 (Photo by website www.warbird-photos.com)

The reconnaissance variant D4Y1-С, which received the baptism of the Midway atoll, had an additional fuel tank instead of bombs in the armament compartment. Protection of the crew and fuel tanks on the "Judy" were absent.

The Allied Command, thanks to radio interception and decryption of messages, was aware of the plans and intentions of the enemy. The commander of the US Pacific Fleet, Admiral Nimitz, planned to preempt the Japanese in deploying their main forces and deliver an unexpected air strike on the forces and airborne forces.

The composition of the US Navy air strike force (commander of Rear Admiral Fletcher) included three aircraft carriers (Enterprise, Hornet and Yorktown) and 25 escort warships (of which 8 cruisers). Their air groups included 233 combat aircraft (79 Fighter Grumman F4F-4 Wildcat, 112 Douglas SBD-3 Douglass Dive Bombers, Douglas Douglas-OAn-1T-1T-1T-10N-0NDX, Douglas XDUMX Fighter Jets, 42 Douglas Optlas XDUMX Douglas Deathtas, 1 Douglas XDUMX Fighter Aircraft

The fourth "unsinkable aircraft carrier" was Midway himself. At its airbase, a powerful heterogeneous aviation group of 109 combat aircraft and 30 flying boats (amphibians) Consolidated PBY-5 Catalina was deployed.


Flying boat PBY-5 "Catalina" (picture wardrawings.be site)

The multipurpose flying boat "Consolidated" PBY "Catalina" to this day is considered the most massive and most successful. Catalina made its first flight back in the distant 1935 year, and the last modifications were operated until the 1970s. The most massive belligerent models were PBY-5 and PBY-5А (equipped with a 3-wheel retractable landing gear).


Amphibian PBY-5А "Catalina" (Picture wardrawings.be site)

The PBY-5А twin-engine amphibian was equipped with 1200 horsepower engines and developed a maximum speed of 288 km per hour (cruising 188 km per hour). The Catalina had a ceiling of 4480 meters and a practical range of 4096 km.


Amphibian PBY-5А "Catalina" in flight, our days (Photo site www.flickr.com)

Amphibious crew depended on the tasks and included from seven to eleven people. Defense weapons were represented by two 12.7-mm and three 7.62-mm machine guns. Airborne torpedoes, conventional and depth charges could be suspended under the wings (the total weight of the combat load could not exceed 1814 kg).

Deck aircraft in World War II: from Taranto to Midway. Part III

Amphibian PBY-5А "Catalina" in the parking lot, our days (Photo site www.navalaviationfoundation.org)

Army Aviation (Air Force) was represented by 17 heavy bombers "Boeing" B-17 "Flying Fortress" and four medium "Martin" B-26. Marine fighter aircraft possessed 7 F4F-3 «Wildcat" 21 fighter "Brewster» F2A-3 «Buffalo" dive bomber SBD-2 «Dountless» (16 units) and SB2U-3 «Vindikeytor» (17 units). The six newest torpedo bombers, the Grumman TBF Avenger, belonging to the Hornet Air Group, did not get on their aircraft carrier and remained at the island airbase.

The Brewster carrier-based fighter F2A-3 The Buffalo first took to the air in 1937. Before the outbreak of hostilities in the Pacific, an obsolete fighter from the decks of aircraft carriers migrated to coastal airfields and was used for training purposes or for object defense (like on the Midway Atoll).



Brewster F2A-3 Buffalo (Picture by wardrawings.be)

The F2A-3 single-metal all-metal fighter was equipped with an 1200 horsepower engine. The maximum speed at the height of 5000 m was 518 km per hour. To a height of 4572, the Buffalo went up in 7 minutes. Armament fighter consisted of four 12.7-mm machine guns (two synchronous and two in the wings).



Fighter F2A-3 "Buffalo" in flight, 1942 g. (Photo site aviawarworld.ru)

The overweight F2A-3 “Buffalo” was noticeably inferior to the “Zero” in terms of maneuverability and rate of climb.


Bout "Vout" SB2U-3 "Wyndhaytor" (picture wardrawings.be site)

Deck dive bomber reconnaissance "Vout" SB2U-3 "Vindikadetor" made its first flight in the year 1936. At the beginning of World War II, SB2U, remaining on aircraft carriers, performed reconnaissance missions, and as shock from US airborne USMC.


SB2U-3 “Vindikaytor” in flight, 1940 g. (Photo site wikimedia.org)

A double bomber with an 825 engine horsepower with a maximum take-off weight of 4273 kg could reach a maximum speed of 391 km per hour. The aircraft has a ceiling 7200 meters and a range with a maximum bomb load of 1800 km.


Link SB2U-3 in flight (Photo site axis-and-allies-paintworks.com)

The SB2U-3 armament consisted of two 12.7-mm machine guns (one in the wing and one on the gunner’s gun turret) and aerial bombs suspended under the center section (one on 454 kg) or wings (two in 113 kg). Maximum combat load weight 454 kg.


SB2U-3 "Vindikaytor" drops a bomb (Picture site www.fiddlersgreen.net)

Deck torpedo bomber "Grumman" TBF "Avenger" was developed to replace the outdated "Douglas" TBD-1 "Devastateor." The first flight of the Avenger made in 1941 year, from the beginning of 1942 -th mass production of the model TBF-1 began, which took its first battle with the Midway Atoll in June.


TBF-1 Avenger (Picture by wardrawings.be)

The Avenger was a three-seater mid-plane with hydraulically folding wings. According to the already established firm grummannovskoy tradition, the TBF torpedo bomber turned out to be a fairly solid and sturdy machine that can withstand numerous hits.


“Grumman” TVM-3E “Avenger” (Photo site www.aviarmor.net)

Powerful 1700-strong engine accelerated heavy car (take-off maximum 7221 kg) up to a maximum speed of 436 km per hour. The flight range of the Avenger with a torpedo was 1955 km, and the ceiling was 6790 meters.


TVM-3E Avenger torpedo bomber at the air show, our days (Photo site www.warbirddepot.com)

The main armament of the torpedo carrier model TBF-1 was located in a spacious bomb bay and could consist of one X. NUMX X-mm torpedoes or two 569-kg bombs (or smaller bombs weighing up to 13 kg). The small arms consisted of one 454-mm machine gun in a special turret at the gunner-radio operator and two 907-mm machine guns (one synchronous, the other in the back of the fuselage, firing down).


TBF-1 Avenger at the time of the torpedo discharge, 1942. (Photo by midnike.livejournal.com)

3 June 1942 of the six aircraft gunners from the Japanese aircraft carrier "Ryujo" and "Dzunyo" of six torpedo bombers B5N2 "Kate" with the support of six fighters "Zero" attacked the harbor of Dutch Harbor (Aleutian Islands). At this time, the Japanese ships had already reached 700 miles to the Midway Atoll. The Japanese could not remain unnoticed.


The scheme of the battle of the Midway Atoll 4-5 June 1942. (Photo site ww2history.ru)

This morning, at about nine o'clock, the ships heading for Midway were found by one of the PBY Catalina flying boats making regular reconnaissance flights.


Flying boat PBY-5 "Catalina" in reconnaissance flight (Photo site www.aviarmor.net.aww2)

In the evening, nine Flying Fortresses B-17 dropped bombs on a group of Japanese transports that were already 570 miles from Midway Atoll. The attack of heavy bombers was generally inconclusive. More successful was the night attack of the four Katalin armed with torpedoes. Of the three torpedoes dropped, one landed in a tanker and inflicted minor damage to him, he only reduced the speed. The Americans suffered no losses during the attacks.

The air attacks that occurred the night before and at night did not change the plans of the Japanese command, and early in the morning of 4 June 1942 from the decks of heavy aircraft carriers, at a distance of midway, in 240 miles, the first planes began to take off. Strike an air group with four aircraft carriers (“Akagi”, “K”)

At a distance of about 150 miles from Midway Atoll on 5.45 in the morning, Japanese aircraft were found flying the PBY Catalina. Another "Catalina" a little later, with a difference of several minutes, noticed already two aircraft carriers and enemy escort ships at a distance from the 180 base miles to the north-west.

Having received from the reconnaissance "Katalin" and the base radar information about the approach of the Japanese air attack group, the base command lifted almost all aircraft into the air. Attack aircraft barrage waited for orders, and the marines fighters (20 F2A-3 "Buffalo" and the six F4F-3 "Wildcat") rushed to intercept the enemy.

An air battle occurred when there was no more than 30 miles to the atoll. The morally obsolete, slow-moving Buffalo and less maneuverable Wildcats, at the controls of which were young inexperienced pilots, lost this air fight to a more speedy and maneuverable Zero with well-trained pilots. The Japanese, having lost only two planes, shot down 15 American fighters and heavily damaged the rest.



Airfield on Midway Atoll during a Japanese air raid (Photo from A. Patients' book, Aircraft Carriers. Illustrated Encyclopedia, 2013)

The Keits and Vels who suffered no losses from American fighters in 6.30 attacked Midway. They were met by dense anti-aircraft fire of island batteries. Five strike airplanes and two Zero were shot down. The crushing blow failed. Elements of the infrastructure of the base were destroyed or damaged, but the runway was not damaged, and there were already no airplanes on it. Vice Admiral Nagumo, the commander of the first shock wave, sent a report on the need for a second attack.



Fire at the fuel depot, Sand Island, Midway (Photo site fototelegraf.ru)

Admiral Nimitz, receiving a message about the bombing of the atoll of Midway, gave the order to attack aircraft patrolling nearby strike aircraft to strike at the Japanese ships. Beginning at seven o'clock in the morning, four air raids were carried out, but they all ended without result and with huge losses on the American side. Thus, of the six newest torpedo bombers Avenger TBF and four B-26 Barauder Marauder bomber, only two B-26 and one Avenger returned from the mission. Of the 16 dive bombers SBD-2 "Downtless" was lost eight and the rest damaged (6 of them could not be restored). SB2U-3 "Vindikaytor" dive bombers lost 4 aircraft from 11.



SB2U-3 “Vindikaytor” after the attack of the Japanese cruiser (Fig. Site www.super-hobby.co.uk)

The absence of fighter cover, the dense fire of the ship's air defense, the furious Zero attacks and the poor training of American pilots caused such great losses of attack aircraft attacking Japanese ships. The losses were not borne only by the “Flying Fortresses” B-17, which bombed the Japanese from a height of more than 6000 meters, but never reached a single target hit.



“Khiryu” maneuvers during the bombing with B-17 “Flying Fortress”, Midway, 4 June 1942 of the year (Photo site fototelegraf.ru)

From six in the morning, the Americans began to raise their planes to attack the discovered Japanese aircraft carriers. The Yorktown strike air group consisted of XDUMX torpedo bomber TBD-12 Devastator and 1 diving bombers SBD-17 Downtless, which was covered by six F2F-4 Wildcat fighters (all 4 Fighter XMNFXX-35 Wildteer).



TBD-1 “Devastate” torpedo bombers on the deck of Inerterprise before departure, June 4 1942 (Photo by fototelegraf.ru)

An hour later, the aircraft began to take off from the Enterprise and the Hornet. This strike air group included 116 airplanes (29 torpedo bombers Devastaitor, 67 dive bombers Downleat and 20 fighter jets F4F-4 Wildcat). At the time of take-off of torpedo bombers, the aircraft carriers were located at a distance from the intended point of attack, exceeding the range of the “Devastator”.



SBD-2 “Downless” on the deck of the “Hornet”, 4 June 1942 (Photo by wikimedia.org)

As already happened, inaccurate intelligence data on the location of the target, poor interaction and “His Majesty the case” led to the fact that two attack squadrons did not detect the enemy and did not take part in the air strike, losing due to lack of fuel 12 aircraft. Three air squadrons "Devastate", ahead of the dive bombers, without fighter cover rushed to the attack on the Japanese aircraft carriers. From 41, “Devastate” survived only from 4 to 6 machines. None of the torpedoes dropped by them reached the goal. The Japanese were surprised by the violent suicide attack of American pilots. But the death of torpedo bombers was not in vain.



TBD-1 “Devastate” torpedo attack (Image by korabley.net)

At that moment, when almost all Japanese fighters attacked low-flying torpedo bombers under heavy fire of ship-based anti-aircraft artillery, dive-bombers from three squadrons suddenly fell from the height of the Japanese aircraft carriers. It was Dawnless's finest hour, which at 10.24, almost simultaneously, attacked Akagi, Kagu and Soryu and for five minutes put them out of action.



Attack of Japanese aircraft carriers (drawing site www.howarddavidjohnson.com)

Two bombs hit the Akagi and caused numerous plane fires accompanied by explosions of ammunition and fuel. The fire quickly spread throughout the ship and went out of control. The team was removed from the aircraft carrier. Early in the morning of June 5, 1942 of the year “Akagi” was torpedoed by its destroyer, and after hitting four bombs it went to the bottom.



Attack by diving bomber SBD-2 "Akagi" (Fig. Steeljawscribe.com site)

"Kaga" got hit by four bombs and caught fire. At the very beginning of the air attack, almost all the officers on the bridge were killed when a nearby gasoline tank capacity exploded. After a series of fuel tank explosions in 19.25, the aircraft carrier sank.



A pair of Dountless after a bomb attack on "Litter" (Fig. Site steeljawscribe.com)

In the third aircraft carrier "Soryu" for three minutes got three aerial bombs. The flight deck was torn up. After numerous explosions of gasoline tanks, the entire ship was engulfed in flames. By order of the captain, the crew began to leave the ship, rushing straight into the water, but not everyone could do it. The ship was still exploding, when sea waves closed over it in 19.13. More than 700 people took with him into the abyss of "litter".

The loss by the Japanese fleet of three heavy aircraft carriers cost the Americans in 67 aircraft (55 of them were shot down, the rest were lost due to lack of fuel).

The fourth Japanese aircraft carrier "Hiryu", located at a distance from the others, was not attacked. His air group of 18 dive bombers D3A1 "Val" and 8 fighter cover A6М2 "Zero" headed for "Yorktown". Downed over the deck of the aircraft carrier "Val" in 12.00 managed to drop all three of their bombs that hit the target. There were fires on the ship, all the boilers got up and the course was lost. During the attack, the Japanese lost 16 aircraft from 26 (including the "Val" 13).



"Yorktown" is burning after the attack of the D3A1 dive bombers "Val" (Photo from A. Patients' book "Aircraft Carriers. Illustrated Encyclopedia", 2013)

Two hours later, the restored Yorktown was attacked again, but already 10 torpedo bombers from Hiryu. The ship got hit by two torpedoes. The aircraft carrier again lost its course tilted to the port side, and the hull received heavy damage. Fighter jets F4F-4 "Yorktown" were able to destroy the 5 torpedo bombers B5N2 "Kate" and 3 "Zero" (half of the attackers). Having considered the aircraft carrier doomed, the Americans hastily evacuated the team, leaving two seriously wounded people in the ship hospital.



The crew of the aircraft carrier "Yorktown" leaves the damaged ship (Photo site fototelegraf.ru)

However, the "Yorktown" was not going to sink. Attempts to reanimate the ship were interrupted by a Japanese submarine I-168. Of the four torpedoes fired at 16.30 on the sixth of June, two were hit by an aircraft carrier, and one by a destroyer squadron of an emergency batch. The destroyer broke in half and sank. “Yorktown” sank only the next day at six in the morning.


"Yorktown" and the destroyer "Gammann" at the time of the explosion of torpedoes released by a Japanese submarine (Photo site pacificparatrooper.files.wordpress.com)

The fourth Japanese heavy aircraft carrier "Hiryu" was found 4 June 14.45, 17.03 and was attacked by the shock of the air group 24 dive bombers SBD-2 «Dountless" with the aircraft carrier "Enterprise" and "Yorktown" without fighter cover. The Dountlessa managed to overcome the barrier of the six remaining Zero fighters and achieved four hits at Hiryu. The nose of the flight deck was torn apart by the aircraft carrier, numerous fires arose. Two SBD-2s were shot down by fighter fires, the third dive bomber ran out of fuel, and it fell into the sea.


The aircraft carrier "Hiryu" is on fire; the destroyed nose of the deck is clearly visible, morning 5 June 1942. (Photo from fototelegraf.ru)

The second assault air group from the Hornet from the 16 Downtless arrived half an hour late. None of the bombs dropped by them hit the burning Hiryu and escort ships. The aircraft carrier itself, from which most of the crew was removed (except for the engine room), kept afloat until the morning of the next day. After two torpedoes fired from their destroyer, the heavy aircraft carrier Hiryu in 8.20 disappeared into the ocean depths.

The point in the battle at Midway was put 6 June, when two air groups from the remaining two US aircraft carriers (Enterprise and Hornet) on 80 (first wave) and 32 aircraft (second wave) were heavily damaged by the Japanese cruiser "Mogami" and Mikuma. On the night of June 7, the heavy cruiser “Mikuma” sank. The main strike force of the air groups was the SBD-2 downtless dive bomber (81 dive-bomber of the total number of aircraft in 112 units participated in the attacks). TBD-1 “Devastate” torpedo bombers (3 vehicles took part in the raid), which later lost their place on the decks of American aircraft carriers to more modern aircraft - the Grumman TBF Avenger.

With their victory in the battle of Midway Atoll, the Americans finally took away the strategic initiative from the Japanese. The Japanese fleet suffered a crushing defeat. Four heavy aircraft carriers with their own air groups and one heavy cruiser were lost. Particularly sensitive loss was the death of well-trained and experienced pilots, and not filled to the very end of the war.

For their victory, the Americans paid with the death of one aircraft carrier and one destroyer, the loss of about a hundred and fifty combat aircraft (taking into account the losses of coastal aircraft).

Carriers and carrier-based aircraft finally established themselves as the main striking force in the war at sea.

References:
1. Shant K., Bishop. Aircraft carriers. The most formidable aircraft carriers of the world and their planes: The Illustrated Encyclopedia / Trans. from English / - M .: Omega, 2006.
2. Beshanov V.V. Encyclopedia of aircraft carriers / Under the general editorship of AE Taras - Moscow: AST, Minsk: Harvest, 2002 - (Library of military stories).
3. Polmar N. Aircraft carriers: The 2 T.T.1 / Trans. from English A. Propulsion Patients. - M .: LLC Publishing AST, 2001. - (Military history library).
4. Patients A.G. Aircraft carrier duels. The culmination of World War II! - M .: Yauza: Eksmo, 2011.
5. Patients A.G. Aircraft carriers. Illustrated Encyclopedia - M .: Yauza: Eksmo, 2013.
6. Patients A.G. Pearl Harbor. “Pyrrhic Victory” of the Imperial Navy - M .: Yauza: Eksmo, 2014.
7. Kudishin I.V. Deck fighters of the Second World War - Moscow: Astrel Publishing House LLC: AST Publishing House LLC, 2001.
8. Kotelnikov V.R. "Hurricane" fighter. "Hurricanes" in battle - Moscow: VERO Press: Yauza: Eksmo, 2012.
9. Haruk A.I. "Zero." The best fighter - M .: Collection: Yauza: Eksmo, 2010.
10. Haruk A.I. Attack aircraft of the Second World War - attack aircraft, bombers, torpedo bombers - M .: Yauza: EKSMO, 2012.
11. Haruk A.I. Fighters of the Second World War. The most complete encyclopedia - M .: Yauza: Eksmo, 2012.

Internet resources:
http://www.airwar.ru;
http://pro-samolet.ru;
http://wp.scn.ru;
http://www.aviastar.org;
http://www.avionslegendaires.net;
http://wardrawings.be/WW2;
http://www.airpages.ru;
http://fototelegraf.ru.
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35 comments
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  1. inkass_98
    inkass_98 1 June 2016 07: 17
    +5
    Thanks to the author for the hard work and detailed descriptions. hi A very interesting series of articles.
    1. DanSabaka
      DanSabaka 1 June 2016 09: 08
      +4
      I had a chance to watch amerovsky film "Midway", where this story is presented more glamor and gyro ... According to their version, they knew about the Japanese attack in advance and naturally they did not allow any strike on military targets on Midway Island ... Losses in the film, of course there were, and incl. The Yorktown sank, but the rescue of the crew was organized and of course there was no mention of any seriously wounded left in the ship's infirmary ....
      Interestingly, if the wounded were "forgotten", then who was evacuated first, the captain or the ship's bardel?
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 1 June 2016 10: 46
        +4
        Quote: DanSabaka
        I had a chance to watch the amerovsky film "Midway", where this story is presented more glamor and gyro ... According to their version, they knew about the Japanese attack in advance and naturally they did not allow any strike on military targets on Midway Island ...

        EMNIP, there was definitely a raid on the island. Moreover, the Yankees had at their disposal a documentary film "Battle of Midway" in 1942, filmed by John Ford on the island during those events.
        Quote: DanSabaka
        Losses in the film, of course, were, including "Yorktown" sank, but the crew’s rescue was organized, and of course there weren’t any mention of seriously injured left in the ship’s infirmary ....

        Duc ... few people like to talk about their mistakes. We also try not to remember once again, for example, about VT-521 "Joseph Stalin".
      2. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 2 June 2016 15: 09
        +1
        for Dan Sabaka:
        "I wonder if the wounded were" forgotten ", then who was evacuated first" ////

        When the ship capsizes, burns and sinks to evacuate
        seriously wounded from the infirmary - impossible.
        And you will perish, and you will not save anyone.
        The seriously wounded and on the Soviet front during retreats were thrown,
        when there were no trains to evacuate. Entire hospitals.
        And for this it is impossible to blame: one person should be pulled out
        at least two, and usually four fighters. And change 4 every
        one hundred meters.
        1. Jackking
          Jackking 8 June 2016 23: 40
          +3
          B ... be enough to stick everywhere "but on the Soviet front ..."! It was about the most "humane exceptional democrats of the universe" - sga. And, if you read the article carefully, the aircraft carrier sank only the next day and only after the attack of the submarine. So, if you put your tongue behind your curators, then do it wisely ...
          And as for the one who and where threw his soldiers, I will not remember - they were all the same living people with their hopes ...
    2. Imperialkolorad
      Imperialkolorad 1 June 2016 09: 57
      +10
      Quote: inkass_98
      Thanks to the author for the hard work and detailed descriptions. A very interesting series of articles.

      I completely agree with your words. However, it surprises me who minus such articles. They already do not enjoy very much attention among forum users, unlike geopolitics and topical issues of our time. A huge request to have a conscience and respect for someone else's well-done work.
  2. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 1 June 2016 07: 21
    +3
    nice cycle. everything is generalized and well illustrated. Thank!
  3. igordok
    igordok 1 June 2016 07: 33
    +3
    Thanks so much for the series of articles.
    Question. A device for removing the bomb from the area of ​​operation of the blades on a dive. What is the name of? Who invented (at least a country)?

    1. Taoist
      Taoist 1 June 2016 12: 13
      +4
      the paraleagram mechanism was invented a long time ago ... so there is no specific inventor here. Just when it was necessary to remove the bomb from the projection of the screw it was used.
  4. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin 1 June 2016 08: 48
    +9
    The article is very well illustrated, but ... this is its only plus, sorry, the author. A standard description of generally banal facts well known to anyone interested in the history of the "War in the Pacific".

    And yet - never analyzed that Midway - this is just the same fatal battle of accidents that fell out against the Japanese. "The gods of war and fate were against us!" - I fully subscribe to these words, because otherwise, even despite the decryption of the code and the interception of messages about the operation, the Americans are very likely to lose this battle.

    There is probably no greater combination of chain of accidents in any battle in the Pacific Ocean than in Midway.

    Quote: anodonta
    In fact, the complete loss of strategic initiative was still a long way off. Ahead was the victory at Savo and many other battles. The final loss of strategic initiative by the Japanese is at least 1943 year.
    I absolutely agree with your opinion, colleague! Midway - in Churchill's words - "not the end, and not even the beginning of the end, it is rather the end of the beginning".

    Quote: igordok
    A device for removing the bomb from the area of ​​operation of the blades on a dive. What is the name of? Who invented (at least a country)?
    Invented the first, if I'm not mistaken, the Germans back in the early 1930s - it was used mainly on Ju-87 dive bombers. I don’t remember if it was used on the "Valah" by the Japanese, I have to dig into the literature.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 1 June 2016 10: 34
      +4
      Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
      And yet - it has never been analyzed that Midway is just a fatal battle of accidents that fell against the Japanese. "The gods of war and fate were against us!" - I fully subscribe to these words, tk. otherwise, even despite the decryption of the code and the interception of messages about the operation, the Americans would very likely lose this battle.

      Accidents that played against the Americans, we will not take into account?
      The kind of wind that had died down that disrupted the Enterprise's strike team's ascent schedule and broke up the coordinated attack? Or lost squadrons? Or problems with communication even within groups of the same AB? Or malfunctioning torpedoes?

      If the Enterprise had lifted the entire group as originally planned, there would have been no need for any searches and lost EMs. Thorps would bring the dive bombers to the target (in real life, they were the first to find the target - the slower torps that took off later).

      In general, the Americans simply put up great strength. And according to probability theory, in a series of successive strikes, sooner or later they should have been lucky.
      1. Warrior2015
        Warrior2015 1 June 2016 12: 51
        +1
        Quote: Alexey RA
        In general, the Americans simply put up great strength. And according to probability theory, in a series of successive strikes, sooner or later they should have been lucky.

        Let me disagree - how big are these forces? and who had more aircraft carriers? but just surface ships whose armada was?
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 1 June 2016 14: 14
          +1
          Quote: Warrior2015
          Let me disagree - how big are these forces? and who had more aircraft carriers?

          But do not forget about Midway. smile
          Taking into account its air group, it turns out 360 American cars against 260 Japanese ones. And the Yankees sent everything they could into battle - except for patrol Catalins and AUG cover fighters.

          Before the arrival of the dive bombers, Nagumo's compound was sequentially attacked: 4 "widowmakers", 6 "Avengers", 16 "slow but deadly" from Midway, 15 "fortresses", 11 "Vindicators", 15 "devastators", 14 "devastators", 12 " devastators ".
          Quote: Warrior2015
          but just surface ships whose armada was?

          And what, after the sinking of only 4 ships, did this armada reach Midway? smile
    2. Taoist
      Taoist 1 June 2016 12: 21
      +3
      Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
      There is probably no greater combination of chain of accidents in any battle in the Pacific Ocean than in Midway.


      Well, I'm not sure, the "fog of war" worked there on both sides ... Another question is that the Japanese for some reason at the command level always had a lot of hesitation ... As a result, decisions were often made just late. Well, and the fact that Japanese designers often neglected the issues of survivability and life support in order to enhance the combat capabilities of equipment. Well, even aircraft carriers should not resemble large disposable lighters. Compare the amount of ammunition hit the ships ... from 2 to 4 bombs of relatively small caliber and the ship vigorously turns into a volcano ... At the same time, the same Yorktown "ate" much more ...
      1. Warrior2015
        Warrior2015 1 June 2016 12: 52
        +2
        Quote: Taoist
        equal the amount of ammunition trapped in the ships ... from 2x to 4x bombs of a relatively small caliber and the ship cheerfully turns into a volcano ...

        The problem of survivability was characteristic of all Japanese technology during the war. Think of Taiho as the most striking example. Literally and figuratively. laughing
        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 1 June 2016 20: 51
          0
          The planes were refueled on deck; everything was open. Only in Nimitz made a gas station
          Truly fireproof: fuel supply from below, valves on hoses, etc.
  5. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 1 June 2016 10: 12
    +10
    Four heavy aircraft carriers with their air groups and one heavy cruiser were lost. The death of well-trained and experienced pilots, which was not made up until the very end of the war, turned out to be a particularly sensitive loss.

    Contrary to popular myths, the loss of Japanese pilots during Midway was not at all so catastrophic.
    When historians stopped copying from each other the loss figures that were taken from where they came from and turned to the primary, they opened reports of the air groups of Japanese aircraft carriers that took part in the hostilities of the Midway-Aleutian operation, as well as lists of the personnel of the air groups of these aircraft carriers - an extremely interesting picture emerged:
    ... about any "hundreds of dead pilots" is not talking. Even the total loss of the entire flight crews hardly passes for a hundred (these are calculations by M. Khoran, in Japanese sources the figure 98 is found). In addition, it is clearly seen that most of the pilots (46 from 66) did not die under the bombs of the American dive bombers, but in the air, that is, they would be lost in the same way even in the case of more favorable developments for the Japanese. The relatively low number of pilots who died on the ships is explained quite simply: the greatest losses were those crew members of aircraft carriers who either were near primary and secondary explosions (i.e., on the hangar decks), or took part in attempts to eliminate fires, or were cut off from evacuation. The pilots did not belong to any of these categories. At the time of the attack, they were mostly in the premises for instruction, and they were not attracted to actions to fight for survivability - for this they, at least, knew too little about the structure of their ships.

    Critical for IJN was not the loss of pilots, but the death of 4 full-fledged ABs at once.
    The defeat at Midway really was a disaster for Japan. But not because of the catastrophic losses of the flight crew. They were indeed serious in both quantity and quality, but in reality they were even less than the amount of losses during the raid on Pearl Harbor and the battles in the Coral Sea. However, the pilots of the "first line", that is, having completed a full three-year training course, the Japanese still had enough. But there weren’t enough aircraft carriers anymore ... And - what’s even worse - there was no idea: if at that time 3 squadron and 9 light aircraft carriers were being built at American shipyards, then only 1 squadron, 1 light and 1 reconstructed from a passenger ship at Japanese shipyards liner, which could not compensate for the loss of 4 squadron aircraft carriers. As a result, the Japanese fleet lost the ability to "project power" with massive support from the air, and with it the strategic initiative. Now the Japanese could only react to the enemy’s actions, and those remnants of the Empire’s air sword, which couldn’t find a place on the decks of the few remaining aircraft carriers, ended up on the coast airfields and were pulled into the months-long meat grinder in the sky of Guadalcanal, finally grinding the Imperial Navy personnel aircraft. Blitzkrieg was stopped, the war of attrition began. A war in which Japan already had no chance of victory.

    A detailed analysis of losses is at SW. midnike:
    http://midnike.livejournal.com/1743.html
  6. Verdun
    Verdun 1 June 2016 12: 10
    0

    At a time when almost all Japanese fighters attacked torpedo bombers flying low under heavy fire from naval anti-aircraft artillery, dive bombers of three squadrons suddenly fell from a height on Japanese aircraft carriers.
    Well, as far as I read, this was not the case. Just another wave of attackers reached the Japanese aircraft carriers at the moment when the cover fighters were at the gas station. There was no American tactical plan for me, but a pure coincidence that seriously affected the course of the war.
    Clarification regarding Aichi D4Y1 "Susay". The reconnaissance version, called D4Y1-C, did not carry bomb armament, since it did not have bomb racks. The "Susay" shown in one of the photographs with an MK8R air-cooled engine was produced later than the events described and was marked D4Y3
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 1 June 2016 12: 44
      +2
      Quote: Verdun
      Well, as far as I read, this was not the case. Just another wave of attackers reached the Japanese aircraft carriers at the moment when the cover fighters were at the gas station.

      Hehe-heh ... by the time the "slow but deadly" approach, the Japanese cover fighters were constantly refueled (as well as in the air). Due to the incessant strikes of American aviation, Nagumo was forced to organize a conveyor for refueling and replenishing ammunition "Zero" (hello to the small BC of the cannons), and fighters, originally intended to escort the second shock wave, were attracted to solve the air defense problems of the compound.
      More than 40 "zero" were in the air while repelling the attacks of the torps. But all the fighters went to the MV and PMV. There was simply no one to intercept the cover groups of McCluskey and Leslie discovered by the ships.

      So this is not an accident. The calm launch into the attack by the dive bombers is the result of the self-sacrifice of those killed by almost the entire body of torpedo squadrons (as well as the skillful actions of Tech's six, who tied half of the "zero" cover).
      1. Warrior2015
        Warrior2015 1 June 2016 12: 54
        0
        Quote: Alexey RA
        (as well as the skillful actions of Tech's six who tied half of the cover's "zero").

        By the way, "Tech's pattern" is just some kind of song!
        1. Verdun
          Verdun 1 June 2016 16: 14
          +2
          Quote: Warrior2015
          By the way, "Tech's pattern" is just some kind of song!

          And what did you find in this pattern? Together - for one ... This pattern is far from the Safonovskaya carousel. And where was that pattern when Kinsuke Muto on N1K2-J single-handedly fought a dozen Hellcats? Four of them were overwhelmed by the Japanese ace, and the rest gave up ...
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 1 June 2016 19: 39
            0
            Quote: Verdun
            And what are you found in this pattern? Together - for one ...

            That it enables a heavy and clumsy machine like a "six-point" cat to fight on equal terms with a nimble "Zero".
            And about "two on one" ... war is not a knightly duel or Battletech with battles of the trueborn.
            1. Verdun
              Verdun 1 June 2016 22: 24
              0
              Quote: Alexey RA
              oh, that it enables a heavy and clumsy machine like a "six-point" cat to fight on an equal footing with an agile "Zero".

              Yes, Thatsch has 17 wins in the Cat. However, I doubt that his "pattern" was as effective as painted. “Zeke” surpassed “Wildcat” not only in the bend, but also on the vertical. And to believe that the Japanese pilots flew alone, substituting their backs for the attacks of American wingmen, is rather strange. In addition, if you look at the data that the Americans publish about their aircraft, the Japanese flew most of the war in aircraft that were technically inferior to enemy aircraft.
              1. Alexey RA
                Alexey RA 2 June 2016 10: 17
                0
                Quote: Verdun
                And it’s rather strange to believe that Japanese pilots flew alone, substituting their backs for attacks by American followers.

                In the memoirs of Japanese aces, there are constantly complaints that after the start of the battle the group breaks up, and each pilot begins an independent hunt for frags .. smile
                1. Verdun
                  Verdun 2 June 2016 11: 55
                  0
                  Quote: Alexey RA
                  each pilot begins an independent hunt

                  Do you think the Americans were different? In a dog landfill, tactics recede into the background and one can only hope for personal mastery. And if the Safonovsky protective carousel could be twisted for quite some time, then the Tech pattern is most likely for the first attack. In one form or another, something similar was used by both our and German pilots. When a follower from a long distance opened fire, forcing the enemy to maneuver and turn under the lead of a salvo.
                  1. Alexey RA
                    Alexey RA 2 June 2016 18: 19
                    0
                    Quote: Verdun
                    Do you think the Americans were different? In a dog landfill, tactics recede into the background and one hopes for personal mastery. And if the Safonovsky protective carousel could be twisted for quite some time, then the Tech pattern is most likely for the first attack.

                    It was the Yankees who kept interaction even in battle. Otherwise, Tech's six at Midway would have been unrolled by a three times superior enemy in a few minutes - just as the same "cats" of the Marine Corps were unrolled over Midway.

                    By the way, here is how Saburo Sakai described the typical battle of Japanese pilots:
                    Having passed Salamoa, we launched an attack. Once again, our pilots demonstrated their inability to act in a single formation. Everyone believed that this was his battle, and chased after the bombers, not paying attention to his comrades. Zero, making sharp turns, tried to avoid a collision with other fighters, the pilots had to make coups every now and then, so as not to fall under the fire of their aircraft, randomly firing at bombers.
          2. Warrior2015
            Warrior2015 2 June 2016 19: 15
            0
            Quote: Verdun
            And where was that pattern when Kinsuke Muto on N1K2-J single-handedly fought a dozen Hellcats? Four of them were overwhelmed by the Japanese ace, and the rest gave up ...

            Exceptions always confirm the rules.

            The United States was able to "set up production" of very qualified pilots with a huge touch throughout the war.

            Japan, after the death of the main forces of its first line fleet superpilots in 1941-1942, was never able to establish a mass training of pilots of even normal qualifications. As a result, even if the "Yamato country" were building aircraft carriers with themes that were somehow approaching those of the US, they would be useless - there would be no one to fly on them.
  7. Dimon19661
    Dimon19661 1 June 2016 12: 15
    0
    By design, quality of material, style, perhaps the best series of articles on the site over the past year. Thanks to the author.
  8. Taoist
    Taoist 1 June 2016 12: 43
    +4
    By the way, while reading this series of articles, I constantly feel a strange feeling drawing parallels with the "battle for the Falklands" ... it seems that if they used the technique of "Midway times" there, there would be much more sense ...
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 1 June 2016 13: 21
      +2
      Quote: Taoist
      By the way, while reading this series of articles, I constantly feel a strange feeling drawing parallels with the "battle for the Falklands" ... it seems that if they used the technique of "Midway times" there, there would be much more sense ...

      Ahem ... I'm afraid that dive divers would have had certain problems in 1982. Group goal, low speed, high altitude - This is an ideal target for air defense systems. Here, even the Britons would have no problems.

      Here, the technique of the times of the battles for Iwo Jima and Okinawa would probably fit:
      - 80% "corsair-like" information security (NAR or a bomb with a topmast drop);
      - 20% of "Avengers" (or better - "Skyraders") - either with torpedoes, or with 1000-pounds for topmast dropping.

      I can imagine the eyes of the British, on which this would fall out ... "The seventh aircraft carrier" nervously smokes on the sidelines. smile
      1. Taoist
        Taoist 1 June 2016 13: 30
        0
        I think "tinnie toy" would be enough for everyone and for the eyes ... Yes, they would definitely go nuts. And the dive bombers? - This is already from the category of "hello to the landing" ...

        By the way, ours on this matter seriously discussed it would be enough for "Antilope" 1st C24 or would have to spend 2 all the same ... ;-)
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 1 June 2016 15: 39
          0
          Quote: Taoist
          By the way, ours on this matter seriously discussed it would be enough for "Antilope" 1st C24 or would have to spend 2 all the same ... ;-)

          Kind you ... I suppose also the OFAB or RBC-500 consumption for the landed assault force was calculated. smile
          1. Taoist
            Taoist 1 June 2016 16: 35
            +1
            And then how ... "the economy should be economical" (c) OFABs are generally a luxury in the absence of normal fortifications ... ZB-500 is enough for them ...

            "ZB-500GD (hydroreactive action), modification for the destruction of manpower by fire on land and water surface, as well as light equipment and buildings with light overlap at any time of the year at temperatures down to -30C and snow cover up to 10-15cm. Total area covering with a solid fire zone and pieces of fire mixture on land in summer
            the period averages 1300-3900 m2, in winter - about 400-2100 m2, and when applied on a water surface - about 650 m2. "(c)
  9. Raphael_83
    Raphael_83 2 June 2016 18: 03
    0
    Superb article loop!
    A delightful selection of watercolor illustrations and photographic materials (special thanks for the drawings and photos of British cars plus "Lady Lex" from the second article, as well as torpedo bombers and "Dountless").
    And a brief excursion into history is also good - as a professional analyst, I say: writing on my own or composing existing, but disparate (and absolutely colossal in volume) material and at the same time submitting it concisely, informatively and competently is worth a lot.
    My favorite military-technical theme of this historical period. Well, just no words ... crying Thanks.
    From SW. hi
  10. Munchhausen
    Munchhausen 2 June 2016 22: 29
    0
    Having considered the aircraft carrier doomed, the Americans hurriedly evacuated the crew, leaving two seriously wounded in the ship’s infirmary.

    Interesting fact. Really did not even try to evacuate?