Military Review

The current state of the Syrian Arab Republic air defense system

33



Before the civil war in the Syrian Arab Republic (ATS), this country had a fairly strong air defense system built on Soviet patterns. It relied on a network of surveillance radar stations (RLS) with a continuous radar field over the entire territory of the country. The tasks of hitting air targets and protecting strategically important targets were assigned to the fighter Aviation and anti-aircraft missile troops. The air defense of the Syrian ground forces was provided by numerous mobile anti-aircraft missile systems (SAM), anti-aircraft self-propelled guns (ZSU), as well as batteries of towed anti-aircraft guns. The units of the Syrian army were characterized by a high saturation of man-portable air defense systems (MANPADS), which increased the combat stability of the troops and made low-altitude flights of Israeli aviation a very risky task.

In the 21 century, the Syrian air force had mainly obsolete aircraft fleet, most of the Syrian fighters were built in the USSR in the 70-80-e years. As of 2012, air defense tasks could carry out approximately 180 combat aircraft. At the same time, the combat value of heavily worn, not upgraded MiG-21bis, MiG-23МФ / MLD and MiG-25П fighters was low. These old machines could no longer conduct air combat on equal terms with the Israeli Air Force. The MiG-29 fighter jets, the deliveries of which began in the 1987 year, have the greatest potential in carrying out tasks for the destruction of air targets. In total, the Syrian air force has about 40 capable MiG-29. Unlike other types of combat aircraft, the twenty-ninths suffered the least casualties. The command of the Syrian air force has kept them, since only these relatively modern fighters have the greatest potential for air combat. Previously, the media published information on the modernization of part of the Syrian MiG-29, but there is reason to believe that the modernization disguised the delivery of MiG-29М, ordered by Damascus back in 2000.


Syrian MiG-23 over Aleppo


After the beginning of the civil war, which quickly covered almost the entire territory of the country, from 2012, the combat aircraft of the Syrian Air Force began to be actively involved in attacking the positions of the rebels. In four years, about 50% of Syrian military aircraft was lost. However, the number of shot down during the fighting does not exceed 10-15% of the total number of fighters lost. A number of technically armed but fully exhausted MiG-21 and MiG-23 were captured and destroyed by the insurgents at the airfields. The main reduction of the Syrian air force fleet was due to the lack of spare parts, repairs and wear and tear. Many aircraft were subjected to "cannibalism" - that is, went for parts for other winged cars. Due to poor-quality service, many fighters died in flight accidents.


Google Earth snapshot: Syrian MiG-29 fighters at Damascus airfield


Nevertheless, the Syrian air force, under very difficult conditions, continue to fight. Practically all the fighters capable of carrying out combat missions were concentrated in the central and western part of the country, on airfields in the Damascus region, Homs, near Palmyra, Aleppo, Deir-ez-Zor and Lattakia.

At the beginning of the 2000-s, the Syrian leadership planned to upgrade its air force with the help of Russia - in particular, the Syrian military was interested in heavy fighters of the Su-27 / Su-30 family. But, unfortunately, due to the difficult financial situation and the internal armed conflict that began in the SAR, these plans did not materialize. In the near future, the Syrian air force fleet will be further reduced due to the cancellation of most of the extremely worn-out fighters. Expected delivery of training aircraft Yak-130 and fighter MiG-29M. But this will not significantly increase the capacity to intercept air targets, and Syria will not be able to protect its air borders with the help of the Air Force in the near future.

Prior to 2011, in terms of the number of medium-range and long-range air defense missile launchers, the Syrian air defense forces in the Middle East region could not be compared. But mostly they were complexes made back in the Soviet Union, whose age overcame the 25 summer milestone. Realizing the importance of defenses against air attack, the Syrian leadership, despite its modest financial resources, allocated resources to improve and maintain the proper level of combat readiness of air defense forces. Thanks to the maintenance and repair base created with the help of the USSR, the Syrian anti-aircraft systems, despite their advanced age, were maintained in good technical condition and in a fairly high degree of combat readiness. In Syria, repair and restoration enterprises and control and check points operated without interruption until 2011. On this infrastructure, technical measures of “minor modernization” and reconditioning of the hardware of the complexes were regularly carried out, anti-aircraft missiles were serviced in specially created arsenals.

The current state of the Syrian Arab Republic air defense system

The location and affected areas of the Syrian air defense systems "Square", C-125М / С-125М1А, С-75М / М3 and С-200ВЭ as of 2010 year

According to the data provided by the Military Balance, there were 25 brigades and two separate air defense regiments in Syria. Both anti-aircraft missile regiments are armed with long-range air defense systems C-200VE. Of the 25, the 11 anti-aircraft missile brigades are mixed; they are armed with the C-75М / М3 and С-125М / М1А / 2М stationary air defense missile systems. The 11 brigades are still armed with self-propelled Kvadrat and Buk-MXNUME anti-aircraft complexes. Three more brigades are armed with self-propelled short-range air defense systems "Osa-AKM" and air defense systems "Pantsir-C2".

From 1974 to 1987, the 52 C-75М and С-75М3 and 1918 ЗУР В-755 / В-759 were delivered to the CAP. Despite its advanced age, until the outbreak of the civil war, the seventy-fifty was operated approximately in the 30 anti-aircraft missile divisions (sdn).


Google Earth snapshot: C-75 air defense system position in the vicinity of Tartus


In the first half of the 80-x for compensation of losses incurred during the next conflict with Israel, and giving the Syrian air defense great opportunities from the USSR were delivered long-range air defense systems C-200В. Initially, long-range complexes were serviced and controlled by Soviet calculations. After approaching radars (ROCs) began to take in the approaching Israeli planes, the activity of the Israeli air force in the area dropped sharply.


Google Earth snapshot: C-200 position in the vicinity of Tartus


From 1984 to 1988, Syria received the 8 complexes C-200VE and 144 ZUR V-880E. These air defense missile systems were deployed in positions around Damascus, Homs and Tartus. All the Syrian C-200BE before 2011, were in a technically good condition and were involved in combat duty.

SPU Syrian air defense missile system С-125-2М “Pechora-2М”


Before the collapse of the USSR, in the framework of military-technical cooperation, the Syrian air defense forces received 47 air defense missile systems С-125М / С-125М1А and 1820 В-601ПД missiles. A few years ago, a part of the most recent low-altitude complexes went through modernization in Russia to the C-125-2М “Pechora-2М” level, which made it possible to extend the resource and significantly increase the combat potential. 17 March 2015 of the American UAV MQ-1 was shot down in Syrian airspace by a C-125 missile.

As of 2010 year in the armed forces of the SAR operated about 160 mobile launcher of the Kvadrat. This complex, which is the export version of the Soviet troop ZUB "Kub", very well manifested itself during the Arab-Israeli war "Doomsday" in 1973 and in the fighting in the Bekaa Valley in 1982. At the end of the 80-x Syrian "Squares" have been upgraded, in particular, in addition to improvements aimed at improving the reliability, it was possible to increase the noise immunity. But with all its past achievements and merits, at the moment, the Kvadrat air defense system is certainly outdated.



Taking into account the fact that the complex included one self-propelled installation of intelligence and guidance (SURN) and four self-propelled launchers (SPU), only in Syria, until recently, there were 40 batteries of the Kvadrat SAM system. The presence of such a number of capable and serviceable complexes, given the fact that the production of this type of air defense system was completed in the 1983 year, raises great doubts. At the same time, according to information provided by SIPRI, in Syria as of 2012, there were 27 Kvadrat anti-aircraft missile batteries. Perhaps the remaining 13 batteries are air defense missiles, which have developed their own life and transferred to “storage”.

At the beginning of 2016, information appeared in the media about the capture by IG fighters in the vicinity of Dair-ez-Zor SURN 1С91 and SPU 2П25 with ZUR 3М9. In this regard, there were concerns that if they fell into the hands of terrorists, the air defense system could be a danger to military aircraft of the Russian Federation Air Force, operating in the SAR. However, to work on any air defense system requires trained specialists, of whom there are not many Islamists. Subsequently, the Russian military aviation actively worked in this area and, most likely, elements of the captured air defense system were destroyed or disabled. In any case, more photos of the captured anti-aircraft complex in the network has not been published.

At the beginning of the 80-x Syria received a Osa-AKM self-propelled short-range air defense systems with radio-command missiles. For the first time, Osa-AKM anti-aircraft guns took part in 1982 fighting during a confrontation with Israel in the Bekaa Valley.



Accurate data on the number of Syrian air defense systems "Osa" could not be found, in different sources, their number ranges from 60 to 80. Probably, this number includes the Strela-10 air defense missile system on the MT-LB light-armored tractor chassis with missiles equipped with thermal homing heads. Osa-AKM and Strela-10 short-range air defense missile systems, unlike Kvadrat, are capable of independently searching and firing air targets, although the range and altitude of the targets they hit is much smaller compared to Kvadrat.

According to the Military Balance, Syria acquired 18 self-propelled medium-range SAM systems Buk-M2E and 160 SAM 9М317 to replace the outdated Kvadrat air defense systems. The complexes and missiles were transferred to the Syrians in the period from 2010 to 2013.



Compared with the “Kvadrat” air defense system, in the export upgraded version of the “Buk” the area of ​​destruction was significantly increased, the speed and number of simultaneously fired targets, as well as the possibility of combating tactical missiles. In contrast to the SPU 2P25 complex "Kvadrat" self-propelled fire installation (SOU) 9А317Е complex "Buk-М2Е" due to the presence of radar with PAR, is able to conduct independent search and destruction of air targets.

Another Russian novelty in Syria’s air defense units is the Pantsir-C1E air defense missile system. Deliveries of this complex to the Syrian army began in 2008, as part of the 2006 contract of the year. Total Syria in the period from 2008 to 2011. 36 complexes and 700 XUR 9М311 were transmitted. It is believed that the Turkish reconnaissance aircraft RF-1E was destroyed by the fire of the Syrian air defense missile system Pantsir-C22E 2012 on June 4.

To create a layered multi-level air defense system, the Syrian leadership ordered long-range air defense missiles in Russia with the C-300PMU-2 Favorit. She was supposed to work in conjunction with modern complexes "Pantsir-C1E" and "Buk-M2E" and provide effective defense on long-range borders. The upgraded “three-hundred” was intended to replace the outdated long-range air defense systems C-200VE with single-channel liquid-based missiles. However, in the 2012 year, for not quite clear reasons, the contract already concluded and executed by Russian enterprises was canceled.

In addition to fixed and mobile complexes, according to reference data, in Syria there are about 4000 MANPADS "Strela-2M", "Strela-3" and "Igla". Although the Strela-2 / 3 MANPADS no longer meet modern noise immunity requirements due to their multiplicity, they still pose a threat to low-altitude air targets. The number of heat traps on a combat aircraft or helicopter is limited and at the required time they can simply be spent, and by and large it does not matter how many years the rocket hit the modern aircraft. As is known, the Soviet weapon It has a very large margin of safety and enviable longevity. The weak point of all MANPADS is special disposable power supply elements, the shelf life of which is limited. But this is a completely solvable problem. For example, Iranian specialists were able to reanimate American Stinger MANPADS, bought out from the Afghan Mujahideen. In any case, the maintenance of Soviet portable complexes in working condition requires much less effort and cost.

In addition to air defense systems, MANPADS and air defense missiles to the beginning of the armed confrontation with the Islamists in Syria there were very significant stocks of anti-aircraft guns and shells to them. Before the outbreak of an internal armed conflict, more than 4000, 23, 37, 57 and 100-mm anti-aircraft installations were located in the Syrian army units and in warehouses.

Perhaps the biggest threat from the Syrian anti-aircraft artillery systems to air attack weapons is the Shilka anti-aircraft self-propelled gun ZSU-23-4. The Shilka uses four rapid-firing 23-mm assault rifles with forced liquid cooling as weapons, the ZSU is protected by anti-bullet armor 9-15 mm thick.

“Shilki” have performed very well in a number of Arab-Israeli conflicts. Because of the effective 23-mm ZSU fire, Israeli combat aircraft were forced to go to a great height, where they were fired by anti-aircraft missiles. Shilka also proved to be a very effective means of fighting the Israeli Cobra AN-1 combat helicopters. As practice has shown, those caught at a distance of up to 2000 m under fire from ZSU helicopters had little chance of being saved.

Currently, “on the move” in Syria there are about 50 such anti-aircraft installations. Most of them are actively involved in hostilities, supporting infantry units with heavy fire, destroying the insurgents' manpower and fire points. To increase security on the “Shilka” in Syria, they hang up additional armor or simply put over bags and boxes filled with sand, this is due to the great vulnerability of the lightly armored anti-aircraft self-propelled gun.


ZSU-23-4 Shilka in Aleppo


The Syrian army is also armed with a twin towed 23-mm ZU-23 anti-aircraft guns. Very often, the warring parties install them on various vehicles and use them as modern wheelchairs. In the same role, albeit in smaller quantities, 37-mm anti-aircraft guns 61-K and 57-mm C-60 are used. In battles for firing at ground targets, quite rare 100-mm anti-aircraft guns of the KS-19 were noted at the moment, all of them in the 2010 year in the Syrian army had 25 units.



The civil war in Syria had a negative impact on the state of the air defense system of this country. Much of the Syrian air defense system was destroyed as a result of artillery and mortar shelling or captured by the rebels. First of all, it refers to stationary, and, therefore, the most vulnerable: С-75М / М3, С-200ВЭ and not upgraded С-125М / С-125М1А.

SAM-759, destroyed on the launcher in the area of ​​Aleppo


As well as military aviation, the Syrian air defense forces suffered heavy losses. More than half of the anti-aircraft complexes deployed previously in stationary positions are not capable at the moment. Operation of an air defense system with liquid missiles, even in peacetime, is rather complicated. For refueling and maintenance of missiles, a special technical position and well-prepared calculations are required. Those Syrian complexes that were not captured and destroyed by militants were mostly evacuated and stored in military bases and airfields controlled by government forces.


Google Earth snapshot: position of С-125-2М in Latakia


The exceptions are the ZRK deployed in areas consistently controlled by the Syrian government forces. As of the end of 2015, the existing anti-aircraft complexes were under Damascus, in Lattakia and in Tartus. In general, the Syrian air defense forces do not control their own airspace. In addition, directly to the losses of anti-aircraft missile systems, during the civil war, the radio-technical units suffered a great deal of damage, which are, in fact, the "eyes" of anti-aircraft missile forces and fighter aircraft. Prior to the outbreak of hostilities in Syria, 50 radar and radio altimeters: 5Н84А, П-18, П-19, П-37, ПРВ-13 and ПРР-16 were involved in covering the air situation and issuing target designation to interceptors and air defense missiles. In November, 2015, of which no more than 20% acted. Those radars that were not destroyed and were not damaged, as well as the air defense system, were evacuated to safe places. In a country torn apart by internal conflict, it was quite predictable that the centralized control system was destroyed, many control centers, communication centers, radio relay and cable lines were destroyed. Syria’s air defense system at the moment, devoid of centralized control, has a pronounced limited focal character and has numerous gaps. Since 2007, the Israeli Air Force used these gaps. Syrian air borders in the north-west of the country are particularly vulnerable. 5 is known for Israeli air attacks, including against the capital Damascus. During attacks on targets located in the suburbs of Damascus, Israeli F-15I fighter-bombers used Popeye cruise missiles.

Regular Israeli air strikes continued until the arrival of the aviation group of the Russian HQs at the Hmeimim airbase. In November 2015, in the area after the destruction of our Su-24M by the Turkish Air Force, the Russian C-400 and ZRPK Pantsir-C1 were deployed. Russian military aviation operating in the SAR at the invitation of the country's legitimate leadership not only facilitated the transition of the initiative on the ground to government forces, but also strengthened the inviolability of Syrian airspace.

Based on:
http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/syria/airforce.htm
http://www.strategypage.com/default.aspx
http://bmpd.livejournal.com/257111.html
http://armstrade.sipri.org/armstrade/page/trade_register.php
http://israelagainstterror.blogspot.ru/2012/10/syrian-air-defense-bases-chemical-plant.html
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  1. Professor
    Professor 17 May 2016 07: 00
    +3
    Mixed feelings overwhelm me. I would like to put a plus for the article, but the last paragraphs do not allow this.


    Syrian air defense at the moment, devoid of centralized control, has a pronounced limited focal character and has numerous gaps. Since 2007, the Israeli Air Force has been exploiting these breaches.

    What are the "gaps" in 2007 if the war began there only 5 years later? request
    1. zyablik.olga
      zyablik.olga 17 May 2016 07: 44
      +7
      Quote: Professor
      What are the "gaps" in 2007 if the war began there only 5 years later?


      Most likely there were gaps, since the Israeli Air Force managed 6 on September 2007 to destroy the Syrian nuclear facility in the Deir ez-Zor area. In general, the details of this operation are few, perhaps Israeli special forces illegally staying in Syria were involved in it.

      Snapshot of the Syrian object before and after the air strike


      So boldly plus, in my opinion, this publication by Sergey is quite worth it.
    2. Seren
      Seren 17 May 2016 07: 47
      0
      The topic of "Thors" in service with the Syrian air defense systems and their participation, or rather nonparticipation in repelling the Israeli Air Force's raid on the destruction of a nuclear reactor, has not been disclosed. And in general, the article is a plus
      1. zyablik.olga
        zyablik.olga 17 May 2016 07: 57
        +4
        And in Syria there are or were "Torahs" you do not confuse anything?
        It is unlikely that Sergei would have missed them, he is one of the most powerful and competent authors on the "Military Review" in terms of air defense systems and air defense systems.
      2. sivuch
        sivuch 17 May 2016 09: 09
        +7
        There are no and no tori in Syria, NYA. And in 2007, deliveries of new air defense systems had not yet begun. At the Skidron air base, I expressed the opinion that it was justified that the reactor under construction did not try to cover the air defense, since such a cover only unmasked the object, and there would still be no use from it (as in the famous joke about air defense - that it covers, but does not protect)
        PS
        Sergey, you want to say that the Syrian Cubes have been finalized to the level of M3С? I have not read this, although it may be.
        And Shilok was put all around 400. How many of them remained there - Allah knows him.
        In addition to Soviet / Russian radars, Chinese radars, in particular, meter ones, were also lit.
        If interested, I will try to find the strength of the radar for 2012.
        PPS
        You, it seems, were interested in how many were in the Union of regiments with the Cube M4?
        I googled 7 SRP so far
        1. Bongo
          18 May 2016 07: 22
          +1
          Igor, welcome! hi
          Quote: sivuch
          And in 2007, the supply of new air defense systems has not yet begun.

          And there is. yes The 2007 attack of the year just in many ways prompted Syria to strengthen its air defense with modern anti-aircraft systems.
          Quote: sivuch
          At the airbase, Skydron expressed the opinion, in my opinion, that the reactor under construction did not try to cover the air defense, since such a cover only unmasked the object, and there would still be no use from it (as in the well-known joke about air defense - it covers, but does not protect)
          This joke is known to me lol But it should be understood that since the late 80s, Israeli aviation has made a qualitative leap, while the Syrian air defense has remained at the same level. It is easy to beat a weak enemy ... It is known that the F-15I is the most advanced modification of the "Orlov", even the modernized American F-15E does not have such capabilities.
          Quote: sivuch
          Sergey, you want to say that the Syrian Cubes have been finalized to the level of M3С? I have not read this, although it may be.

          I can’t say for sure, so as not to be unfounded what exactly was the modernization. request It is known that in addition to the restoration and extension of the resource, a number of improvements were introduced on the Syrian "Squares" that were implemented in the first "Buks".

          Quote: sivuch
          And Shilok was put all around 400. How many of them remained there - Allah knows him.

          A number of sources mentioned that about 50 was involved in battles.
          Quote: sivuch
          In addition to Soviet / Russian radars, Chinese radars, in particular, meter ones, were also lit.

          And there is yes But Soviet times more. At least one P-125 relies on each S-75 and C-18 radar, a survey P-14 (Defense-14) or other radar station with the same characteristics and air defense functions on the brigade and regiment. Ie. knowing the amount of remaining air defense systems it is easy to approximately calculate the radars.
          Quote: sivuch
          You, it seems, were interested in how many were in the Union of regiments with the Cube M4?
          I googled 7 SRP so far

          I think more.
    3. tilix
      tilix 17 May 2016 07: 58
      +2
      NDAA, especially about
      fighting in 1983 during the confrontation with Israel in the Bekaa Valley
      .
      1. zyablik.olga
        zyablik.olga 17 May 2016 08: 14
        +3
        Quote: tilix
        NDAA, especially about
        fighting in 1983 during the confrontation with Israel in the Bekaa Valley

        As of 2010 year in the armed forces of the SAR operated about 160 mobile launcher of the Kvadrat. This complex, which is the export version of the Soviet military “Kub” air defense missile system, performed very well during the Doomsday Arab-Israeli war in 1973 and in the fighting in the Bekaa Valley in 1982 year.

        Just a typo request
        1. tilix
          tilix 17 May 2016 23: 19
          +2
          Just a typo
          Ahh, it happens of course.
      2. Bongo
        18 May 2016 07: 24
        +2
        Quote: tilix
        NDAA, especially about
        fighting in 1983 during the confrontation with Israel in the Bekaa Valley


        Quote: zyablik.olga
        Just a typo

        Unfortunately, when writing publications, no one is immune from such flaws. request I apologize and thank you for noticing. hi
    4. Wild_grey_wolf
      Wild_grey_wolf 17 May 2016 08: 14
      +4
      An interesting look, even if there are flaws in the article. . . all the same gives ground for thought.
      Thank you for reading the article with interest.
      And unexpectedly, the guys from Israel showed such a big INTEREST to this article.
      1. zyablik.olga
        zyablik.olga 17 May 2016 08: 40
        +3
        Quote: Wild_Grey_Wolf
        And unexpectedly, the guys from Israel showed such a big INTEREST to this article.

        For the Israeli Air Force, the state of Syria’s air defense has always been a very hot topic. It is not clear why Israel is trying to overthrow Bashar Assad? After all, if Islamists come to power in Syria, the Israeli-Syrian border will become a very hot place.
        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 17 May 2016 15: 12
          +1
          "It is not clear why Israel is trying to overthrow Bashar al-Assad?" ////

          It is clear that the power of the Alawite minority de facto in Syria has ended.
          And the Syrians, and Russian, and Americans are equally clear.

          It would be advantageous for Israel to replace Assad with one of his colonels (Sunni Arabs) who had deserted from his army in 2011, so that a moderate military junta, like the Egyptian one, would form.

          But while the military scales are strongly on the side of the Islamists. Russia's intervention delays the collapse of Assad and the victory of the Islamists, but Assad cannot defeat. Maximum, keep a couple of provinces.
          Therefore, Israel is neutral, and is only trying to prevent the diversion / transfer of large weapons from Syrian arsenals to Lebanon.
          1. alicante11
            alicante11 17 May 2016 16: 42
            0
            It is clear that the power of the Alawite minority de facto in Syria has ended


            Your prayers. Don't say gop, though. By our prayers, Assad is, like Lenin, "more alive than all living things."
          2. Bramb
            Bramb 17 May 2016 17: 51
            0
            Quote: voyaka uh
            Therefore Israel is neutral

            Laugh, she-bo! )))
            Is Israel neutral to whom? Assad, Syria or all of Palestine? Armed seizes foreign lands, kills civilians - and "Israel is neutral"! ))
            Onaliteg!
        2. altel
          altel 17 May 2016 18: 07
          0
          Back in 2007. Condoleezza Rice in her speech in the Israeli Knesset promised her friends to "reformat" the Middle East. And you mean some kind of border.
      2. altel
        altel 17 May 2016 17: 59
        0
        But how can the guys from Israel show no interest? Let the cousins ​​Arabs beat their faces more each other. They will forget about the Golan and Palestine. You’ll get to look at Putin and know who to be friends with and who to support. Here, Assad is like a khan, all literate people know this in Israel and the USA, and he is naive ! So the interest is natural. Yes, and you can giggle at all of them goyim once again, grin
    5. The comment was deleted.
    6. Zaurbek
      Zaurbek 17 May 2016 13: 48
      +2
      I would not be surprised if, in the guise of a war with ISIS, Israel paid a bearded bonus for every captured and destroyed air defense facility.
    7. Bongo
      18 May 2016 06: 53
      +1
      Quote: Professor
      What are the "gaps" in 2007 if the war began there only 5 years later?

      Oleg, welcome!
      Unfortunately, at the time this publication came out, I was on the hunt and could not take part in the discussion. The Israeli Air Force raids really began in 2007 and the F-15I broke through from the indicated direction (from where they did not expect). To eliminate the gaps, the Syrian leadership tried to buy S-300P and Buk-M2E from Russia, which Israel actively opposed by the way. The outbreak of civil war virtually destroyed the air defense of Syria.
      1. Professor
        Professor 18 May 2016 10: 04
        +2
        Quote: Bongo
        Unfortunately, at the time this publication came out I was on the hunt and could not take part in the discussion.

        It is not good to kill defenseless animals for pleasure. No.

        Quote: Bongo
        The raids of the Israeli Air Force really began in 2007 and broke through the F-15I precisely from the indicated direction (from where they did not wait)

        Most likely broke through the Turkish border, and this direction is covered. Even on your map it is visible.

        Quote: Bongo
        To eliminate the gaps, the Syrian leadership tried to buy S-300P and Buk-M2E from Russia, which Israel actively opposed by the way.

        Putin somehow threatened to supply an Assad air defense system that Israeli planes could no longer fly over the presidential palace. Do not know what it is about? wink

        In general, I would write an article about the operation of Busnan. I would write it myself, but I'm no longer a writer. wink You can start from here, and I'll help you.
        Operation Orchard
        1. Bongo
          18 May 2016 10: 28
          +1
          Quote: Professor
          It is not good to kill defenseless animals for pleasure.

          I repent sinful yes In the Middle Ages, hunting for fun (murder with excitement) was considered even more serious sin than adultery. wassat But which of us is perfect? what


          However, not all of our animals are defenseless, God forbid unarmed in winter on such a “defenseless” that he did not lie down to run into a den.
          Quote: Professor
          Most likely broke through the Turkish border, and this direction is covered. Even on your map it is visible.

          But not like the border with Israel No. The most trained personnel and combat-ready complexes were concentrated near you.
          Quote: Professor
          Putin somehow threatened to supply an Assad air defense system that Israeli planes could no longer fly over the presidential palace. Do not know what it is about?

          I don’t know, I don’t communicate with him and I don’t believe for a long time negative . In general, if at least 1 / 10 came true from what Putin promised - we probably would have lived under communism. lol
          Quote: Professor
          In general, I would write an article about the operation of Busnan. I would write it myself, but I'm no longer a writer.

          Thanks for the link hi I'll think about ... yes The fact that you are no longer a writer makes me (and not only me) very upset crying Let me ask, for what reasons?
          1. Professor
            Professor 18 May 2016 10: 53
            +1
            Quote: Bongo
            However, not all of our animals are defenseless, God forbid unarmed in winter on such a “defenseless” that he did not lie down to run into a den.

            Something tells me that you didn’t go for a bear. wink Here under my house constantly boars frolic. Sometimes harm is done to my household, but the hand does not rise to shoot at them.


            Quote: Bongo
            I don’t know, I don’t communicate with him and I don’t believe for a long time

            There was a case when Israeli planes passed over the Assad Palace and he suffered a heart attack. So Putin promised to prevent such flights, to no avail. tongue
            SYRIA - “SOUL OF THE EARTH”
            April 27 2005
            They retype Putin’s phrase in an interview with an Israeli journalist, where Putin allegedly said: now, after deliveries of Russian anti-aircraft missiles, Israeli planes will not be able to circumnavigate the palace of the Syrian President with impunity. For the first time in many months, I experienced solidarity with the President of Russia, who made a bold, worthy demarche to Russia.

            Quote: Bongo
            Let me ask, for what reasons?

            Not interested.
            1. Bongo
              18 May 2016 11: 03
              +1
              Quote: Professor
              Something tells me that you didn’t go for a bear.

              Goose and three ducks wink
              Quote: Professor
              Here under my house constantly boars frolic. Sometimes harm is done to my household, but the hand does not rise to shoot at them.
              Under my window, boars do not frolic, but terrible holes on the pavement. In fairness, taking into account the size of your country, hunting there is hardly encouraged.
              For the first time in many months, I experienced solidarity with the President of Russia, who made a bold, worthy demarche to Russia.
              By canceling the supply to SAR ZRS S-300PMU-2 lol
              Quote: Professor
              Not interested.

              You used to do it with pleasure. Burnt out?
              1. Professor
                Professor 18 May 2016 11: 08
                0
                Quote: Bongo
                In fairness, given the size of your country, hunting is hardly encouraged there.

                Boars in Haifa run around the city at night. Not a pleasant sight. Jackals howl too is not pleasant. During the season, you can shoot wild boars, but the hunters here are mainly Arabs and Druze. Druze also prey on porcupines.

                Quote: Bongo
                Burnt out?

                Yeah. I read a lot, make notes for myself. So far, enough. hi
                1. Bongo
                  18 May 2016 11: 14
                  +1
                  Quote: Professor
                  Boars in Haifa run around the city at night. Not a pleasant sight. Jackals howl too is not pleasant.

                  And we have bears regularly wander into the city! wassat Divorced them immeasurably, and in the taiga much less than near the city. Last year, several people ate wassat
                  Quote: Professor
                  During the season, you can shoot wild boars, but the hunters here are mainly Arabs and Druze. Druze also prey on porcupines

                  Oleg, che word, I'm not an Arab and not friends request Although he somehow suggested to his legitimate half, in order to legalize the harem to accept Islam, but she refused. lol
                  Quote: Professor
                  Yeah. I read a lot, make notes for myself. So far, enough.

                  I hope you will come back? Personally, I really miss your publications ... crying
              2. sivuch
                sivuch 18 May 2016 13: 54
                +1
                Under my window, boars do not frolic, but terrible holes on the pavement. In fairness, taking into account the size of your country, hunting there is hardly encouraged.
                ------------------------
                In fact, in Israel, the most dangerous animals are not wild boars, but wild boars. He was simply afraid to write about them
                1. Bongo
                  19 May 2016 01: 34
                  +1
                  Quote: sivuch
                  In fact, in Israel, the most dangerous animals are not wild boars, but wild boars. He was simply afraid to write about them

                  In this case, the rifle is unlikely to help, and licenses for their shooting are not allocated.
            2. altel
              altel 18 May 2016 13: 52
              0
              Professor, "on the promised land" the masters of life are forced to sleep with arms? It is understandable why your fellow tribesmen are in no hurry to gather on Mount Zion, apparently you will not wait for your Messiah until the Day of Judgment. What carried you to Palestine, would sit, for example, at home in Odessa (Tashkent, Moscow), quietly working as an "effective" manager. And now life is full of adventures and for what?
              1. Chisayna
                Chisayna 18 May 2016 18: 02
                0
                Frightened "they" to the us.r.a.ch.ki. That is with weapons and do not part. But the Palestinians find a way out, first the belts of martyrs, then stabbing knives, ramming a car. Now we are waiting for a new thing that the Palestinians will come up with this time .May be poisonous gases.
  2. The comment was deleted.
  3. Seren
    Seren 17 May 2016 07: 52
    +3
    Quote: zyablik.olga
    Quote: Professor
    What are the "gaps" in 2007 if the war began there only 5 years later?


    Most likely there were gaps, since the Israeli Air Force managed 6 on September 2007 to destroy the Syrian nuclear facility in the Deir ez-Zor area. In general, the details of this operation are few, perhaps Israeli special forces illegally staying in Syria were involved in it.

    Snapshot of the Syrian object before and after the air strike


    So boldly plus, in my opinion, this publication by Sergey is quite worth it.



    It is known that Syrian air defense in the reactor’s cover zone and many electrical appliances in Syria, Lebanon and Israel suddenly stopped working for several hours. It is also known that in Turkey they found dumped suspended fuel tanks from F-15I (Perdogan was very fierce at us, he was great friends with Bashar then)
    1. Parsec
      Parsec 17 May 2016 18: 49
      0
      12 May 2016 20: 53
      Thor covered a Syrian nuclear reactor in 2007. During the operation to destroy it, the Torahs stopped working and started working a few hours after the operation. Here is such a coincidence ...

      May 12, 2016 23:09 ↑
      The beeches "distinguished themselves" in the 82nd year. And in 2007 the Torah "distinguished itself". After this operation, Syria was flooded with Russian techies trying to figure out what had happened.

      Quote: seren
      It is known that Syrian air defense in the reactor’s cover zone and many electrical appliances in Syria, Lebanon and Israel suddenly stopped working for several hours.


      Seren, you are not teaching Bedouin literature to the soldiers? or is it all from the last lecture for housewives? The Russians put the most modern weapons, and here the judiciary is a wunderwaffe, and nothing worked! Thirty-five thousand specialists alone! Because Israel! We are stronger than ever!

      You are a product for exclusively domestic consumption, which cannot be shown to outsiders, you are moving outside. If this is your personal stupidity, you can neglect it, although they pointed out to you - there was no Thor in Syria; and Bukov in 1982 was not in Syria.

      Disabling air defense systems and electrical appliances - well, you take a textbook of physics, the beginnings of electricity, but rather find an intelligent student, who is closer to you - in Hebrew or Russian - will explain AC networks and the difference between a fantastic novel from the beginning of the twentieth century and real life.

      Glaring incompetence with a snap in half.
      1. Bongo
        18 May 2016 07: 37
        +2
        Quote: Parsec
        Thor covered the Syrian nuclear reactor in 2007.

        There have never been "Thors" in SAR, you confuse it with Iran.
        Quote: Parsec
        The beeches "distinguished themselves" in the 82nd year.

        Syria acquired the Buk-M2E medium-range air defense system in Russia in the period from 2010 to 2013 - the article says about this. The Buks could not distinguish themselves in the SAR in 1982, since they were not there. No. Apparently you are again confusing it with the export version of the Kub - Kvadrat air defense system.
        Quote: seren
        It is known that the Syrian air defense in the covered zone of the reactor and many electrical appliances in Syria, Lebanon and Israel suddenly stopped working for several hours.

        Yeah, especially electric kettles and irons. lol
  4. sharkmen
    sharkmen 17 May 2016 10: 22
    +2
    Hello everyone. Of course, the activity of users from Israel on this topic is curious. I would love to read a response article from a professor, for example, offering their look and calculations. even if by numbers it will be a clone of national geografic, the emotionality of delivery is expected to be much more powerful, and we have a lesson how modern propaganda looks in skilled hands.
  5. RedBaron
    RedBaron 17 May 2016 12: 56
    -1
    Quote: zyablik.olga
    Quote: Wild_Grey_Wolf
    And unexpectedly, the guys from Israel showed such a big INTEREST to this article.

    For the Israeli Air Force, the state of Syria’s air defense has always been a very hot topic. It is not clear why Israel is trying to overthrow Bashar Assad? After all, if Islamists come to power in Syria, the Israeli-Syrian border will become a very hot place.

    Since the hezbollah terrorists are funded by Assad and Iran, Israel is clearly not worth writing as an Assad friend, and there are also about 6 Assad attacks on Israel in a short history dating back to 48. just as if they were not friendly ... otherwise for the last time only convoys with weapons for hezbollah have been bombed, and with respect to Syria there is clear neutrality.
    1. altel
      altel 17 May 2016 17: 30
      +2
      Most likely Israel unleashed wars about 5 times, and how did Hitler justify this with a "preemptive" strike. Apparently, history is taught in Israel's textbooks in the United States? Especially behind the back, a "chain dog" in the form of the United States will throw a weapon and "let a tear" at the UN -the cause of the "long-suffering" Israel, which is under blockade. Terrorists from the moderate opposition are funded by the US and are being treated in Israeli hospitals. Relationships, as it were, are not friendly. But basically, they bombed, as it were, and besides, the positions of the Syrian army, warehouses, i.e. forces friendly to Russia and which are fighting against terrorists, who are allegedly afraid of Tel Aviv most of all. Israel does not want to give up the Gollans. There will be no Syria, then the occupied territories will not have to be given. Such a "cunning" policy. And the rest is clear neutrality Of course. By the way, mainly thanks to Hezbollah, it was possible to throw Israel out of southern Lebanon. At the same time, the Jews abandoned their yesterday's Shabbes-goyim from the puppet army of South Lebanon, the Phalangist Christians, to the mercy of fate. terrorism "Agvidor Eskin promised to send a whole battalion to help the militias. Solovyov clapped his hands enthusiastically. The usual PR campaign and advertising like" Moscow-Tel Aviv friendship forever. "Until now, the smartest soldiers in the world get to Donbass.
  6. creak
    creak 17 May 2016 12: 59
    0
    A competent, sound presentation of the material, a good knowledge of the subject, the appearance of such articles is welcome.
    One small fly in the ointment - a little annoying is the frequent use in our texts of the use of a literal translation of the American unofficial term "cannibalism".
    The exact Russian analogue of this Americanism is the word "dispossession" - I remember well that during my years of service it was always in use and not only in the Air Force ...
    Borrowing from foreign languages ​​is justified when there is no corresponding analogue in Russian - but this is not the case ...
    1. Bongo
      18 May 2016 07: 46
      +2
      Quote: ranger
      One small fly in the ointment - a little annoying is the frequent use in our texts of the use of a literal translation of the American unofficial term "cannibalism".

      Sorry, but I personally don’t see anything wrong with using this understandable for everyone, including foreign readers. hi
  7. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 17 May 2016 14: 09
    +1
    The Syrian air defense was quite strong at the time of intensive cooperation with the USSR. Training of officers, participation in exercises on the territory of the USSR (in Central Asia, the Mary training ground was intensively used to train fighter pilots and air defense personnel, it imitated the terrain of Syria and the Middle East). When the Syrians began to stew in themselves, skills began to be lost with the change of generations. Also a big minus of the air defense of Syria is the lack of AWACS aircraft. This is an expensive pleasure, and the industry of the USSR / Russia cannot create something less than A-50 yet. Although small AWACS are also expensive. Without AWACS systems, there can be no full control in mountainous areas.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 17 May 2016 15: 23
      +5
      "The Syrian air defense was quite strong at the time of intensive cooperation with the USSR" ///

      In relation to the Air Force and Air Defense, the Syrians are our teachers (like the Swedes for the army of Peter 1)
      They worked out all the tactics of IDF strikes on the ground. The first UAVs were tested on them.
      And the Syrian Air Force gave us valuable practical experience with the 4th generation. Fighter guidance
      with the help of radars of other fighters, firing of UR explosives from medium distances.

      And Hezbollah - also well done - pulled our infantry to the modern level.
      And it was relaxed on the Palestinian fighters.
      1. Zaurbek
        Zaurbek 17 May 2016 15: 31
        +3
        You are right, only the Israeli army learned the lessons and went further, I hope the army of the USSR and Russia learned the lessons of working with your aircraft (appeared complexes TOR, Tunguzka, S-300/400, jammers, own anti-radar missiles). fighter tactics. And the Syrian army remained in the same place.
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. altel
        altel 17 May 2016 17: 48
        +1
        Yes, in general, Israel is waiting for hard times, but heroic. Once the Tsakhalu relax. And then the Palestinians still can’t calm down. The settlers have to sleep with arms. But nothing, you give Israel from Zion to Euphrates! You can’t relax, once Jewish comrades. Terrorism does not sleep.
  8. kirgudu
    kirgudu 17 May 2016 19: 05
    +1
    I look, it helps ... Jews bomb anyone they want and when they want in Syria. They wanted to spit on ours.
    Although it’s me, they don’t bark at the hosts.
    1. altel
      altel 18 May 2016 00: 07
      +2
      Yes, from love to hate, one step. Once Vova stood near the crying wall. And now he is a dictator and a Russian chauvinist. Benya did not come to Moscow for nothing. Put your air defenses on, and we will pretend that we are not flying.