Military Review

German Navy on the Black Sea

On issues of military construction fleet any self-respecting country, and not a banana republic, is always especially scrupulous, with an eye to a potential adversary and long-term tasks for him. And this process is very slow and costly. The war of 08.08.08, reunification with the Crimea, the operation of the air forces in Syria, and the aggravation of relations with Ukraine and Turkey clearly emphasized the importance of the Black Sea Fleet for protecting and promoting Russia's interests in the region of its responsibility. Frankly, all the Black Sea countries, without exception, are currently in the camp of our opponents, in one way or another they belong to the North Atlantic Alliance, and, which is more dangerous in the near and medium term, there is a growing tendency to strengthen their cooperation on the anti-Russian political platform.

After 01.09.1939, Hitler's Germany found itself in a similar situation. The only ally is Italy. The Navy is in the process of fulfilling a long-term construction plan after its defeat in the First World War. Access to the ocean is blocked by the Anglo-French fleet.

We have the only ally in Europe - Belarus. Of the forty-five warships of the Black Sea Fleet, thirty-three were built in the USSR and in the last two years only five new combat units of not the largest displacement were received. In case of conflict, the Black Sea straits will be securely locked.

The fleet of Germany in the twentieth century has repeatedly demonstrated the possibility of waging an unreliable war at sea with the enemy's many times superior forces. And now the German Navy is a well-balanced in composition and optimally sharpened to perform tasks as part of the combined allied forces both in the theater of operations and outside of NATO’s responsibility.

The analogies do not end there. The coastline and sea border of Germany are comparable in length with those of Russia on the Black and Azov Seas, only before 2014, they had an excess in absolute terms, and after the annexation of the Crimea they were somewhat inferior. There are also difficulties: the coastline of Germany is divided into two regions by the Jutland peninsula, and the Crimea peninsula has no land connection with mainland Russia. And even, oddly enough, the total displacement of the warships of the Black Sea Fleet differs from the same indicator of the German Navy by no more than 10%.

Of course, it is incorrect to directly compare the German Navy and the Black Sea Fleet of the Russian Federation; nevertheless, such an analysis could be taken to eliminate shortcomings from the past and outline the correct development trends for the future.

Ship composition

If you count the number of projects of combat ships of the German fleet today, it will not exceed nine. The minesweepers of the Ensdorf and Kulmbach types before the modernization were represented by the single type Hameln (project 343), built in 1989 — 1991. The third type, “Frankenthal” (322 project), was built in 1992 — 1998 as minesweepers — miners looking for (in hull, power plant, artillery and anti-aircraft armament are almost of the same type as Hamel’s minesweepers). Such longevity and consistency of mine-sweeping forces speaks of the initial deep and careful study of the ship’s design and the possibilities laid down for further upgrades, which still allow it to meet the requirements of the times. Brandenburg frigates (project 123) could be combined with earlier types of Bremen (project 122). They are related by the same power plant and armament, but an increase in the size of the hull and the replacement of the strike complex of anti-ship missiles on the more modern Brandenburg determined their selection as a separate project.

In the Black Sea Fleet, I counted 17 projects of warships, and this is without taking into account the various "A", "B", "M", "E" and other differences. Five submarines officially enrolled in the Black Sea Fleet belong to three different projects, whereas in Germany all six submarines of the same project. In one part of the Black Sea Fleet, three completely different projects of rocket ships are combined (1239 Ave., 12341 Ave., 21631 Ave.) With two combat units each. Do not forget, and five missile boats project 12411. But the German Navy modestly performs similar tasks with ten rocket boats of the same type "Cheetah". There is a lot to say about the possible flexibility of management, the specifics of the tasks to be solved, optimization of the forces, versatility and other similar arguments, but the economic component and logistics of maintenance, maintenance, repair, training and combat training of the crews of such various ships lays an unbearable burden on the fleet infrastructure and industry countries, or region, if you like.

The events in Syria posed the question squarely before the amphibious airborne forces of the Black Sea Fleet and the country's fleet as a whole. For the delivery of equipment, ammunition, and supplies, the capabilities of the seven large landing ships of the Black Sea Fleet were clearly not enough. Both the Baltic and the North helped, and yet they had to buy the motley ships of the civil fleet on the side. It should be noted that currently there are no tank landing ships in the German navy, which, in essence, are our paratroopers of the 1171 and 775 projects. There are plans to build a pair of universal amphibious ships with a displacement of three times more than any of the Black Sea and with the presence of transport-assault helicopters. The concept of the Cold War, which meant landing on an unequipped coast to a battalion of marines directly from ships, was somewhat outdated. The ships of the 1171 project, each of which is already over forty years old, are morally and physically outdated. More recent, the project 775, to be replaced simply because they were built in the Polish People's Republic, and their maintenance and repair are difficult. Let the opponents answer honestly: how many ships of Soviet construction and the German Democratic Republic remain in the German Navy?

And now - the most interesting! Before the Admiral Grigorovich escort ship arriving in the Black Sea, all ships of the Black Sea Fleet of the far sea zone have thirty-five years of service astern during not the most favorable periods for both the country and the fleet. Five ships belong to four completely different projects, in other words, the core of the fleet is assembled with the world on a string. This has never happened and should never be!

The “Moscow” missile cruiser has no place in the Black Sea, well, aircraft carriers do not enter here! And there are no real opponents in the Black Sea countries! “Donald Cook” comes to visit - Su-34 and coastal anti-ship complexes will manage. But in conjunction with the "Varyag" for example, the ship's shock group would look better on the Pacific Ocean.

Large anti-submarine ships "Kerch" and "Sharp-witted" (in the fleet of 1974 and 1969, respectively) are generally the only representatives of their projects not only in the Black Sea Fleet, but also in the country. Two “singing frigates” at the age of 35 will finally await replacement in the form of an admiral's series of guard for the Black Sea.

In fairness, I would like to note that the German Bremen frigates are the same age as our Ladny and Pytlivy patrols, and from 2017 will be gradually replaced by the F125 Baden-Wurttemberg frigates, which are twice as high as Admiral Grigorovich in displacement. .

Guns and Rockets

Information for consideration: the entire German modern fleet is equipped with weapons of only two calibers. These are the 76-mm / 62 single-barrel “MTO Melara” Mk-75 gun mount and the 27-mm MLG 27 automatic cannon. And only on the newest ships it is planned to return the guns in caliber to 127-mm.

And now we list only the calibers of the Black Sea ships: 130 mm (one gun installation for the entire fleet); 100 mm (four gun installations); 76,2 mm; 57 mm; 30 mm. I will not consider firing guns, which are also listed in the table of artillery weapons of some ships, probably to intimidate Somali pirates. If the thoughts of Russian and German gunsmith designers practically coincide in the need to have 27-30 mm caliber guns on each ship, then why hasn’t anyone stopped the Russians' wild imagination in the four remaining calibers? This diversity was in the second Pacific squadron in 1905, and it did not help. But the appearance of "Dreadnought" for all was an insight!

Roughly the same with rocket armament. "Volcano", "Uranus", "Mosquito", "Malachite", "Termite" on Russian ships - and only "Harpoon" and "Exochet" in German. The lists can also be expanded at the expense of the new models coming into service in approximately the same proportion. This begs the question: why and how did such diversity of artillery and missiles in a single fleet take shape? Is it justified by the requirements of the time and the tasks facing the fleet? Even a third-party man in the street will respond negatively. And experts will add that behind each of the listed items of artillery and rocket armament there is a list of no less diverse radio electronic systems of intelligence, control, guidance. We are overstressing our industry, believing that we can do and build everything. And this is not entirely true. The Western-imposed sanctions, which, by the way, were joined by both Germany and Ukraine, left the fleet without diesel engines and turbines for ships of the Russian fleet built and under construction. Germany itself is costing the LM 2500 gas turbine engines and MTU diesel engines of various modifications, which our sailors can only dream of. Our industry will cope with import substitution, but why again by an unjustified variety of projects?

Last example. The Black Sea Fleet already has two ships of the 21631 project with a tonnage of 949 tons, with a vertical launcher of the 3P-14 UKS complex on 8 Caliber or Onyx cruise missiles and an 100-mm gun. Already in a series of nine units there will be different running engines (a necessary and justified measure). And right there it is reported about the start of construction of the 22800 project ships with a displacement of 800 tons with the same vertical launcher, only located not along the ship but across the hull of the ship, and 76-mm gun. Probably, we are much richer than the burghers and far overtook the economic locomotive of Western Europe, since we allow ourselves similar “gastronomic delights”.

And yet there are optimistic facts in the construction of the European Black Sea Fleet. Two submarines of the 06363 project of the same type and two small rocket ships of the 21631 project have already become part of the fleet and have managed to demonstrate the combat capabilities of their missile weapons in the application of real targets in Syria. Despite the fourfold difference in displacement of the Admiral Grigorovich escort ship and the Zeleny Dol and Serpukhov small rocket ships, they have the same 100-mm main artillery caliber and 30-mm anti-aircraft artillery. The number of the newest sentry-guard, interregional submarines and submarines of the projects listed above is planned to be increased to six of each in the Black Sea Fleet, which will make it possible to form units of the same type of armament. So Russia has a hope of getting the German Navy on the Black Sea.

PS As the flagship ship to transfer to the Black Sea squadron destroyer of the project 956 "Admiral Ushakov", by the way, the only one in the ranks at the CSF. In the Baltic and the Black Sea will be the same type flagships. Still, Fedor Fedorovich Ushakov, canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church, did a lot for the Black Sea Fleet!

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  1. ava09
    ava09 17 May 2016 10: 03
    It would be nice to have many of the author's arguments in the head of the "strategists". Yes, there are fewer "sawers" of budgets of different levels ...
    1. GSH-18
      GSH-18 17 May 2016 10: 56
      German Navy on the Black Sea

      What did they forget here?
      1. Ruswolf
        Ruswolf 17 May 2016 11: 31
        German Navy on the Black Sea

        What did they forget here?


        They were already on the Black Sea ..... hi
      2. The comment was deleted.
    2. g1v2
      g1v2 17 May 2016 12: 55
      The author hardly provided any arguments. Most likely just with memory is bad. Until 2014, Sevastopol belonged to Ukraine, and it FORBIDDEN TO USE CHANGE THE PRIVATE FEDERATION SHIPS AND INTRODUCING NEW STORIES. Even change instead of retired, even the armored personnel carrier forbade to change. Naturally, the Black Sea Fleet has become a junk warehouse. But Ukraine firmly held on to our eggs for 25 years with three things - the Black Sea Fleet base, the threat of entry into NATO and gas transit. There was no opportunity to rock the boat, because in which case we would be kicked out of the Crimea and would have to move to Novorossiysk, which was not ready and that would put an end to it like at a trading port. request
      Now the situation is different and Ukrainians can no longer blackmail us. And the Black Sea Fleet began to be updated. This is now fleet number 1. And naturally, he will receive new ships first. Still, the problem with GTD for the second triple 11356 would be solved, and in general everything would be fine. But even so, by the end of the year, 2 more frigates and 2 drops for the Black Sea Fleet must be handed over. Plus already surrendered Grigorovich and a couple of diesel will go to the place of basing this year. request In the next one at the Black Sea Fleet, one MRC is expected, one corvette 22160 (or maybe 2). PM Black Sea Fleet are now engaged.
  2. guzik007
    guzik007 17 May 2016 10: 03
    History teaches us nothing. but after all, Peter 1, having corrupted the first military company due to the great variety of art-trunks, thought of introducing standards in the casting of guns.
  3. avvg
    avvg 17 May 2016 10: 06
    Previously, our hands were tied, but today Crimea is part of Russia, the systematic modernization of the Russian Black Sea Fleet is underway. When the "enemy is at the gates" of Russia, we, as always, do not have enough time. This time we must make it!
  4. Abbra
    Abbra 17 May 2016 10: 07
    That's right. The task of optimizing all types of weapons is now facing the world. And it would not hurt us to be ahead of everyone.
  5. Kibernes
    Kibernes 17 May 2016 10: 16
    The author distorts. Let him compare the years of acceptance for service of the ships of the Black Sea Fleet and the German Navy.
    And the comparison of missile weapons is generally incomprehensible. When the Malachite missiles were invented in the USSR, the ships were built for them; when the Harpoon missiles were invented, new ships were designed for them. But to remake ships with "Malachite", which have not yet served and half of their service life, no one will. So there won't be enough money in the budget.
    1. Abbra
      Abbra 17 May 2016 10: 57
      Here is the task of the designers. There is such a concept - huge opportunities for modernization. Take, for example, the same Messerschmidt. It was altered and improved more than once. But it was based on the first "backbone", the first "ridge". By the way, if you look at the development of our "drying" scheme, then we are already following this path.
  6. Mixweb
    Mixweb 17 May 2016 10: 19
    We have, as always ... It seems that the concept of "unification" in principle is not known to our designers and naval authorities. And not only in the Navy such a gimmick ... It's a pity that this happens ...
    1. Abbra
      Abbra 17 May 2016 11: 42
      It is clear that the capter is more profitable to have five varieties of berets and ten different types of gunpowder. There are opportunities for improvisation feel uh ...
  7. user
    user 17 May 2016 10: 24
    The author distorts.

    Yes, he does not distort anything. Such a variety of weapons and equipment is not only a headache for the provision of services, repairs, ammunition, etc. Such money will be spent on maintaining this entire structure (hardly anyone will ever announce this amount, because of its size). Therefore, if they are now embarking on the modernization and construction of new ships, this question is even ahead of the quantitative composition of the Navy. Because the total amount saved will allow WELL VERY to increase the number of new ships, if they are of the same type.

    This will be confirmed to you by any engineer engaged in real production, and even if this is considered the usual standardization of equipment and weapons, and a successful top manager is not interested in this issue, due to the reduction in the sawed-off part of the budget (again, due to a decrease in related organizations).
    1. cap
      cap 17 May 2016 11: 43
      Quote: user
      This will be confirmed to you by any engineer engaged in real production, and even if this is considered the usual standardization of equipment and weapons, and a successful top manager is not interested in this issue, due to the reduction in the sawed-off part of the budget (again, due to a decrease in related organizations).

      I agree with your conclusion. "Look at the root," Kozma Prutkov seems to have written, only some understand the root as something looking into the closet, and exclusively their own.
      Here's how about it.
  8. ALABAY45
    ALABAY45 17 May 2016 10: 27
    "... The German Navy on the Black Sea ... We have the only ally in Europe - Belarus .."
    Either I, with a pine tree, the other day, I went too far ... or, Psaki returned from maternity leave! Interconnection?! ... feel
  9. weksha50
    weksha50 17 May 2016 10: 31
    The article and its findings are timely ...

    It is only in vain that the author is surprised at the "versatility" of the naval armament in Soviet times ... The country was different, both money and opportunities ...
    And, in addition, undercover, backroom games played a huge role (well, how could it be without them !!!) ...
    Who managed to get his project through - he bit off the pie, received honors ... But how really it contributed to the effectiveness of the same fleet, in my opinion, no one thought ... The main thing is more, more powerful and more terrible (for the adversary, of course) ...

    Correctly, the author noted that the so-called small fleet has almost proved its combat effectiveness ...
    And in vain, many members of the forum call him "mosquito" and unnecessary, and require ships of the ocean zone ... Their tasks are different ...
    In order to make the Black Sea a true Russian lake, enough of these ships, coupled with the Varshavyanki, plus coastal defense forces ...

    And there, God forbid, it comes to the ships of the ocean zone ...

    And in a modern economy, optimization and unification - naturally - are essential ...
    1. Verdun
      Verdun 17 May 2016 12: 51
      Correctly, the author noted that the so-called small fleet has almost proved its combat effectiveness ...
      This is in what, let me ask you, battles? An attack of ground targets according to external guidance, albeit at a great distance? So this is not the main task of the fleet.
  10. lex loci
    lex loci 17 May 2016 10: 42
    Unitary armament dramatically reduces the burden on commissary services ....
    Such a squiggle .....
  11. na76
    na76 17 May 2016 11: 08
    Missile cruiser "Moscow" has no place in the Black Sea, well, aircraft carriers do not come here!

    Do they enter the Mediterranean Sea? The author forgot that in the USSR the Black Sea Fleet was the core of the Mediterranean squadron? And probably will be again ...
    1. 31rus2
      31rus2 17 May 2016 11: 33
      You are right, the author does not see that the Black Sea Fleet is the basis now for creating a grouping in the Mediterranean
    2. Verdun
      Verdun 17 May 2016 15: 46
      the second forgot that in the USSR the Black Sea fleet was the core of the Mediterranean squadron? And probably will be again ...
      So then there were the necessary forces in case of resistance to pass the Bosphorus, and now where are they? Just do not answer that "probably will be."
      1. Talgat
        Talgat 18 May 2016 21: 12
        Quote: Verdun
        then there were the necessary forces in case of resistance to pass the Bosphorus, and now where are they?

        Yes, you are unfortunately right. RF is not the USSR and the EAU is not yet "mature"

        But, all the same, as long as there is no open war with Turkey and NATO, the Black Sea Fleet can go through and form groups with the Mediterranean Sea.

        Large ships on the Black Sea Fleet itself are certainly not the topic (they wrote here - at the time of the conflict, the cruiser was completely redundant) - they will fulfill the role only in the Mediterranean

        In the Black Sea itself, NATO (breaking towards Montreux) can create any large groupings of ships - but they will all be vulnerable by coastal missile systems and aircraft - which the Russian Federation can build up in case of something very quickly
  12. megadeth
    megadeth 17 May 2016 11: 22
    Gentlemen, the question is solved simply. Iskanders in Cuba! soldier
  13. avg-mgn
    avg-mgn 17 May 2016 11: 26
    Quote: weksha50
    And in a modern economy, optimization and unification - naturally - are essential ...

    True, of course, no one argues, but how to achieve that unification with the rather complex need of the fleets for ships of various classes and purposes, and even with a difference in the age of ships of tens of years. The design bureaus are probably breaking their heads over this, but the task is still not an easy one.
  14. 31rus2
    31rus2 17 May 2016 11: 31
    Dear, and in what is the author actually right? Wrote about the state, by the way, not only the Black Sea Fleet, well done, but this particular group should and will solve the assigned tasks, but differently calibrated, but with many shortcomings, and what is the alternative? What modern ships will immediately appear and pl?, alas, this is not a fairy tale, this is life, I’ll add only one thing: you need to be able to fight and win with what we have, and not whine, with alignment and strength, so let's throw off the whole country and buy at least a tugboat, this is real help
  15. The comment was deleted.
  16. silver169
    silver169 17 May 2016 11: 33
    If there were more people who were so pleased about Russia as Admiral Fedor Fedorovich Ushakov and Generalissimo Alexander Vasilievich Suvorov, look and Russia would have a strong fleet and an invincible army.
  17. Freeman
    Freeman 17 May 2016 11: 33
    Missile cruiser "Moscow" has no place in the Black Sea, well, aircraft carriers do not come here! And there are no real opponents in the Black Sea countries!

    Well, they built it at a time when the KChF did not hang out at the "wall", but went to the Mediterranean Sea, where the 6th Fleet of the US Navy operated. And in its composition there were enough "worthy" goals.

    And the current "variety" is associated with the collapse in the "nineties and zero" - what could "survive", then we have. So it is with replenishment - what is, what is given. During Soviet times, the fleet was more balanced and of the same type.
  18. Haloperidol
    Haloperidol 17 May 2016 11: 44
    The article is interesting in its own way, but partly superficial and not entirely objective. 1) Let's start with the submarines of the Black Sea Fleet of the Russian Federation. All combat-ready boats of the Black Sea Fleet are of the Varshavyanka type, of two different modifications, everything else in the fleet is only listed, is not combat-ready, is under long-term repair , which, most likely, will end in disposal, or transfer to the museum, because hardly anyone in their right mind considers it necessary to repair an old submarine such as Som .... Germany has submarines of type 212A, selling all of its type 209 ... and pr. 2) The new ships of the Black Sea Fleet of the Russian Federation have two artillery calibers, 100 and 30 mm, and so far there is no possibility and even more desire to replace all the old ships of the Black Sea Fleet, those who consider the Chubais hanger to be an honest man ... 3) Exoset rockets and other foreign RCCs are not as identical as it seems to the author and, for example, Exoset MK40, MK-39, MK38 not only have very different capabilities, but are not interchangeable at all ...
  19. Per se.
    Per se. 17 May 2016 12: 22
    So Russia has hope to get a "German Navy on the Black Sea."
    The author famously drew the topic! Maybe everything is enough, as they have, Germany is not on the Black Sea, it is solving its tasks in its geography, and the Germans have long been in NATO, under the cap of the USA. Russia is not Germany, and the Black Sea Fleet is not a brother to German. All the trouble of Russia is that our forces at sea are historically fragmented among the fleets, and it has been historically proven that the Baltic and Black Sea are tightly blocked during the war period. The whole facade of Russia is the North, the Arctic. And if we are talking about the Russian fleet as a single organism, a combat defense system, and war at sea, we need to develop our fleet not from the regional vision of individual fleets, but as a single fleet, with a core in the North. Of course, it is more convenient and closer to go to the Mediterranean Sea from the Black, but the Mediterranean, if desired, is blocked by Gibraltar and Suez, there is no modern analogy, in general logic, to look back from the Black Sea to the German fleet (and why, in fact, not Italy?). It is commendable that the author tried to analyze, it is a pity that from such an unusual, strange angle to the Germans.
  20. Verdun
    Verdun 17 May 2016 12: 26
    The German fleet consists of ships of good quality, and similar in type, which simplifies not only maintenance, but also combat use. Moreover, Germany is building a very worthy upgrade for its fleet, focusing not on the mosquito fleet, but on the high seas fleet, which is quite adapted to operations at a considerable distance from bases. It is extremely difficult to oppose such a fleet of RTOs and other Raptors. Russia urgently needs to equalize the situation. In my opinion, it is impossible to do this by building small-displacement warships and placing various coastal complexes.
    1. lecturer
      lecturer 17 May 2016 13: 36
      The German fleet consists of ships of good quality and similar in type, which simplifies not only maintenance, but also combat use.
      - I mean an upturned pot when horns down?
      1. Verdun
        Verdun 17 May 2016 16: 07
        mean inverted pot when horns down?
        A pot with horns downward is, perhaps, under someone's bed, in case he does not have time to reach the latrine. And the Germans have frigates of the Bremen, Saxony, Brandenburg series, corvettes of the Braunschweig series, Project 212 boats, new frigates, the first of which, Baden-Württemberg, has already entered service and two more are on the way .. It's not funny.
  21. red_october
    red_october 17 May 2016 16: 46
    1. Missile cruiser "Moscow" has no place in the Black Sea, well, aircraft carriers do not come here! And there are no real opponents in the Black Sea countries!

    2. As the flagship, the Admiral Ushakov project 956 destroyer, by the way, is the only one in service on the CSF to transfer to the Black Sea. In the Baltic and the Black Sea there will be similar flagships.

    1. But they come from the Mediterranean Sea.
    2. The main caliber of "Ushakov" - 8 P-270 "Mosquito" with a launch range of 120-250 km. The main caliber of the "Moscow" is 16 P-1000 "Vulkan" with a range of at least 500 km. That is, the current flagship of the project 1164 is one head more efficient than the destroyer, which is not superfluous in the Mediterranean, where the 6th US Navy fleet is stationed.
    The fact that now the American fleet is not visible and is not heard in this region does not mean anything. We had and still have a serious ground grouping with air defense and fighter jets, and under the current president they prefer not to risk it. It is not known what will happen when they choose Hillary or Trump. The latter generally suggests shooting down our military aircraft