Military Review

Tougher steel: how to create innovative technology for the glazing of aircraft T-50

71



Russia has developed new technologies for the manufacture of glazing cabins of military and civilian aircraft of silicate glass. Such products are easier and more durable than if they were created from previously used organic materials. Silicate glass is used in other areas - from space to housing.

Among space explorers, the controversy surrounding the assessment of the safety and operation of the International Space Station has not been subsiding for years. The fact is that in the Russian segment of the ISS installed 13 windows. During joint discussions of the ISS, it is proposed to close the windows in the Russian segment with deaf plugs because of the risk of defects in the glass due to micrometeorite strikes - they say, the station's safety may improve. But the representative of the Russian side - Director of the Scientific Research Institute of Technical Glass (NITS), Honored Worker of Science, Vice-President of the Academy of Engineering Sciences of the Russian Federation, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor Vladimir Solinov is standing his ground - for many years the residual strength after the impact of cosmic microparticles has remained and, various radiation and other threats to space did not affect the security of the portholes created at the institute, as well as the crew, so there are reasons for limiting the observation of our planet There is no “dimming” the work of astronauts in the Russian modules of the orbital station.

Portholes for an orbital station is just one of the few products manufactured at NITS. The main part of the work of scientists and technologists of the institute located in the south-west of Moscow, of course, is associated with the creation of products of structural optics, glazing, or as they say “complex transparent optical systems” for fourth and fifth generation combat aircraft produced by UAC factories. And every year work for aviation becomes noticeably larger.

Silicate or organic

Tougher steel: how to create innovative technology for the glazing of aircraft T-50

In the photo: T-50 windscreen blanks in a hardening cassette.

Silicate glass is a material with unique properties. Its transparency, high optics, heat resistance, durability, the ability to use various coatings - make it indispensable for glazing aircraft. But why when glazing the cockpit of aircraft abroad, and we have preference organically? Only for one reason - it is easier. They also say that silicate glass is too fragile.

In the past few years, the development of materials scientists at the NITS has allowed to radically change the concept of silicate glass as a fragile material. Modern hardening methods make it possible to provide glazing for modern combat aircraft with sufficient strength to withstand the impact of birds weighing about two kilograms at a speed of 900 km / hour.

“Today the method of hardening in the surface layer has exhausted itself. It's time to change the internal structure of the glass, its defectiveness, ”says Vladimir Solinov. This, if not strange, contribute to the sanctions imposed by the West. The fact is that even in “pre-sanctioned” times, foreign companies, by decision of NATO, did not supply Russia with improved-quality silicate glasses used there for special purposes. This forced NITS to use architectural glass. Although Russian manufacturers produce millions of square meters of such glass, its quality is not suitable for use in aviation.

Import substitution has come to the rescue: a new project has been launched in Moscow to conduct R & D and design equipment that is fundamentally new for the glass industry.

All the processes of glass synthesis with Russian priority will be worked out on it.

The project is entrusted to the young scientist Tatyana Kiseleva. 26-year-old graduate of the Russian University of Chemical Technology. DI Mendeleeva leads the laboratory, in 2015 she defended her thesis. At the glass department at Mendeleevka, Tatyana studied the properties of transparent armor. One of her professional challenges is to develop glass, which in its properties would be superior to one of the world's best analogues - Herkulit glass, which Russia has not yet produced.

The project is based on a new original method of glass melting. Already today, glass samples have been obtained in the laboratory, the structural strength of which is three times higher than analogues obtained by the traditional method. Add to this the existing methods of hardening, and get glass, the strength of which is several times higher than many grades of alloy steel. Lighter products are made of stronger glass. However, it should be noted that the developers of organic glass are constantly improving the technical performance of their products, the debate about which glass is better is not over.

Flashlight for T ‑ 50



In the photo: T-50 aircraft glazing set - frontal visor and folding part.

Imagine a package of several silicate glass plates that need to streamline the front visor of a high-speed aircraft.

About forty years ago, NITS specialists developed a technology of deep bending. In a special oven lays several layers of glass. Within a few hours at high temperature under its own weight the glass bends, acquiring the desired shape and curvature. If necessary, special mechanisms push the workpiece, causing it to bend according to a special schedule.

For the first time in the world, this lamp was replaced by a MiG ‑ 29 fighter, consisting of three glasses, with one silicate-free besprepletnoe glass.

With increasing speeds, the requirements for heat resistance of glazing, with which organic glass could no longer cope, increased. At the same time, optical requirements and visibility requirements were tightened. Several years ago, in collaboration with the Sukhoi Company and the United Aircraft Building Corporation, a new technology was developed for the production of glass for T-50.
The development was funded by aircraft manufacturers, in part - by the Ministry of Industry and Trade. Substantial assistance was provided in carrying out technical re-equipment of the enterprise, said Yuri Tarasov, director of the UAC Technology Center.

As a result, the windscreen of the T ‑ 50 aircraft is almost twice the size of the MiG ‑ 29 visor, and the shape of the product from the classical cylinder has become a complex 3D format.

The result - for the first time in the world, the frontal and folding part of the T-50 aircraft flashlight (manufactured by the Sukhoi company) was made of silicate glass in the 3D format. In this case, the weight of these parts was lower than if they were made of organic glass.

The results achieved gave impetus to equipping planes of other plants and design bureaus included in the KLA with such glazing. Immediately, there was a need to upgrade, replacing organic glazing with silicate, for example, on the Yak-130, Su-35, MiG-31, MiG-35 aircraft. After such a replacement (i.e., improving the strength characteristics of the glazing), the MiG-35, for example, first reached the speed of up to 2000 km / h, that is, could fly faster by an average of 40% than any other aircraft in the world.

In recent years, the work style of Moscow scientists has seriously changed. About three hundred NITS specialists perform a full cycle - from a technical task to small-scale production. Here are the developments of technology, and the selection of key materials using glass, and a large cycle of tests for all factors affecting the aircraft, both on the ground and in the air.

There are several key requirements for modern glass, among which, besides high strength, are optical transparency, high light transmission, increasing the range of sight, anti-glare properties, protection from exposure to solar radiation and other radiation, anti-icing properties, providing uniform electrical resistivity.

All this is achieved by coating with an aerosol, vacuum or magnetron method. Powerful and complex equipment, evaporating the metal and precipitating it on the glass surface, allow NITS to apply any coatings, including protection from special factors.
This set of properties makes it possible to speak of a glazing product as a complex optical system, and the high strength properties of glass, which forms part of the aircraft cabin, created a new field of science and technology and introduced the term “structural optics products” (IR).

New technologies



In the photo: loading a sheet of glass for further processing.

When the product — the flare part of the flashlight for the T ‑ 50 — is unloaded from the furnace for further processing, it is not much like the future product. When glass is bending, the edges of the workpiece are deformed, and it is impossible to remove them from a large-sized workpiece, even with a complex geometric shape, with a diamond tool. The laser came to the rescue. The laser beam of the robotic complex not only cuts the workpiece according to the program laid down in it, but also, by melting the edge, increases the strength of the edges of the products, preventing the occurrence of cracks. Laser cutting of products of large-sized 3D form was first used in Moscow. This method received a patent in March 2012. The laser beam is also used for applying cut-offs in an electrically conductive layer on the surface of the glass, creating heating zones. After laser processing, the blank becomes more and more like the T ‑ 50 flashlight.

After cutting, each billet is machined on a five-axis machine. The unique lodgement allows for zero initial mounting voltages on it. The chief technologist of the institute, Alexander Sitkin, spoke about the prospects for using the complex for grinding and polishing glass surfaces: work that, if necessary, is carried out only by hand. Developed technologies are the pride of the institute.

More recently, the finished glass block with a sealant was mounted in a metal frame. The transition to composite materials developed by NITS allowed reducing the weight of the product by 25%, increasing the bird resistance and glazing resource to the level of glider glazing resource. It has become possible to replace the glazing in the field.

The whole production cycle of ICE lasts about one and a half months. Most of the products go to the UAC manufacturing plants, some - to repair plants for modernization, some - to the air force airfields, to the so-called first-aid kits. The main part of NITS products is carried out as part of the state defense order.

The NITS is reluctant to share information about the characteristics of glazing for combat aircraft. But it is clear that the glasses developed for the cabins of domestic civil aircraft surpass the imported ones in a number of parameters.

For example, as can be seen on the NITS website, the glass thickness on a Tu ‑ 204 plane is 17 mm, the glass thickness with similar properties for Boeing 787 airplanes is 45 mm.

Generation V


In the past few years, the director of the institute, Vladimir Solinov, has managed to significantly rejuvenate the team. The Moscow production, which recently celebrated the 60 anniversary, today employs both young people and experienced specialists. Here willingly go students of the senior courses "Mendeleevka". Having come to the internship at the institute and having learned that here the salaries for 70 are thousand rubles, they first get employed by simple workers, then quickly grow to technologists. Many experienced workers.

One of them, Nikolai Yakunin, handles the glass for helicopters. “I came here immediately after the army, forty years ago. But if it were not for the high level of automation, I probably would not have survived. It’s hard for me even to be in good physical shape with a product weighing 30 kg all day long, ”says Yakunin.

People and nails


All over the world, technologies developed for aircraft manufacturing that allow the manufacture of glasses of the required strength are used in many other sectors of the national economy.

A few years ago, in order to prove the high strength of silicate glass, the institute made ... glass nails. Hammer hammered. They could be used in products with anti-magnetic properties.

Also, these nails were tested during construction, instead of clamps when gluing yacht hulls. But the nails were only exotic. Now no one needs to prove the high strength of glass - all the works of NITS are evidence of the high quality of this ancient and, at the same time, completely new material.

The director of the institute, Vladimir Solinov, uses all his capabilities to prove the need to ensure high strength glass, including architectural and construction glass.

He is a member of the Russian-American Commission on Security in Space, which was discussed at the beginning of this article, as well as the City Planning Commission of the State Duma - after all, the construction of modern buildings is a large part of the material - glass. And this means that technologies and materials developed for aviation will in the near future make the lives of millions of people more and more comfortable and safe.
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  1. Приговор
    Приговор 14 May 2016 05: 58
    +12
    It's nice that those technologies in which even the Union was lagging behind were able to be developed by Russia. Now, implement and rearm as soon as possible. We have everything except time.
    1. Operator
      Operator 14 May 2016 21: 51
      +8
      "You argue apolitically!" (FROM) laughing

      The Russian military-industrial complex in the field of manufacturing heat-resistant lanterns for fighter cockpits took the lead by a wide margin, leaving its closest competitor - the United States - in a deep ass.

      Moreover, other countries in the likeness of Israel, whose representatives in the comments to the article intensely try to replace the topic of inorganic glass with the theme of binding the lantern, did not initially get out of there.

      As a result, the MiG-31 develops 3000 km / h, T-50 - 2700 km / h, Su-35С - 2500 km / h while the F-22 is limited to 2124 km / h, and F-35 (the pride of the Israeli Air Force ) generally set an anti-record with its 1700 km / h.
    2. B-15
      B-15 15 May 2016 07: 00
      +11
      I would not agree with you. Carcasses in glasses have been flying there since the 70s for sure. Glasses there were made of the highest rank for a long time. I held glass nails in my hands even during the Soviet era.
      It just feels like finally brought to implementation. And it pleases.
      In general, the institute was called NIITS all its life. Why cuts? wink
      1. guzik007
        guzik007 16 May 2016 00: 03
        +2
        I held glass nails in my hands even during the Soviet era.

        There you go! It turns out the saying: the glass member is a fool for a short time, hopelessly out of date.
    3. Forget
      Forget 15 May 2016 20: 31
      +1
      Quote: Sentence
      in which even the Union lagged behind, with

      Russia was the Union
  2. ImPerts
    ImPerts 14 May 2016 06: 04
    +14
    MiG-35, for example, for the first time developed a speed of up to 2000 km / h, that is, it was able to fly faster on average by 40% than any other aircraft in the world

    Kind of weird?!
    Maybe it's a typo? And I mean MIG-31? There, due to problems with the production of glazing cabs, speed limits were imposed?
    It pleases me this morning, joy !. Good news on VO, good!
    1. Army soldier2
      Army soldier2 14 May 2016 14: 05
      +7
      In general, it is nice to read such articles - specific, without pathos. Thanks to the author for educational activities!
      What will the jingo-patriots say now, for whom everything is bad in modern Russia? Two have already "-" delivered, probably did not believe the "vile propaganda".
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. cherkas.oe
      cherkas.oe 14 May 2016 16: 14
      +3
      Quote: ImPerts
      Maybe it's a typo? And I mean MIG-31?

      Of course, the typo is not 2000 km, but 3000 km, and not the 35th, but the 31st,
      1. dauria
        dauria 15 May 2016 11: 33
        +2
        Of course, a typo is not 2000 km


        Probably, it meant speed near the ground. Then yes, it all fits together. But something did not find the facts. In reality, airplanes near the ground did not fly faster than 1400 km per hour. And the speed limit at altitude is not at all because of the flashlight. There are a bunch of other reasons, more serious. And the main thing is the optimal compromise for a combat aircraft without prejudice to other parameters due to speed.
      2. Damir
        Damir 1 November 2016 13: 23
        0
        uh-fffff !!!!! I really thought the brain explodes ... where did the instant-35 and 2000 ??????
    4. Bayonet
      Bayonet 15 May 2016 07: 22
      0
      Quote: ImPerts
      Kind of weird?!
      Maybe it's a typo?

      No, this is incompetence.
  3. Thunderbolt
    Thunderbolt 14 May 2016 06: 17
    +17
    Honestly, after reading about glass nails, I have already stopped internally doubting the strength of this material good ... comparison of the thickness of the glasses "Tu" and "Boeing" is also a plus for our "glass blowers". It is not in vain that they hunt for our scientists. If there is a lag in technologies, but the scientific school and their knowledge allow us to solve problems of increased complexity.
    P.S. This is who should be ironically protected from nanoChubais with its sawing office. Maybe some means from his "company" can be transferred to the support or development of such scientific and industrial organizations. I heard that there is a lot of money in nano fellow !
    1. Saratoga833
      Saratoga833 14 May 2016 18: 51
      0
      Quote: Thunderbolt
      Maybe some means from his "firm" can be used to support or develop such scientific and industrial organizations.

      Long overdue!
    2. alexng
      alexng 15 May 2016 23: 33
      +3
      Quote: Thunderbolt
      P.S. This is who should be protected from the nanoChubais with its sawing office.


      It’s strange, why is this poisonous mushroom subindococcus, popularly called "a thief - a burning hat", still has the ability to steal and spread rot, albeit partially, the Russian economy? This red muzzle should have long been expelled to the homeland of its owners or sit on a bunk somewhere beyond the Arctic Circle.
  4. ovod84
    ovod84 14 May 2016 07: 24
    +5
    About nails, news is respect for science. Why not in this world.
    1. atalef
      atalef 14 May 2016 08: 12
      +3
      Quote: ovod84
      About nails, news is respect for science. Why not in this world.

      About the glass nails invented in this research institute I saw a report about 20 years ago, I still thought, why the heck are they needed at all?
      By the way, in China they have long been manufactured industrially for decoration
      1. Thunderbolt
        Thunderbolt 14 May 2016 08: 18
        0
        Quote: atalef
        By the way, in China they have long been manufactured industrially
        And who invented them there? Surely the Chinese scientist Lee Xi Tsyn yes
        1. Professor
          Professor 14 May 2016 08: 24
          +2
          Quote: Thunderbolt
          And who invented them there? Surely the Chinese scientist Lee Xi Tsyn

          Published in the journal "Young Technician" №4 1973
          Glass nails do not rust, and their strength is no less than that of iron nails, they are made of special glass, and they can be hammered with an ordinary hammer. They were developed by English engineers.
          http://www.metalltype.ru/vesti/1973/04c
          1. Portolan
            Portolan 14 May 2016 08: 40
            +2
            Quote: Professor
            They were developed by English engineers.
            http://www.metalltype.ru/vesti/1973/04c


            just something photo of these nails is missing and Chinese too.
            1. atalef
              atalef 14 May 2016 08: 46
              -5
              Quote: Portolan
              Quote: Professor
              They were developed by English engineers.
              http://www.metalltype.ru/vesti/1973/04c


              just something photo of these nails is missing and Chinese too.

              Come on, type - glass nails (in google) - and you will be happy
              1. Portolan
                Portolan 14 May 2016 08: 55
                +4
                Quote: atalef
                Come on, type - glass nails (in google) - and you will be happy


                I told you that you should not believe, can you show a photo?
          2. Thunderbolt
            Thunderbolt 14 May 2016 09: 08
            +4
            Quote: Professor
            They were developed by English engineers.
            I see that you are well-versed in the topic of glass nails ... So it’s an Anglican work, but I thought from the simplicity of my heart that it’s OUR))).
          3. 16112014nk
            16112014nk 14 May 2016 09: 55
            +4
            Quote: Professor
            They were developed by English engineers.

            British scientistsas always, ahead of the rest! wink
      2. The comment was deleted.
  5. Professor
    Professor 14 May 2016 07: 44
    +1
    Why is the T-50 more than one non-binding glass?
    1. atalef
      atalef 14 May 2016 08: 13
      -1
      Quote: Professor
      Why is the T-50 more than one non-binding glass?

      It was strange to me to see the same
      1. WUA 518
        WUA 518 14 May 2016 08: 29
        +14
        Quote: atalef
        It was strange to me to see the same

        Sanya hi. The T-50 has a movable flashlight.
      2. godofwar6699
        godofwar6699 14 May 2016 09: 07
        -4
        probably a better view
    2. Portolan
      Portolan 14 May 2016 08: 23
      +2
      Quote: Professor
      Why is the T-50 more than one non-binding glass?


      what for? to go in fashion with f22 is not worth it because it is not right, separate parts of the flashlight give more survivability to the aircraft in battle, because one segment of the glazing is destroyed, and amer all at once.
      1. Professor
        Professor 14 May 2016 08: 36
        +1
        Quote: Portolan
        and why?

        To improve the review.


        Quote: Portolan
        to go in fashion with f22 is not worth it because it is not right, separate parts of the flashlight give more survivability to the aircraft in battle, because one segment of the glazing is destroyed, and amer all at once.

        And what happens when one segment is destroyed? wink
        1. Portolan
          Portolan 14 May 2016 08: 43
          +2
          Quote: Professor
          To improve the review.


          I do not think that the review will be greatly improved, this lamp has more minuses than pluses.
          Quote: Professor
          And what happens when one segment is destroyed?


          and the pilot’s head will be torn off by an oncoming air stream.
          1. Professor
            Professor 14 May 2016 08: 46
            -10%
            Quote: Portolan
            I do not think that the review will be greatly improved, this lamp has more minuses than pluses.

            This is not for us to decide, but for those who pay.

            Quote: Portolan
            and the pilot’s head will be torn off by an oncoming air stream.

            That's it. There is one segment that all the fanar.
            1. Portolan
              Portolan 14 May 2016 08: 52
              +3
              Quote: Professor
              This is not for us to decide, but for those who pay.


              how stupid, those who pay are usually not specialists, but all kinds of public relations, as the engineers, and not the moneybags, better understand.
              Quote: Professor
              That's it. There is one segment that all the fanar.


              negative
        2. WUA 518
          WUA 518 14 May 2016 08: 50
          +12
          Quote: Professor
          And what happens when one segment is destroyed?

          Oleg I welcome, this is my personal opinion, but this configuration of the flashlight is accepted due to the fact that our ejection system is traditionally performed with the shooting of the moving part of the flashlight. The exception was the MiG-21-13, but if the memory serves, the lantern was not fired when ejecting.
          1. Professor
            Professor 14 May 2016 09: 04
            +1
            Quote: WUA 518
            Oleg I welcome, this is my personal opinion, but this configuration of the flashlight is accepted due to the fact that our ejection system is traditionally performed with the shooting of the moving part of the flashlight.

            IMHO it's all about money. In them damned. A solid flashlight costs a lot more.
            1. dvina71
              dvina71 14 May 2016 22: 55
              +3
              Quote: Professor
              IMHO it's all about money. In them damned. A solid flashlight costs a lot more.

              What is the reason for such a conclusion?
              The technology of glass bending is known not only to Americans. There is nothing complicated in it.
              All the complexity in the composition of the glass and temperature conditions of heating and cooling.
              In Vologda, in 94, they made glass and bronelite on my Volvo-340. The bends there are not small, although before the Saab-900 champion ... it’s a bit far, but they did it without any problems.
              The first burst during cooling, the second happened.
              The verification method is a kilogram metal ball, they throw it on the glass from a height of 1 m. Then my wife stood on it and jumped, I was afraid of my 96 kg. The time was already late, it was far to go and I did not want to make another glass.
              Already when we arrived at Voronezh, a nut from a wheel flew in from the oncoming lawn, I rode under a hundred. It’s right in the middle .., only the smoke has gone. There wasn’t even a trace left on the glass. So I sold the car with it, the further fate of this glass is not known to me.
              1. Professor
                Professor 15 May 2016 07: 08
                0
                Quote: dvina71
                What is the reason for such a conclusion?

                And from here: T-50 / I-21 / PAK FA
                Cabin light on the first T-50-1 binding machine, on serial T-50, it is planned to use a cabin light using interlock sections of a silicate light a new type, created since 2009 under the R&D program "Ashug" (R&D cost 60 million rubles, 2009).
                Section dimensions - 1525 x 805 mm
                Glazing thickness - less than 14 mm
                Light transmittance - 0.8
                Saturation of a color background - no more than 3.5 satron
                The temperature of the medium is +55 degrees C (working), +130 degrees C (short-term), +150 degrees C (extreme)
          2. godofwar6699
            godofwar6699 14 May 2016 11: 19
            -9
            one piece of glass
            1. viktorR
              viktorR 15 May 2016 01: 49
              +2
              One piece, only to the point, if there is a binding anyway))?
      2. atalef
        atalef 14 May 2016 08: 48
        -9
        Quote: Portolan
        Quote: Professor
        Why is the T-50 more than one non-binding glass?


        what for? to go in fashion with f22 is not worth it because it is not right, separate parts of the flashlight give more survivability to the aircraft in battle, because one segment of the glazing is destroyed, and amer all at once.

        Laughed
        1. Portolan
          Portolan 14 May 2016 08: 56
          +7
          Quote: atalef
          Laughed


          laughter for no reason, a sign ...?
        2. WUA 518
          WUA 518 14 May 2016 09: 03
          +28
          Here's another piece of information: A lantern with a visor provides almost the same visibility as a completely recessive, but without the following disadvantages:
          1. Insufficient strength
          2. The strongest optical distortions in curved surfaces and transitional places of various thicknesses, for example, from thick frontal to thin lateral
          3. Does not glare inside the cab
          4. Much lighter than solid
          5. Cheaper and more technologically advanced
          6. In the bookbinding there is no psychophysiological problem of loss of spatial orientation in flight, associated with an unlimited overview of airspace.

          Extracts from an article by Joffrey W. McCarthy. (Aeromedicine and Training Diges, 1990, July, vol. 4.)
          “Although many innovations in the F-16 fighter project ensured a significant combat superiority of this aircraft in the air, they simultaneously presented the pilot with a complex of complex aviation medical problems.
          Among these problems, the problem of violation of the spatial orientation of the pilot is particularly sensitive. Over the past 10 years since the arrival of this aircraft in the U.S. Air Force, 58% of all flying accidents with the F-16 fighter (as of October 1988) are related to the human factor.
          The severity of the problem looms in relief, given that cases of spatial orientation misalignment in 83% end with the death of the pilot. This is the second leading cause of air crashes after aerobatic overloads, where the main factor is loss of consciousness, leading to the death of the pilot in 100% of cases.
          It should be noted that some specific features of the pilot's workplace of the F-16 aircraft increase the likelihood of spatial orientation disorder in flight, which should be remembered by each crew member.
          One of the factors that increase the pilot’s sensitivity to spatial orientation disorders in flight on F-16 is the unlimited view of the airspace from the cockpit. This is due to the fact that, unlike aircraft of the previous types, with a binding or frame glazing design, the cabin of the F-16 fighter is equipped with solid (without binding) glazing with low sides, which provides the pilot with an unhindered view of the air situation in a combat situation.
          Such a constructive decision from the point of view of combat efficiency is, of course, correct, because it takes into account the most important tactical axiom of a military pilot: "Bad visibility - a lost air battle"!
          At the same time, however, the non-tearing all-cast glazing design of the F-16 fighter deprives the pilot of a visual assessment of the spatial position of the aircraft in goniometric coordinates. Having lost the spatial orientation or in a difficult spatial position, the pilot of the F-16 aircraft does not have reference points for the quick adoption of corrective estimates and actions in flight.
          In addition, cockpit lights serve as a source of reflected glare on the inner surface of the canopy glazing, especially at high brightness levels. At the same time, the pilot's attempts to lower the brightness level lead to the fact that low illumination levels make it difficult to read and control the readings of flight and navigation indicators. "
          1. voyaka uh
            voyaka uh 14 May 2016 14: 52
            +3
            The problem arose in the early years of the F-16, when
            pilots from other airplanes used to see the helm
            the usual binding of fireplaces. Without him, it seemed to them that they were "lost."
            Article 1990 on reports until 1988.
            1. WUA 518
              WUA 518 14 May 2016 14: 59
              +1
              Quote: voyaka uh
              when for
              pilots from other planes landed

              Alexey welcome. I read that due to the peculiarities of the location of the throttle and RUS controls, the F-16 was not retrained from other types, but pilots were taught from scratch.
              1. voyaka uh
                voyaka uh 14 May 2016 21: 27
                +5
                "on the F-16 they did not retrain from other types, but trained pilots from scratch ////

                Now the same garbage with the "virtual" helmet F-35. It's easier to teach from scratch than to retrain.
                We must not turn our heads at all, but analyze a 3-dimensional cartoon, which
                The sensors around the plane collect for you on the inner surface of the helmet glass.
                I did not understand the cartoons - the dead man. Got it - you can dunk everyone 360 ​​round, nobody
                without seeing with your eyes.
                1. WUA 518
                  WUA 518 14 May 2016 21: 32
                  +2
                  Quote: voyaka uh
                  Got it - you can dunk everyone 360 ​​round, nobody
                  without seeing with your eyes.

                  Thanks Alexey, I understood everything.
                  1. Operator
                    Operator 14 May 2016 22: 35
                    +5
                    This flight helmet for the F-16I Sufa (Israeli two-seat remake of the famous American aircraft) weighs 6 kg and breaks the pilots' neck vertebrae when trying to perform maneuvers with the overload inherent in fighter jets.

                    Therefore, it is used only by pilots of bomber aircraft. Which does not save them from injuries during bailout, when overloads are from 12 to 18 g (depending on the weight of the pilot).

                    At the same time, tactical information is projected not on the visor of the helmet for binocular vision with both eyes of the pilot (a modern solution), but on the monocular placed in front of the right eye, using technology developed back in 40 years ago.
              2. Gogia
                Gogia 15 May 2016 11: 11
                -4
                F16 - No matter how you twist Cult plane. First flight 1976 - I was 2 years old. more than 25% of the aircraft are composites. Look at the control knob - on the right - a big inconvenience for left-handed people, but it was a landmark event. Fully electronic aircraft control. The car is good, but much more expensive than the Mig-29 came out - because of the same composites. And the EPR is not much better. The combat load is very decent and very deep modernization at the present time, although the cost of modernization is comparable to the cost of our new aircraft :)))
                How much effort was spent by our KGB to get this plane :)))))
                1. voyaka uh
                  voyaka uh 15 May 2016 11: 50
                  +1
                  "And EPR is not much better" ////

                  The EPR of the F-16 is large. And with all the pylons: sights, missiles -
                  huge. Therefore, you can only break through to goals at speed
                  at an altitude of 50 m with a wild risk of crashing into the mountains, towers.
                  And at high altitude, the SAMs will turn the F-16 into a torch per second.
                  (... F-35 is not a whim, but a necessity).
                2. DimerVladimer
                  DimerVladimer 1 November 2016 13: 32
                  +1
                  Not everything depends on the EPR with composites.

                  Composites reduce the mass of the structure, with the same strength, and therefore the moment of inertia during maneuvering.
          2. Plato
            Plato 14 May 2016 17: 18
            +4
            Everything is written correctly. In a stressful situation, a reference point is necessary for spatial orientation. To lower the head or eyes to the dashboard or the edge of the side to start orientation binding requires, albeit small, time. A flashlight fully transparent is good. The orientation problem can be corrected by applying several marks, lines, dots to the glass, which the pilot can set for his convenience. Here is the solution to all problems with orientation.
            1. WUA 518
              WUA 518 14 May 2016 17: 29
              +2
              Quote: Plato
              Which the pilot can install at your convenience.

              Not an option. What should the eye focus on? On the label, or perspective? There was a way: lost, put RUS in white.
            2. DimerVladimer
              DimerVladimer 1 November 2016 13: 35
              +1
              Quote: Plato
              Everything is written correctly. In a stressful situation, a reference point is necessary for spatial orientation. To lower the head or eyes to the dashboard or the edge of the side to start orientation binding requires, albeit small, time. A flashlight fully transparent is good. The orientation problem can be corrected by applying several marks, lines, dots to the glass, which the pilot can set for his convenience. Here is the solution to all problems with orientation.


              The one-piece construction is stronger, who prevents putting on the whole cockpit lamp, reference lines?
              This is a matter of price and technology - being able to do cheap - you do.
    3. Jew Russian
      Jew Russian 14 May 2016 08: 58
      +3
      An interesting question, I read that in the future the cover will be removed to improve the stealth of the aircraft, but this is not a simple alteration, it will require certain sufficiently extensive R&D, including changes in the airframe, in the catapult seat, executive, and layout decisions, until it’s expediently taken turnkey solution from previous series
    4. shonsu
      shonsu 14 May 2016 17: 01
      0
      I read that they are already doing this. just made it easier for prototypes so that the work does not slow down.
    5. Black Colonel
      Black Colonel 16 May 2016 15: 37
      0
      "Why is there more than one smooth glass on the T-50?"
      I thought the same thing. The Fu-22 lantern is made with one element. Maybe ours has some kind of idea here?
  6. Dimon19661
    Dimon19661 14 May 2016 07: 55
    0
    Five-axis machine — we live in a three-coordinate world, it seems. About speed in 2000 smiled.
    1. Jew Russian
      Jew Russian 14 May 2016 09: 04
      +6
      We laughed in vain, we live in a 3-dimensional world in terms of physics, but the machine can really be five-coordinate, you forget about parallel processing of the product. Although the world is generally 4-dimensional. And an example of calculating the eight dimensional world is the mathematics of the operation of GPS and GLONASS navigation systems
      1. Dimon19661
        Dimon19661 14 May 2016 09: 25
        -4
        The position of any point is described by the THREE coordinate system.
        1. grandson of the hero
          grandson of the hero 14 May 2016 10: 15
          +8
          In machine tools and metalworking, several other concepts of coordinates. There are only six of them. These are the three axes familiar to us, plus rotational motion in the plane normal to each axis. This, so to speak, is an approximate explanation. I think it will be intelligible than the textbook.
          1. Dimon19661
            Dimon19661 14 May 2016 10: 49
            -1
            Absolute and relative coordinates are used there, but nevertheless, the position of a point in space is also described using three coordinates — X, Y, Z.
            1. Alex_T
              Alex_T 14 May 2016 16: 24
              +3
              To position a point in space, it is enough to indicate 3 coordinates. To program the movement of a tool in a machine (manipulator), it is necessary to indicate the position of all moving elements between the part and the tool; therefore, in mechanics there are as many coordinates as there are possible movements (drives), at least 10 coordinates. An example of a 5-coordinate machine in work:
          2. Irkutian
            Irkutian 14 May 2016 15: 00
            0
            Machine tools have five coordinates. The sixth spins the rotation of the spindle.
            1. Alex_T
              Alex_T 14 May 2016 16: 37
              +1
              In machine tools, coordinate means the form-forming movements, and the rotation of the spindle is the movement of the cutting. Therefore, an ordinary lathe will be 2-coordinate. Although in such a machine the rotation of the spindle with the workpiece is also the shape-forming coordinate:
      2. Dimon19661
        Dimon19661 14 May 2016 13: 19
        +1
        Well, it's fantastic ....
        1. VOENOBOZ
          VOENOBOZ 15 May 2016 18: 56
          0
          The cost of the machine, tool, service staff, productivity, appropriateness of use - millions of rubles in vain.
  7. oxotnuk86
    oxotnuk86 14 May 2016 07: 57
    -2
    It’s good that we can go at the forefront, only these guys will leave for the hill.
  8. avg-mgn
    avg-mgn 14 May 2016 09: 02
    +2
    It has become possible to replace glazing in the field.

    But THIS is oh how important and necessary. Even if it was not laid down at the TK level, but "got out" by itself from the properties of the material. +++
  9. Bort radist
    Bort radist 14 May 2016 09: 19
    +2
    In my opinion, is the term transparent armor used for these products?
    "Transparent armor (or bulletproof glass) - armor obtained by combining layers of silicate glass (hardened, tempered, strengthened by chemical etching) with layers of polyurethanes, methyl methacrylates and polycarbonates. The purpose of transparent armor is to protect people, weapons and military equipment from the effects of damaging means - bullets and ammunition fragments, currently in thicknesses from 12 (class I according to GOST R51136-2008) to 200 mm.
  10. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 14 May 2016 09: 59
    +3
    This glass is cooler than polycarbonate, it is especially important that its heat resistance is higher. And complex coatings (protection against solar radiation, radio absorption, heating) on ​​the glass hold better and are much more durable than the same coatings on plexiglass or polycarbonate.
    And the fact that the lantern is composite - so it should be. By the way, there were a few words about the binding made of composite materials. Which does not affect radio signature! And the cost is not too different - that of a whole lamp, that of two parts. There, the cost is much more influenced by the "piece" of these products. Installations for their processing still need to be done (for spraying a coating, for example), and products - 50 pieces per year. That's the cost!
    1. Bayonet
      Bayonet 15 May 2016 07: 55
      0
      Quote: Mountain Shooter
      And the fact that the lamp is composite - therefore, it is necessary.

      Serious argument! smile
  11. K-50
    K-50 14 May 2016 10: 19
    +4
    The article is interesting in itself. BUT! When the magazine lamers twist everything, then I don’t feel like reading after that negative
    After such a replacement (i.e., improving the strength characteristics of glazing), the MiG-35, for example, for the first time developed a speed of up to 2000 km / h, that is, it was able to fly faster by an average of 40% than any other aircraft in the world.

    Another nonsense and it is not clear in meaning. MiG-35 and so on 2 Megameter of speed picks up and flies no faster than his classmates. Therefore, I can’t understand what this author wanted to say. negative request
    1. Dimon19661
      Dimon19661 14 May 2016 10: 52
      0
      The author is poorly versed in the technical component of the article, another reprint on his own behalf.
    2. xtur
      xtur 14 May 2016 14: 46
      0
      > Therefore, I can not understand what the author wanted to say.

      it can be assumed that the use of such glass gave the greatest effect specifically for the MiG-35
  12. Metlik
    Metlik 14 May 2016 12: 40
    +4
    I think NITS is quite capable of producing non-scratch glass for phones, the demand for it is huge - the development would have paid off handsomely.
  13. thinker
    thinker 14 May 2016 15: 47
    0
    During joint discussions of the ISS, it is proposed to close the windows in the Russian segment with blank caps ...

    The other day there was an article about space debris, here’s the result -
    Recently, on one of the quartz windows of the Kupol module. which was attached to the ISS complex in February of this year, a decent crack was discovered. She was accidentally discovered by American astronaut Tim Peake.
    According to him, this is a consequence of a collision with small space debris. Due to the fact that the porthole is four-layer and, moreover, most of the time it is closed with a special valve, it did not suffer too much, although it could have been much worse.
    http://www.infuture.ru/article/16126
  14. Dimon19661
    Dimon19661 15 May 2016 14: 33
    +1
    The guys who explained the principle of operation of the machine with CNC, you just remember the Euclidean geometry a little .... and do not write heresy .. It’s just that people sometimes deliver such ......
    1. Former battalion commander
      Former battalion commander 30 October 2016 13: 26
      +2
      What does geometry have to do with it, and even more so Euclidean! He himself does not understand anything in this matter, but climbs to teach everyone. Euclidean geometry postulates that our space has THREE INDEPENDENT coordinate axes. INDEPENDENT! Turn on the brain if you have one. And where did you read that the machine tools use INDEPENDENT COORDINATE SYSTEMS? The "guys" explain to you that at least 100500 coordinate axes can be used in machine tools. And this allows you to more accurately set the trajectory of the tool over the work surface. And you are here with your Euclid ... People who wrote the comments criticized by you are versed in Euclidean and other geometries, I think better than you ...
  15. poma
    poma 15 May 2016 21: 37
    0
    And who such articles across the throat? What are your cons.
  16. Aleksandr1959
    Aleksandr1959 15 May 2016 23: 05
    0
    As for glazing, composite materials, I would like to mention the Technologiya Scientific and Production Association in Obninsk, Kaluga Region.
    One of the few Obnisk enterprises that did not bent down in the 90s, but, on the contrary, developed. NPO Tekhnologiya was formed during the Soviet era by merging the Experimental Glass Factory and the Obninsk branch of VIAM. The synthesis turned out to be great. In addition to glazing, as I have already mentioned, NPO Tekhnologiya makes very specific orders. For example, "Burana" thermal protection tiles.
    Here are other products:
    Electric heated silicate glazing

    It is a transparent single-layer or multi-layer glass composition of a flat or curved shape, consisting of high-strength glasses, conductive and adhesive materials, framed with elastic polymeric materials in a frame made of lightweight durable metal or rubber sealant. It is used in aircraft Tu-154, An-28, An-38, L-410, Il-86, etc., as well as helicopters and other aircraft.

    Features:
    • the bending technology developed at the enterprise allows to obtain glass blanks of the required curvature;
    • glazing framing ensures tightness of the cockpit and perceives mechanical loads;
    • glazing has high strength, tested for bird resistance;
    • due to the adjustable electric heating, icing and fogging of glasses in any meteorological conditions is prevented;
    • lack of optical distortion;
    • it is possible to apply multifunctional coatings that provide protection against electromagnetic and ultraviolet radiation, the heat flux of solar radiation;
    • glass block thickness from 11 to 52 mm;
    • operating temperature from -60 ° C to +200 ° C;
    • light transmission from 75 to 94%;
    • service life up to 30 years;
    • assigned resource of 2000 flight hours.


    Lenin and composites. It would seem, what is common? The glass of the sarcophagus in the Mausoleum was made by the largest Russian manufacturer of composite materials, NPO Tekhnologiya in Obninsk. "This is glass that does not pierce a pistol and cannot detonate a grenade. And it is anti-glare, that is, when a person goes to the Mausoleum and looks at Lenin, he does not see this glass. A coating has been applied that does not allow the common eye to see that there is actually a sarcophagus "
  17. pm.sv.3691
    pm.sv.3691 2 July 2016 23: 38
    0
    Glass on a snowstorm was produced at the Konstantinovsky plant of special glass (Ukraine) back in the 80s. Since then, much progress has been made in science and technology.