The bulk of the long-term defensive structures erected during this period belonged to type “B” (according to the 1931 classification of the year), and only a few structures belonged to type “M1”. At the same time, there were not so many significant differences between machine gun dots of type “B” and machine gun dots of type “M1”. Dots of the first type most often were two-story, and dots «М1» - only one-story. At the same time, in the “B” type pillboxes, the availability of ancillary facilities reached 9 plus the garrison rest room, whereas in the “M1” type pillboxes there were only 1-3. The thickness of the floor walls of these pillboxes was 150-155 cm, the rear wall was 80-85 cm, which provided their garrisons with protection against 152-mm projectiles and, possibly, single hits of 203-mm projectiles. The main armament of these dots were 3-4 heavy machine guns.
According to the classification adopted in 1931, all two-storey firing points equipped with a chemical shelter received the designation "B", and one-story without chemical shelter - the index "M". This system was approved by the USSR Revolutionary Military Council Commission for tactical and engineering solutions of the UR in the summer of 1931 (not earlier than 29 of June). At the same time, a classification was introduced to denote the resistance of structures. In this case, the subscript numeric index was used for the letter “M”, however, it was inconvenient to use it in the preparation of documents, therefore simpler spelling variants like M1 or the hyphen “M-1” are widely used. A total of three categories of resistance (shooting distance 6 km) were introduced: М1 (floor wall - 150 cm, one hit 203-mm howitzer and 152-mm gun), М2 (floor wall - 135 cm, one hit 152-mm howitzer and 152 -mm guns) and M3 (floor wall - 90 cm, single hit 122-mm howitzers and 76-mm guns). The overwhelming majority of the “B” type pillboxes had the “МХNUMX” persistence category.
After 1931, the reorientation towards the construction of mainly M1 and M2 type bunkers took place in the KiUR strip, with firing points designated as “MS”, which were built in 1932, served as an addition to them. In the same year, the last battalion areas of the fortified area were erected, located in Koncha-Zaspa (battalion No. XXUMX) and in the area of Belogorodka (battalion No. XXUMX). The single-brass pillboxes of the MC were made in the resistance category МХNUMX, they were armed with one heavy machine gun and had only one room for the garrison (directly combat dungeon).
In addition to the firing points, facilities designed to shelter personnel and equipment, which were designated as “shelters”, were built at KiUR. To observe the battlefield, NPs were built — observation posts, the commanders of the divisions led the battle from the command posts — command posts or KNP — command and observation posts. And for the artillery spotters, the ANP was built - artillery observation posts.
In 1930-1931, experiments were conducted on the shelling of long-term structures from different-caliber guns in different tactical conditions. They demonstrated that the adopted thicknesses of the walls and coatings provide the appropriate type of protection for pillboxes. The experiments carried out demonstrated a very low probability of hitting heavy projectiles directly into firing points of a small cubic capacity ("М2" and "М3"). So, two batteries of 203-mm howitzers, firing from a distance of 3,5 kilometer and firing 90 shells, did not achieve a single direct hit in the firing point of the type "M2". And this despite the fact that the fire was carried out with an adjustment, the observer was in 800 meters from the protective structure, and the dispersion of shells was normal.
In August, 1937, when the KiUR combat readiness test was conducted, 246 structures were built in the fortified area. 35 769 cubic meters of reinforced concrete were spent on their construction. Together with the construction of household and auxiliary buildings, 13 117 000 rubles were spent on works at KiUR, a very impressive amount at that time.
It should be noted that the artillery buildings were very poorly represented in KiUR, there were only 3 artillery polukaponiry in its composition, however, much more stationary artillery positions of the Taut type were prepared. Two artillery polukaponiry were built on the same project, and one was built on an individual. In the latter case, the long-term structure had two floors, as well as an additional machine gun casemate, the fire from which was directed in the direction opposite to the guns (as a result, this structure was, in fact, an artillery-machine gun polukaponir). All artillery installations of the Kiev UR were armed with 76,2-mm cannons of the 1900 model of the year on the caponier carriage of Durlächer.
At the same time, the most interesting, expensive and mysterious constructions of KiUR were the so-called “mines”, the greatest number of legends of the fortified area are associated with them today. At the same time, the “mine” type structures were the most labor-intensive in construction. Each such structure was a whole complex consisting of tips (from one to several), which were interconnected by a network of underground utilities. It should be noted that in the documentation of the 1920-s of the beginning of the 1930-s, both single firing points with underground communications and whole complexes with a common underground part were called “mine-type structures” or simply “mines”. This name is inextricably linked with the method of penetration is lost, which in military engineering has traditionally been called “mine”. At the end of the 1930s, they were also called "fire groups."
Bambo double cap №401
The use of dungeons, on the one hand, made it possible to minimize the size of the military installations themselves, which, in fact, were only combat dungeons, since all the auxiliary equipment and reserves were located underground. The developed network of underground structures allowed to significantly increase the stocks of food and ammunition, which provided an incomparable ability to conduct an autonomous battlefield compared to conventional pillboxes. On the other hand, an extensive network of dungeons made it possible to ensure an incomparable level of ordinary pillboxes with a level of safety and comfort for the “mine” garrison.
In total, there were four similar buildings in KiUR, three of which were fire, and the fourth united in a single dox complex of the МNNXX type and ANP of the B type. The dot number XXUMX, which is located in the area of Belogorodka, has survived to the present day. In his case, there was a re-equipment of the two-story machine-gun of type “B” erected in 1, into a “mine” by retrofitting its system with one-framed casemates. The restructuring was done in 401. In order to communicate with the ground on the lower floor of the semicaponion, an opening was made and a shaft with ladders was equipped.
Dot №401 was the biggest "mine" in the composition of the whole KiUR. This fortification object has been preserved to our days, and it can still be seen near the village of Belogorodka in the Kiev-Svyatoshinsky district of the Kiev region. In 2006, the Ukrainian horror film “Adit” was filmed here, which made the object even more popular and popular. This “mine” combines three tips: one double-bricks dot and two single-facet casemates. The cap is almost a separate pillbox, the main difference of which is the presence of a mine or a passage that connect it to the general system of "mines". The single-brick roof dota No. XXUMX was embedded in the steep slope of the Irpen river bank, and the double-marble roof is located at a height, this dot had two floors, for this reason a “mine” and is considered today to be three-level. At the first level of the structure is a system of moves, or in the language of military engineers is lost. The total length of the pockets and pockets of this “mine” is approximately 401 meter, which is more than the far or near caves of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra. Thanks to the advanced network, not only his garrison, but also additional defenders could be hiding in this dota, which could be used to counterattack against attacking or bypassing enemy soldiers.
"Mina" near Belogorodka was laid at a depth of 9 meters, this depth provided reliable protection from shells and bombs. The thickness of the reinforced concrete walls of the double-bore head was 150 cm, the thickness of the ceilings was 120 cm. This would provide the garrison with protection even if one 152 mm shell or 50-100 kilogram hit aviation the bombs. At the same time, the probability of hitting a bunker with an aerial bomb was even less than a direct hit by a heavy projectile, since it was a very difficult task to drop a bomb precisely onto a small, well-disguised tip of a plane flying at very high speed. The bunkers were camouflaged with metal nets with turf; a small parapet was built around the perimeter and on their roofs, which held a layer of land with grass. In the fields, the pillboxes tried to disguise themselves as farm and residential buildings. At the same time, for civilians, the areas where fortifications were located were a restricted area, they were surrounded by barbed wire and patrolled by horse outfits.
In the "mine", or Dot No. XXUMX, there were three exits: two horizontal ones are lost and one of the double-faced cap. In this top of the "mines" led a vertical shaft with staple-ladder. It is worth noting that all the pillboxes with worn ones had two exits: the main and the spare one. At the same time, the main exit was protected by a metal grill and embrasure, behind which a fighter with a light machine gun could sit, while the emergency exit was closed only by a metal grill. In addition, from the ground of the bunker No.401 upward led a mine, over which a disguised observation post (NP) was supposed to be erected, from which the garrison commander could follow the surrounding terrain. It is known that the reinforced concrete NP was not built above the mine, although it was provided for by the inspection commission of the facility, but it was no longer possible to tell whether the tree-and-earth NP was built over it during the war years.
The main exit dota №401
Emergency exit dota №401
KiUR preparation and participation of dota in battles
The restoration of KiUR’s combat readiness began on June 24 of 1941, when MP Kirponos, commander of the Southwestern Front, issued a directive on the formation of parts of the fortified area, the restoration of weapons and equipment of the pillboxes, and the construction of field fortifications. The next day, arrangements were made for the construction of additional fortifications. The population of the capital of Ukraine was mobilized to carry out the necessary defense work, while the number of citizens mobilized was constantly increasing: 30 June 1941 of the year 50 thousand inhabitants were employed at the construction of defensive lines near Kiev, 2 of July 1941 of the year - already 160 thousand people, and in recent days to 200 thousands of Kiev residents. The civilian population of Kiev carried out a huge amount of work on the restoration of the pillboxes and the construction of field fortifications.
Since the construction of the Kiev fortified area did not provide any anti-tank barriers, 15 kilometers of escarpments were opened to eliminate this drawback, 30 kilometers of anti-tank ditches, hundreds of metal hedgehogs were installed. In addition, dozens of kilometers of wire fences were built, 16 kilometers of them were electrified. Minefields were also used in large quantities, in which about 100 thousands of mines were installed. Also, the population of the city opened a huge number of trenches, trenches, communication lines, built many artillery and machine-gun positions. To strengthen the line of defense KiUR was built approximately 750 bunkers.
One of the monofray caps overlooking the floodplain of the Irpen River
Also, in order to strengthen the first line of defense of the fortified area, a natural obstacle in the form of the Irpen River was used. It was on the bank of this river that Dot No. XXUMX was located. A dam was built at the mouth of the Irpin River, as a result of which the water level in the river rose by 401 meters. This led to the flooding of the river floodplain, its width reached 2-700 meters, and the depth along the riverbed was almost 1000 meters. At the same time, work was underway to create a second and third line of defense around Kiev, and the city itself was preparing for street battles. In the capital of the Ukrainian SSR, there was a formation of national militia units, by July 4 8, their number had already exceeded 1941 thousands of people. All defense works under the city, in addition to the local population, involved significant forces of the engineering troops, for example, the 29 demining and engineering battalions of the Red Army, as well as two electrorums, worked on the barrier system. 5 July 8, the work on the equipment and arrangement of the first line of defense was fully completed.
Very little is known about the participation of DotA No. 401 directly in the battles. With confidence we can only say that the first German soldiers appeared on the banks of the Irpen river on July 11, 1941 - these were representatives of the 1st tank group of General Ewald von Kleist. Its motorized and tank units were the "tip" of the wedge of the German Army Group "South", which was aimed at Kiev. There were still battles in the rear of Kleist’s tank group, and its advanced units attempted to force Irpen in the area of the Zhytomyr-Kiev highway. And I understand the Irpen River, and the Germans tried to overcome the river itself in the place where the highway rested against it.
The view from the loopholes overlooking the river Irpen
The bridges across the river were blown up when German units approached them. For several days they tried to break through the bridge on the highway Zhytomyr-Kiev, but were stopped by heavy fire of pillboxes, artillery and field-filling forces of the fortified area. It was in these battles that Dot No. XXUMX, the so-called "mine", took part. Judging by the remaining traces of shells, this fortification was shelled by German artillery, but this did not cause serious damage to the dota. At the same time, the main battles in the Kiev fortified area did not unfold here, but on its southern face, where, from 401 July 31, the Germans made large-scale attempts to break through KiUR, with the aim to break through to Kiev and its bridges across the Dnieper.
The garrisons of the Kiev fortified area pillboxes left their 18-19 September 1941 of the year. According to the order, the machine gun battalions occupying them were relegated to the Dnieper. By this time, the cauldron of the encirclement of the troops of the South-Western Front near Kiev had already slammed shut. When fighting for the city, part of the pillboxes was destroyed, another part was undermined during the withdrawal of parts of the Red Army, but the pillat No. XXUMX was left intact. Later, in the 401 year, the pillbox survived again, although the Germans then carried out a large-scale action to destroy the remaining structures of the Soviet fortified areas, fearing their use by partisans. Thus, this “mine” survived the war, battles on the approaches to Kiev and battles during its liberation in November 1942 of the year by Soviet troops, having survived to this day and attracting the attention of all lovers storiesbecoming a real object of pilgrimage. True, the wide popularity and convenient location played a pretty bad joke with the pillbox. This abandoned sample of the Soviet pre-war fortification today, unfortunately, is filled with debris, which its frequent guests bring with them.
Lossy and ramifications "mines"
Kuzyak A.G., Kaminsky V.V. Reinforced concrete structures of fortified regions of the USSR on the territory of Ukraine. 1928-1936 Fortress Russia. Issue 2. Vladivostok, 2005.
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