Military Review

Responsible obscurantist

30
The fighter with the revolution, sending punitive expeditions, was not a supporter of autocracy


Pyotr Nikolayevich Durnovo is one of the tsarmed and forgotten statesmen and politicians of imperial Russia during the Soviet period. He was remembered in connection with the centenary of the beginning of the First World War, about the adverse consequences of which for Russia he warned Nicholas II in a famous analytical note. However, Durnovo is of interest not only as a prophet.

Since childhood, he has shown brilliant results in his studies. Kinship with the famous naval commander Admiral Lazarev determined the fate. Durnovo was admitted immediately to the second grade at the “excellent” passing entrance examinations to the Naval Cadet Corps. My neighbor on the desk, the future artist Vereshchagin, was remembered for his outstanding abilities.

In 1860, warrant officer Durnovo, who received naval practice and brilliant performance, graduated with honors from the corps and sent to the 19th naval crew. For 10 years of service, he has been participating in long trips to the shores of China and Japan, both Americas. In honor of the young officer, an island in the Sea of ​​Japan was named, which, strangely enough, retained this name. Speaking much later in the State Council, gray-haired Peter Nikolayevich recalled: “The best years of my life passed on the deck of a warship on long voyages across almost all the seas of the globe ...”

"His orders were exemplary."

But in his youth, a promising and ambitious fleet officer began to feel that he could not make a career at sea. In 1870, Lieutenant Durnovo, having passed the examinations at the Military Law Academy, moved to the more promising and highly paid position of Assistant Prosecutor of the Kronstadt Garrison. In the field of jurisprudence, he earned the rank of collegiate adviser (equal to the naval captain of 1 rank) and reached the chair of the comrade prosecutor of the Kiev Court of Justice. In the same years I became familiar with the needs of the common people.

Responsible obscurantist

Ten years later, Durnovo again makes a sharp turn in his career, moving from the judicial department to the Ministry of Internal Affairs. A diverse, broad and independent personality was literally and figuratively closely among the judges. The Ministry of the Interior was where to turn. The journey from the judicial (investigative) department manager to the director of the Durnovo Police Department passed in three years.

Under him, the greatest success was achieved in the fight against sedition. Revolutionaries who started the attack against the sovereign were arrested. Revealed and crushed several underground printing. Intensified operational and undercover work. In this case, the police did without bloodletting, the law and the honor of spying. There is evidence of a mother whose son published illegal literature and fell into the hands of the police: “The orders in this institution during his administration P. N. Durnovo were exemplary as a director ... Peter Nikolayevich was the same enemy of unnecessary cruelty, cunning and double head as he was the enemy of political adventurers. "

Loved but abused

The activities of the successful and energetic director of the Police Department were spotted at the top and appreciated. In 1888, he was made a secret adviser (a rank corresponding to the general's), two years later was awarded royal gratitude. The authority of Durnovo in the police, the ministry was indisputable and even extended to many governors who were in awe of him. Brilliant career prevented the scandalous история, in the center of which he unexpectedly appeared. Blame it all - a passion for women. The reason for the loud fall of the seemingly flawless director of the police department turned out to be a lady who was simultaneously spinning an affair with a Brazilian diplomat. Upon learning of this, Durnovo, abusing his official position, ordered his people to open the Brazilian personal correspondence, as the sovereign became aware of. The reaction was predictable: Alexander III, who did not tolerate moral dirt, ordered in the 24 hour to dismiss the presumptive chief of police. However, soon there was a place in the Senate, where his experience and sharp mind were useful.

Seven years later, the scandal was forgotten and Durnovo’s organizational skills were again in demand in the Ministry of Internal Affairs, where he was invited by the new minister who knew him well - D. S. Sipyagin to the post of his friend (deputy). Returned to the police department, Durnovo was headlong into his favorite job: he was not frightened by the abundance of duties, and there was enough energy to manage several areas at once. He supervised the work of the Department of Common Affairs, was the head of the Central Statistical Committee of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, in fact, headed the General Directorate of Posts and Telegraphs, and in the absence of the minister he performed his duties. After the murder of his chief by terrorists he returned to the chair of the head of the Police Department and quickly found the criminals.

With the beginning of the revolutionary unrest 1905, Durnovo becomes Minister of the Interior. With an almost total confusion that struck power, he was almost the only acceptable candidate capable of taking effective measures by mobilizing the police and gendarmes in the right direction.

The riots acted on him excitingly, he was not at all depressed by this, somehow he immediately perked up and began to work as best he could - from morning to night. There was a feeling that he knew exactly how to act in such a situation, although there were no instructions and plans on this subject in the ministry or in the government. Durnovo was able to stop the strike of the Moscow telephone operators, arrest the self-styled "deputies of the Petersburg workers' council." The minister dismissed indecisive governors, introduced a special provision where necessary, expanded the powers of the police and local administration. He sent out punitive expeditions, demanded the immediate introduction of military field courts and firmly opposed the weakening of the royal government, although he was not a supporter of absolutism.

Later he spoke about his views like this: “Everyone considers me an avid monarchist, a reactionary defender of autocracy, an incorrigible obscurantist ... and they do not assume that I am perhaps the most convinced republican in my views.” But in the Russian Empire, Durnovo specified, “the management technique and integrity require the presence of the historically established royal banner. It will not become - Russia will disintegrate. ”

"I take all the responsibility on myself!"


In one of the telegrams to the governors, Durnovo wrote: “Take the most decisive measures to combat the revolution, do not stop at nothing. I take all the responsibility! ” Commander Semenovskiy regiment G. Mina instructed before being sent to Moscow, where the riots turned into bloody pogroms: “Only decisiveness is needed. Do not allow groups of three to five people to gather on the street. If you refuse to break up - shoot immediately! Do not stop using artillery ... destroy barricades with fire, houses, factories occupied by revolutionaries ... ”These instructions, more similar to orders, acted on a military person as needed, largely thanks to them, the Semenovites managed to stop the revolutionary insurgency in Moscow with the slightest bloodshed . 399 people died, including soldiers and police. In the capital of the empire, where the situation managed to take control earlier, the losses were less.

An exhaustive assessment of the minister’s activities is in the memoirs of one of the governors: “If at the beginning of 1906 there wasn’t what happened at the beginning of 1917, then we owe a lot to the energy, courage and discipline of Peter Nikolaevich Durnovo.”

The secret of his determination, in addition to the natural volitional qualities, was that, unlike other dignitaries, he was absolutely not afraid of public opinion and indifferent to the attacks of the press in his address. In a private conversation in the annals, he confessed: “All those in power ... are afraid - suddenly enlightened statesmen will deprive them of their appearance, but I ... have nothing to lose; so I hit this face of the revolution right in the face and ordered others: hit me on my head. ”

When the revolutionary terror was successfully strangled, its creators, remaining at large, sentenced Durnovo to death. They made an attempt on his life, but the minister was always on the alert. But the post could not resist. Nicholas II treated Durnovo with great respect, but was forced to give way to the intriguing pressure. For the faithful servant of the sovereign, the decision to resign was a big blow, but the king, as he could, sweetened the pill: Durnovo received 200 thousand compensation rubles, the ministerial salary, senatorial post and membership in the State Council were saved for life.

Until the end of days, he remained a supporter of decisive actions, did not tolerate chatter, bureaucracy, red tape. In the last speech at the State Council devoted to failures at the fronts, he remained true to himself: “We, as always, were very poorly prepared for war ... as before, and by the old habit, among the huge heaps of papers, we were constantly looking for and could not find Russia ... that we are afraid to order ... Instead of being disposed of, circulars were written, innumerable laws were issued ... Meanwhile ... in Russia it is still possible and should be ordered and the Russian sovereign can command everything that his higher understanding is useful and necessary for his people Yes, and no one ... will not dare to disobey him ... You need to quit feathers and ink. It is useful to send young officials to the war, young leaders to teach them to order and obey and forget the fear of the various fetishes to which we so often bow out ... ”
Durnovo died in September of 1915 from paralysis of the heart, which was rooting for Russia until the last minutes.
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  1. cap
    cap 18 May 2016 19: 14
    +8
    "Yes, there were people in our time ..."
    Suitable lines for such a person. There is someone to look up to.
    cherished people for the Fatherland.
    "The root of the evil is that we are afraid to order ... Instead of giving orders, circulars were written, countless laws were issued ..."

    Thanks to the authors for a good article. I learned a lot.
  2. Verdun
    Verdun 18 May 2016 20: 20
    +2
    “Only decisiveness is needed. Do not allow groups of even three to five people to gather on the street. If they refuse to disperse, shoot immediately! Do not stop before using artillery ... destroy barricades, houses, factories occupied by revolutionaries with fire ... "
    My heart hurt for Russia, say ... Well, well! Instead of negotiating with the citizens of their country, trying to understand their aspirations is artillery on them. Instead of reforms - bayonets. Very patriotic! Why be surprised that in response to terror, these people got terror?
    Quote: cap
    There is someone to follow.
    Equal to those with blood elbowed hands? No, fire!
    1. veteran66
      veteran66 18 May 2016 20: 39
      +3
      Quote: Verdun
      negotiate with the citizens of your country,

      with whom? with lumpen and terrorists? Oh well...
      1. Verdun
        Verdun 18 May 2016 21: 11
        +2
        with whom? with lumpen and terrorists?
        And you, not otherwise, "white bone"? Or "blue blood"?
        1. veteran66
          veteran66 19 May 2016 06: 25
          +3
          Quote: Verdun
          And you, not otherwise, "white bone"? Or "blue blood"?

          and you, as I understand it, are a lumpen? Actually, between the lumpen and the "white bone" with "blue blood" there are many other strata of society: peasants, skilled workers, engineers ... it is long to list. Thank God I do not consider myself a "hegemon".
          1. Verdun
            Verdun 19 May 2016 10: 34
            +2
            Thank God I do not consider myself a "hegemon".
            Yes, you can relate yourself anywhere. Simply, the fact is that in tsarist Russia there was a division by estate, and if your father and mother were born into a working or peasant family, then you yourself understand ... It’s difficult for me to attribute myself to lumpens, because my father’s grandfather in the birth metric it was recorded that the origin is noble. Only proud here, from my point of view, I personally have nothing. Birth is a matter of chance. And my family was not in poverty before the revolution. However, this did not prevent my ancestors from respecting the work of the people whose fruits the country lived, to these people themselves. For which people respected them. They didn’t throw them into the dungeons, they didn’t put them to the wall, they didn’t burn the family house. But to hate the people with whom you live and declare that the two million people who took part in the 1905 uprising are all lumpen and terrorists, while arguing about love for Russia, the approach, to put it mildly ... is not fruitful.
            1. veteran66
              veteran66 19 May 2016 21: 50
              -1
              Quote: Verdun
              hate the people you live with

              Do you think that all the people went to the barricades?
              Quote: Verdun
              all lumpen and terrorists

              Do you know the composition of those who stood at the barricades? Most of them were lumpen and terrorists, yes, there were deceived idealists among them, but they were in the minority, and from these "fighters" the people were being defended. Minus is not mine for you.
              1. Bloodsucker
                Bloodsucker 25 October 2016 14: 09
                0
                Quote: veteran66
                Do you think that all the people went to the barricades?

                We look, we see by 1920, you were thrown out of the country’s cordons, CONCLUSION, to the barricades, and then won the Civil-PEOPLE, against the parasites-Khristobunnikov.
                The same people that you, so rudely, call cattle.
                If you still think the PEOPLE are cattle, then you will be prepared for the current bakeries, and the end will be the same, so moderate your appetites and your comments in a negative way about people like that Age and to the vast majority of people now, it’s fraught ..
      2. Looking for
        Looking for 19 May 2016 15: 56
        +1
        It is clearly seen from the side of whom you mean the expression lumpen. And if you do not understand, do not use this expression as a synonym for the proletariat. By the way. The word lumpen is completely alien to the Russian language. Lumpen is a declassified element of any society. Generally, I strongly advise you to read Lenin’s grandfather regularly , however, if the level of mental development allows.
        1. veteran66
          veteran66 19 May 2016 21: 51
          -1
          Quote: Seeker
          lumpen is a declassed element

          You can’t imagine, but I know that.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. The comment was deleted.
  3. veteran66
    veteran66 18 May 2016 20: 41
    +4
    "... so I hit this figure of the revolution right in the face and ordered the others: hit on my head." - golden words, in 1916 he would have been the Minister of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, you see, and Russia would have been different now.
    1. Pushkar
      Pushkar 25 October 2016 00: 01
      +1
      Quote: veteran66
      in 1916 he would be the Minister of the Ministry of the Interior, you see, and Russia would be different now.
      In 1916, all of Central Asia was already ruled by local emirs, a huge part of European Russia was occupied. A country under the control of thieves and punishers like Durnovo has already been ruined.
  4. Senior manager
    Senior manager 18 May 2016 21: 04
    +1
    Thank you, now I know one more person - a Russian statesman.
    1. ssmann
      ssmann 18 May 2016 21: 34
      0
      No
      Quote: Verdun
      with whom? with lumpen and terrorists?
      And you, not otherwise, "white bone"? Or "blue blood"?

      Quote: Verdun
      with whom? with lumpen and terrorists?
      And you, not otherwise, "white bone"? Or "blue blood"?

      Lumpen and terrorists came in the 17th, and this is one of the Russian patriots. I am proud of a compatriot!
      1. veteran66
        veteran66 19 May 2016 06: 28
        +1
        Quote: ssmann
        Lumpen and terrorists came in the 17th

        terrorists came with populists, if not earlier, and the lumpen proletariat appeared with the birth of capitalism in Russia at the end of the XNUMXth century.
      2. Aleksander
        Aleksander 19 May 2016 08: 40
        +2
        your nickname "ssmann" how is it defined - "man of the SS" or "connoisseur-amateur of the SS"?
        HOW is it even possible to label yourself like that ?! stop
  5. Basil50
    Basil50 18 May 2016 21: 35
    +5
    Reading the article, questions arise, why is everything that was done to preserve the RUSSIAN EMPIRE perceived as a duty, without any criticism? When the empire was first destroyed in February 1917, and then they tried to divide it into parts under external control, it also did not cause rejection. But the Bolsheviks who built the SOVIET UNION on the rubble are so hated? The true motives of such a sharp rejection of the construction of the state are interesting.
    1. Verdun
      Verdun 18 May 2016 21: 43
      +6
      The true motives of such a sharp rejection of the construction of the state are interesting.
      If tomorrow you move all those who plundered the country in the nineties from the trough, do you know how they and their offspring will hate you?
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 18 May 2016 22: 33
        +1
        Very reasonable remark
    2. veteran66
      veteran66 19 May 2016 06: 32
      +2
      Quote: Vasily50
      on the wreckage that built the Soviet Union

      what are the debris? The wreckage appeared after the arrival of the Bolsheviks (Poland, Finland, the Baltic states, part of Armenia). And then, after the formation of the USSR, with the organization of administrative-political division on a national basis, the Bolsheviks planted such a bomb that the debris from its explosion still bleeds.
      1. Basil50
        Basil50 19 May 2016 10: 06
        +2
        to the veteran. I do not think that you remember the events of 1917, so carefully read what * decrees * issued * temporary *, try to realize that the collapse of the state begins with the army, police, state apparatus, and all this was destroyed in less than six months. There were negotiations with ANTANTA regarding the occupation of territories in RUSSIA to maintain order.
        It was in fulfillment of these agreements that the intervention took place. And in Poland and in Armenia and in the Baltic states and even in Finland there were intervention troops. The interventionists did not hesitate to kill all those whom they considered dangerous or wealthy. Many of those RUSSIAN people who remembered that they were RUSSIAN were killed, among them were officers and merchants, and even the clergy. The interventionists did not hesitate to rob churches and monasteries, but why there is no responsibility whatsoever.
        1. veteran66
          veteran66 19 May 2016 21: 57
          -2
          Quote: Vasily50
          the collapse of the state begins with the army, the police, the state apparatus, and all this was destroyed in less than six months.
          I know this, only the collapse began earlier, did the Bolsheviks begin to introduce their agents into the army, into factories among the workers, did they want to turn bayonets against the government? That is how they taught me in the Soviet school in history lessons.
          1. Bloodsucker
            Bloodsucker 25 October 2016 14: 39
            0
            1. Russian California (Fort Ross). Sold in 1841 to the Mexican Sutter for 42 thousand rubles in silver. Received from Sutter in the form of food supplies only 8 thousand rubles.

            2. Alaska. Sold to the USA in 1867. Money from the sale was not received in the treasury. Whether they were stolen, drowned or spent on steam locomotives is still an open question.
            Is THIS the same, the Bolsheviks are to blame? Or in each of these cases are the courtiers, gesheftmahra of a known nationality, who render some services to the Romanovs?
            +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
            + + + + + + + + + + + + +

            3. South Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands. They went to Japan as a result of the war of 1904-1905.

            4. Poland. November 5, 1916, the creation of the Kingdom of Poland, recognized by the Provisional Government on March 17, 1917.

            5. Finland. March 2, 1917 - termination of the Personal Union with the Principality of Finland. In July 1917, it announced the restoration of Finland's independence. The final recognition of the fact that Finland came out in November 1917.

            6. Ukraine. March 4, 1917 - the formation of the Ukrainian Central Rada, July 2, 1917, the Provisional Government recognizes the right of Ukraine to self-determination.

            7. Belarus. July 1917, the Central Council was formed in Belarus and the Declaration of Autonomy was drawn up.
            8. The Baltic States. February 1917, completely occupied by German troops. On the territory of Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia government bodies are formed.
            9. Bashkiria (Ufa province). July 1917, the All-Bashkir Kurultay creates the Bashkir government, which is charged with formalizing the autonomy of the region.
            10. Crimea. On March 25, 1917, the All-Crimean Muslim Congress was convened in Simferopol, in which 1500 representatives of the Crimean population took part. The Provisional Crimean-Muslim Executive Committee was elected at the congress, which was recognized by the Provisional Government as the only plenipotentiary and legal administrative body representing all Crimean Tatars.
            11. Tatarstan (Kazan province). The 1st All-Russian Muslim Congress in early May 1917 in Moscow adopted a resolution on territorial autonomy and federal structure.
            12. Kuban and the North Caucasus. May 1917 Creation of territorial self-government bodies within the framework of autonomy.
            13. Siberia. The conference in Tomsk (August 2–9), 1917, adopted a resolution “On the Autonomous Organization of Siberia” within the framework of a federation with self-determination of regions and nationalities ...

            Are the Bolsheviks guilty of this, or is it the consequences of FEBRUARY, arranged by the then "liberals" from among the dignitaries of the tsar, merchants, industrialists and the Synod?
            Teach History, and not the tantrums of all Svanidz, Molechinsky, Dental, Brewers on the motives of history.
      2. Bloodsucker
        Bloodsucker 25 October 2016 14: 19
        0
        Quote: veteran66
        Debris appeared after the arrival of the Bolsheviks


        You amaze with your dubious "knowledge" realities are absolutely far from your fantasies.
        The overthrow of the king was greeted by all of Russia. “Even close relatives of Nicholas fastened red bows to the chest,” writes historian Heinrich Joffe. Grand Duke Michael, to whom Nicholas had intended to transfer the crown, refused the throne. The Russian Orthodox Church, having committed an oath to the church on oath of allegiance, welcomed the news of the denial of the king.
        Russian officer. 57% was supported by the white movement, of which 14 thousands later switched to red. 43% (75 thousand people) - immediately went for the Reds, that is, ultimately - more than half of the officers supported the Soviet power.
        “At the end of November, in all the cities of the Volga region, the Urals and Siberia, the power of the Provisional Government no longer existed. It passed almost without any resistance into the hands of the Bolsheviks, Soviets were formed everywhere, ”Major General Ivan Akulinin testifies in his memoirs“ Orenburg Cossack Army in the Struggle against the Bolsheviks 1917-1920 ”. “Just at that time,” he writes further, “combat units — regiments and batteries — began to arrive in the Army from the Austro-Hungarian and Caucasian fronts, but it turned out to be completely impossible to count on their help: they did not want to hear about the armed struggle against the Bolsheviks ".
        How, under such circumstances, Soviet Russia suddenly found itself in the ring of fronts? But how: from the end of February - the beginning of March 1918, the imperialist powers of both coalitions fighting in world war launched a massive armed invasion of our territory.
        18 February 1918, German and Austro-Hungarian forces (around 50 divisions) launched an offensive from the Baltic to the Black Sea. For two weeks they occupied huge spaces.
        So there is no need for fantasies about White so pleasing to you .. Losses from them are terrible for the country
        The “ideology” of whites in this matter was clearly expressed by General Kornilov: “We went to power in order to hang, but we had to hang in order to come to power” ...
        The "allies" of the white movement - the British, French and other Japanese - exported everything: metal, coal, bread, machines and equipment, engines and furs. Civil steamships and steam locomotives were stolen. Germans exported 1918 thousand tons of grain and fodder, 52 thousand tons of sugar, 34 million eggs, 45 thousand horses and 53 thousand heads of cattle only from Ukraine by October 39. There was a large-scale looting of Russia. Many leaders of the counter-revolution, as can be seen from the documentary materials - Generals Krasnov, Vladimir Marushevsky, Vasily Boldyrev, prominent politician Vladimir Purishkevich, ministers of the Provisional Government Alexei Nikitin, Kuzma Gvozdev, Semyon Maslov, and many others - were released on parole, although their hostility to the new government was not in doubt.
        These gentlemen violated their word by taking an active part in the armed struggle, in organizing provocations and sabotage against their people. The magnanimity shown in relation to the obvious enemies of Soviet power turned into thousands and thousands of additional victims, the suffering and torment of hundreds of thousands of people who supported revolutionary changes. And then the leaders of the Russian Communists made the inevitable conclusions - they knew how to learn from their mistakes
        1. Bloodsucker
          Bloodsucker 25 October 2016 14: 27
          0
          It is very interesting in this sense that the performance of Commander M.V. Frunze in Orenburg on September 20, 1919. The speech itself is very vivid, there is a link below, but I selected a fragment from it that best corresponds to those uneducated people who have been taught to see Russophobes in the Bolsheviks.

          If you open any White Guard newspaper, you will see that Kolchak, who says that he defends the unity of Russia, that he goes for its national revival, this Kolchak has help from all the imperialists of the world. You will read triumphant notes in such a newspaper that the British are attacking very successfully in the North of Russia, that they have taken Arkhangelsk, and that today they will not advance closer to the center of Russia. Here you will read that Estonia and Finland beat the Bolsheviks, that Petrograd will be taken tomorrow, that their troops are working very well. In the west, the Bolsheviks are also successfully beaten and Polish troops advance. Similarly, the Romanian forces advance in the south; the English and French fleets operate very successfully, they bombard the Black Sea cities and also beat the Bolsheviks. Then you read that Baku is in the hands of the British, the Bolshevik ships are also wrecked by the English fleet. In the east, Japanese troops also beat the Bolsheviks and also operate successfully.
          Comrades, compare all these statements that you read, and think about where the Russian people are here — everywhere on these many fronts are the British, French, Japanese, Poles, Estonians, etc., and where are the Russian workers and peasants? They are here, inside the country, they are the Bolsheviks whom all these Japanese, British, Poles and others beat.
          And I think, comrades, that everyone should understand that there, in the camp of our enemies, there just cannot be a national revival of Russia, that just from that side there can be no talk of a struggle for the well-being of the Russian people. Because not because of their beautiful eyes, all these French, English help Denikin and Kolchak - naturally, they pursue their interests. This fact should be clear enough that Russia is not there, that Russia is with us. Although we have representatives of other nationalities on hand, we are basically based on the Russian working people.
          Published by: M.V. Frunze. Unknown and Forgotten:
          journalism, memoirs, documents, letters. -
          M .: Nauka, 1991 .-- S. 172-181.
  6. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 19 May 2016 07: 25
    +2
    Thanks so much for the story. There are no revolutionaries, no tsar. And present-day Russia needs such people who know exactly what needs to be done and when.
    I have no doubt that in modern, already different Russia --- P.N. A bad person in a suitable position would be useful. Although he could not restrain his feelings, emotions, however
  7. Velizariy
    Velizariy 19 May 2016 12: 26
    +1
    ... need to drop feathers and ink. It’s useful to send young officials to the war, young bosses to learn to order and obey and forget the fear of the various fetishes that we bow so often to ... "...
    How necessary is it all now!
  8. Pushkar
    Pushkar 25 October 2016 00: 22
    0
    Again, an article proving the whiteness and fluffiness of the tsarist government. The one that dragged Russia into the First World War without the aircraft industry (16 pieces of "Ilya Muromets", 16 of them were produced in total, against thousands of bombers from both the Entente and the Triple Alliance), without the auto industry ("Russo-Balt" does not count, this is a car for the super-rich), without tractors for heavy artillery (all over the world - tractor traction, and we have horses), already in 1915, cartridges and shells were purchased all over the world. But they did not hesitate to shoot their own. "Do not spare patrons." January 9, Bloody Sunday, Nicholas II wrote in his diary "We ate borscht. Shoot jackdaws in the park. Boring." And the "lumpen and terrorists" restored and significantly increased the industry, won the Great Patriotic War, created atomic and hydrogen bombs, were the first to go into space and by the 80s reached parity with the United States.
    1. veteran66
      veteran66 25 October 2016 14: 01
      0
      Quote: Pushkar
      And the "lumpen and terrorists" have restored and increased the industry at times,

      what nonsense !!
      1. Bloodsucker
        Bloodsucker 25 October 2016 16: 13
        0
        Your? Undoubtedly.