Military Review

Soviet military experts in Spain


On July 18, 1936, Ceuta radio reported: "A cloudless sky is over all of Spain." This was a conditional signal for the beginning of the fascist rebellion against the government of the Spanish Republic. The pro-fascist-minded generals, led by Franco, intended to end the republic with one blow, but this plan was frustrated by the patriots. Determined city dwellers led by left-wing parties seized the arsenals, headquarters and barracks of the rebels in Madrid, Barcelona, ​​Valencia, Asturias, as well as in the Basque Country and in many other areas, suppressing the rebellion in most of Spain. Then the Italian and German fascists came to the aid of the rebels. Moroccan troops and the Foreign Legion, the newest, were urgently deployed to Spain Tanks, planes and guns. Having received reinforcements, the Francoists launched widespread offensive actions against the Republicans simultaneously from the north and south, with the main goal of the capture of Madrid, with the fall of which they associated with the overthrow of the republican system. The civil war escalated into a war of the patriotic and leftist forces of Spain against European fascism.

Small, poorly trained and weakly armed detachments of ordinary workers and peasants, under the command of elected, inexperienced commanders, were forced to fight against the predominantly professional forces of rebels and interventionists. Bearing heavy losses from aviation and enemy tanks, Republicans were forced to retreat.

Under these conditions, the most important and intractable problem for the Republican government of the Popular Front formed at the beginning of September 1936 under the leadership of the socialist Largo Caballero was the organization of the regular army. The leaders of the anarchists and some other parties that were part of the Popular Front believed that the republic did not need a regular army, that it could well be defended by militia units operating by guerrilla methods. They denied the need for a unified command, staffs, strict military discipline, stubbornly opposed any attempt to organize and centralize the leadership of military operations and the construction of fortifications on the approaches to the capital.

September 21, despite stubborn resistance, police forces under pressure from the numerically superior cadre troops of the rebels and interventionists were forced to leave Makeda, and September 27 - Toledo, located in 70 km from Madrid. Caught in the difficult conditions of the struggle against the invaders and the armed pro-fascist forces, the republican government tried to acquire weapon from neighboring France, as well as from England and the United States, but was refused. Then the government of Largo Caballero appealed for help to the leadership of the Soviet Union, with which Spain at that time did not have normal diplomatic relations.

In response to the request, Consul General of the USSR V.A. arrived in Barcelona. Antonov-Ovseenko, and a little later Ambassador MI began work in Madrid. Rosenberg, military attache brigade commander V.Ye. Gorev, naval attache captain 1 NG rank Kuznetsov, aviation attache Colonel B.F. Sveshnikov. Then corps commissioner Y.K. arrived in Madrid. Berzin is the chief military adviser to the republican government, and with it a group of combined-arms, artillery, aviation, and other volunteer specialists.

The Soviet specialists were faced with the task: as soon as possible to sort out the situation at the front and by active actions to help the republican command to establish effective command and control of the troops, to strengthen the Madrid sector of the front, to create a regular army from the detached troops and convoys.

At the suggestion of the chief military adviser to the divisional commander K.A. Meretskov, who possessed a great military experience and abilities of the troop organizer, was appointed adviser to the chief of the general staff and, together with the Spanish comrades, engaged in the formation of reserve units of the republican army.

Soviet military experts in Spain

It should be said that in Spain, military ministers were usually not generals, but politicians, so in fact the commander in chief of the armed forces was the chief of the general staff. He personally developed the most important operational plans and reported them to the Council of Ministers. The leading staff of the General Staff, and indeed the entire central military apparatus, was staffed by officers of the old army. Among them were quite a few loyal people to the republic, but there were also indifferent and sometimes hidden supporters of Franco. The presence of the fascist agents in the General Staff and the Ministry of War, indiscipline and bureaucracy hampered the construction of a new army. To this we must add that the republican army did not have any prepared combined-arms headquarters, as a result of which the interaction of the troops on the battlefield was poorly organized.

In early October, having received a significant number of tanks, aircraft and artillery, the Franco launched an offensive. Breaking through the weakly fortified positions of the Republicans, they approached Madrid on October 18. The republican command was lost and did not take the necessary measures to organize an organized resistance to the enemy. The commander of the Central Front, General Asencio, said at a government meeting that the quantity and quality of the enemy’s equipment made the continuation of the struggle meaningless, and he disclaims responsibility for the defense of Madrid.

Then the defense of the capital was practically taken over by the Soviet specialists Ya.K. Berzin, V.E. Gorev, K.A. Meretskov, X.U. Mamsurov, N.N. Voronov, B.F. Sveshnikov, although officially led by the Spanish Communists, led by José Diaz and Dolores Ibarruri. Measures were taken to turn the capital into an impregnable fortress. A plan was drawn up for defensive installations in the city and their urgent construction was organized.

After a thorough acquaintance with the situation at the front and in the rear, V.E. Gorev, K.A. Meretskov, B.M. Simonov and our other military specialists on behalf of the republican command, together with the Spanish comrades-in-arms, developed a plan for the main activities for organizing the new People’s Army. The chief military adviser reported to his republican government. Approved by the Minister of War, this plan was sent to the troops and rear services for execution.

"The war is entering a critical phase, it was noted in this document, the rebels achieved superiority on the Central Front and seized the initiative ... The main defense issues are reduced to the organization of the existing army, the creation and preparation of reserves, the training of command personnel, the organization of guerrilla actions in the Frankish rear , organization of intelligence and counterintelligence. The main current task is to mobilize all means for organizing the military industry and strengthening the defense of Madrid. ” Further, specific tasks were outlined for training, command and control, organization of the army, training of commanders, strengthening the political consciousness of the fighters, manufacturing weapons and ammunition, strengthening the Central Front, and especially the defense of Madrid.

In October, the General Military Commissariat was established 1936, the divisional commissar I.N. Nesterenko. Military commissariats were formed in the fronts, formations, units, military schools, various institutions.

In the city of Albacete - the center of the formation of new troops, work began on the formation of the first Spanish as well as international brigades. Contrary to the opposition of a number of senior officers, the first brigade, staffed by units of the 5 Communist Regiment under the command of E. Lister, arrived at the front and on October 29 received baptism at Sesenia. Soon five more infantry brigades were created and brought into battle. With the active participation of Luigi Longo, Franz Dalem and many other leaders of the left forces, as well as Soviet volunteers, 11, 12, 13-I and other international brigades and units of the People’s Army were quickly formed, later actively participating in repelling the fierce attacks of fascists to Madrid.

In October, the first transports with Soviet aircraft, tanks, weapons and ammunition entered the Spanish ports. Soviet volunteers, tankmen and pilots, also arrived at them. It was assumed that our commanders, driver mechanics and pilots would play the role of instructors in Spanish training camps. However, the extremely difficult situation that developed during this period on the Madrid sector of the Central Front forced the republican command to quickly form from Soviet specialists and new recruit cadets a marching tank unit commanded by Captain Paul Armand and throw it into battle against the rebel troops rushing to Madrid. interventionists. This made it possible to stop the enemy and win the precious time required for the approach of the reserve. The Soviet pilots found themselves in about the same position.

In November, another large group of our pilots and tankmen with military equipment and weapons (T-26 tanks and I-15 fighters) arrived in Spain. At this time, the rebels ’troops pushed the Republicans back, came close to the capital and started fighting on its outskirts. Together with the Republican brigades that had not yet completed the formation, a tank brigade of General de Pablo (brigade commander DG Pavlov) and a squadron of General Douglas (brigade commander JV Smushkevich), the backbone of which were Soviet volunteers, were thrown to the defense of Madrid. Together with the soldiers and commanders of the People’s Army and the soldiers of the international brigades, the Soviet tank crews and pilots were able to defend the capital of the republic.

The defenders of Madrid repelled four major offensive francoists. In the famous battle of Guadalajara, the People’s Army utterly routed the Italian expeditionary force. The fact that Madrid survived the great merit of the soldiers of the brigades of the People’s Army, international brigades, especially our tank crews and pilots, among which are the names of Mikhail Petrov, Paul Arman, Pavel Tsaplin, Kuzma Osadchy, Vasily Novikov, Pavel Rychagov, Sergey Denisov, Victor Holzunov, Ivan Lakeev and many others who later became Heroes of the Soviet Union. Noting the contribution of Soviet volunteers to the formation of the republican army, the American historian D. Kettel wrote: “Before the arrival of the Russian army headquarters, there were only armed masses without organization, without coordination of actions and plans. Shortly after the Russians arrived, there was a radical change in the entire defense system. For six months, the army was created, which managed to defeat the modern Italian army near Guadalajara and, for almost three years, to restrain the advance of the army of Franco, trained by the Germans and Italians and reinforced by the Mussolini divisions.

After the Guadalajara defeat, Hitler and Mussolini dramatically increased the supply of military equipment by Franco. New intervention units are also being sent to Spain. In order to thwart a major enemy offensive against Madrid, the Republican Army 15 December 1937 of the year launched an operation to liberate the fortress city located in the mountains, Teruel. As a result of the decisive onslaught of the infantry and tankmen, the defense of the Francoists was broken, Teruel was surrounded and, despite the stubborn resistance of the fascists, December 24 was occupied by Republicans.

Soviet tank crews acted on the most threatened sectors of the fronts. The companies of the BT-5 tanks bravely counterattacked the enemy, striking his infantry, artillery and tanks with machine-gun fire. The lack of technology forced the republican command to transfer tanks and aircraft from one sector of the front to another. There were days when tankers of one company participated in five to seven attacks, spending up to six ammunition. And those few airplanes that the people's air forces had had, were continuously in the air.

A great deal of work on the formation and training of republican troops was carried out by advisers to the commanders of fronts, the Navy, armies and formations of M.S. Shumilov, R.Ya. Malinovsky, E.S. Ptukhin, P.L. Romanenko, N.G. Kuznetsov, N.I. Biryukov, A.P. Fomin, N.N. Nagorny and others.

The Soviet Union rendered the Spanish People’s Army a great help with military equipment, weapons and equipment. According to official data, our country delivered Republican Spain more than 800 military aircraft, 362 machine gun cannon tanks, 100 armored vehicles, more 1550 artillery guns and 15000 machine guns, 500000 rifles, as well as a lot of ammunition and other military equipment, medicines and food.

About three hundred Soviet military engineers and technicians who arrived in Spain included highly skilled specialists in the maintenance and repair of aircraft, tanks, artillery and engineering weapons, communications equipment, and technical advisers for the industrial production of military equipment and ammunition. They prepared republican planes and tanks for battle, taught the Spaniards to fight on the Soviet technology, established the production and repair of aircraft, armored vehicles, weapons.

Already in October and November, the republican command and Soviet military experts urgently faced the task of quickly restoring equipment and weapons damaged in battles, and organizing training centers for accelerated training of tank, artillery and rifle and aviation specialists. This turned out to be far from easy, since Spanish heavy industry was poorly developed. In addition, the Spanish army was equipped with a small number of obsolete French tanks, airplanes of various types and variegated artillery and had neither field repair and evacuation equipment, nor other technical means capable of ensuring the rapid elimination of combat damage. Soviet specialists were able to organize current, and even average repairs in the field, on unsuitable airfields, using vans with trailers equipped with primitive equipment. There were not enough spare parts, and the repairmen under enemy fire dismantled tanks that had burned down on the battlefield in order to remove suitable parts and components from them. Each combat vehicle was worth its weight in gold, and the same tanks and aircraft were repaired dozens of times. Recovering patched and rolled machines cost much toil. But repairmen returned them to service.

Engineers and technicians showed a lot of resourcefulness in order to create repair and evacuation units from the Madrid, Barcelona and Valencia workers, as well as to organize a technical support service for the young republican army. Despite the difficult working conditions, Soviet and Spanish engineers improved the methods of assembling, maintaining and repairing combat vehicles and weapons. Another important task was solved - an enterprise was created to supply field repair bases with spare units and parts and to restore heavily damaged machines in factory conditions. In 30 km from Madrid, in the city of Alcala de Henares, with the active participation of engineers Peter Glukhov, Bulgarian Polina Nedyalkova and technicians Ivan Bacheshkin, Dmitry Reshettsov, Alexander Kostikova, the Spanish workers in the shortest possible time created a well-equipped Central with various production and testing equipment tank repair base, which soon became the head tank repair enterprise of the republic.

On this base, they overhauled the T-26 and BT-5 tanks, their engines and all other tank units and instruments, as well as communications, optics and weapons, restored and manufactured a variety of parts for tanks. Memos, instructions and posters on combat use, maintenance and field repair of Soviet equipment and weapons were also developed here. A repair of rifle and artillery weapons was organized at the Barcelona Machine-Building Plant in the Kartagena, Albacetian, Valencia and Madrid arsenals and workshops.

The brutal blockade by the fascists of the Spanish Republican coast and the actual closure of the Franco-Spanish border led to the complete cessation of the delivery of weapons to the People’s Army. In these critical conditions, the Republican government had to urgently create its own military industry. The base for this was very scarce. Of the ten large military enterprises in the country, five were in the hands of the fascists. Most of the leading engineering and technical personnel ran to Franco or abroad.
The most effective assistance to the Republicans in the rapid establishment of industrial production of aircraft, armored vehicles, weapons and ammunition was again provided by Soviet specialists. They helped the workers of the Ispano-Suiza de autosmobiles, Elisaldo and Ford Motor Iberica factories in Barcelona set up an overhaul of the aircraft, as well as the production of spare parts for them. From the middle of 1937 onwards, these plants had already produced I-15 aircraft, and a little later, I-16 aircraft. Not far from Alicante, tunnels were dug in the mountains, where the plant for the repair and manufacture of I-16 aircraft was located. In the city of Reus, the production of I-15 fighters was arranged.

“One of our biggest concerns during the war,” writes the former commander of Republican Aviation Ignacio Hidalgo de Cisneros in his memoirs, “was organizing the production of new aircraft and repairing them. Thanks to the assistance provided to us by Soviet Russia, we were able to organize this matter. " In the middle of 1937, in the workshops of the Valencian shipyard "Union Naval de Levante" under the leadership of tank engineer Nikolai Alymov on the basis of the Soviet truck ZIS-5 in a short time armored machine with machine-gun armament was built, which became the main type of armored vehicle of the People's Army.

For the needs of the military industry at the metallurgical plant in the city of Sagunto, with the participation of the military engineer Andrian Vorobyov, the production of armor plates was mastered. Great help to the Spaniards in setting up the production of artillery and small arms and ammunition was provided by Soviet engineers and technicians Mikhail Parfenov, Nikolai Mikhailyuk, Semen Stotlitsky, Mikhail Zavrazhnev and many others. With the direct participation of engineers Ivan Markov and Andrei Kulikov, a large ammunition factory was established in Barcelona. Production of shells and cartridges was established in many small and large factories and in the workshops of a number of cities. However, the Popular Army continued to experience an acute shortage of small arms ammunition. Then the Soviet gunsmith engineers proposed to re-use the spent cartridges, as was done in our country during the civil war. On their advice, the Spanish workers created front-line brigades and collection teams. At the factories of Madrid, Sabadell and Barcelona, ​​re-crimping of liners was organized for further use in cartridge production.

We can not say about the Soviet instructors and military advisers, military engineers and technicians who actively participated in the accelerated training of young commanders for rifle, tank, artillery and machine-gun units of the young revolutionary army. Our tankers and pilots, who formed the backbone of the international tank and air units and units of the republican army, generously shared military knowledge and combat experience with their Spanish sister cities. With the help of Soviet translators, they were taught how to master advanced military equipment, how to use it correctly, and constantly maintain their combat readiness. With the assistance of Soviet volunteers, training centers, camps and schools were created, which gave the republic a large detachment of officers. Experienced Soviet military engineers helped the republican command to organize armored, aviation and artillery support services in the armed forces.

In those years, 772 Soviet pilots, 351 tank crews, 222 general advisers, 100 gunners, 77 military sailors, 339 other military specialists and 204 translator (2065 people) fought in those years.

Platoshkin N. The Spanish Civil War. 1936-1939 M .: Olma-Press, 2005. C. 122-178.
Pritsker D. Podvig of the Spanish Republic 1936-1939. M .: Sotsekgiz, 1962. p. 198-202.
Pozharskaya S. Generalissimo Franco and his time // New and newest история. 1990. No. 6. C. 164-185.
Vetrov A. Soviet volunteers in the army of Republican Spain. // visage 1973, No. 3.C. 71-77.
Mikhaylenko V. New facts about Soviet military assistance in Spain. // Ural Bulletin of International Studies. 2006. No. 6. C. 18-46.
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  1. kalibr
    kalibr 17 May 2016 06: 41
    Bearing heavy losses from enemy aircraft and tanks, the Republicans were forced to retreat.
    This is from what tanks they suffered losses?
    There is a book "Armored vehicles of the Spanish Civil War 1936-1939." - there are all numbers. How many, with whom and what ... Usually, they start writing articles with an appeal to the historiography of the issue, this is the basis. And here she, yes, is present. But Hugh Thomas is not, and he is a very important researcher of this topic. So no fantasies about the tanks of the rebels! They are, of course, nationalists, but at the beginning they were very bad with tanks. And then too! You cannot compare Fiat-Ansaldo with 2 machine guns and T-1 with 2 with cannon T-26 and BT-5. However, in the above-mentioned book everything is there. And you can download it from the web!

    "The baptism of fire (of Italian and German tanks) took place on October 21 on one of the roads leading to Madrid, near the town of Navalkarnero"
    1. qwert
      qwert 17 May 2016 13: 17
      Quote: kalibr
      Bearing heavy losses from enemy aircraft and tanks, the Republicans were forced to retreat.
      This is from what tanks they suffered losses?

      Well, at least from these. Here they are firsthand. You can see them, and not just hear about them. This is definitely not T-26 and definitely not republican. These are frankists. And they may well make them retreat.
      As for aviation, so here is what the argument is about. Legion Kondr everyone heard. There were no boys on gliders and Voisins. And the real Fritz on Messers.
      1. kalibr
        kalibr 17 May 2016 16: 53
        In the photo, a German T-1 with two machine guns. Read the books of the Spaniards, Hugh Thomas, or the same Orwell. Republican "dynamiteros" dealt with them like this: they threw a sack of dynamite onto the overhead sheet and ...
      2. faiver
        faiver 17 May 2016 17: 23
        at 36 what messengers? :) the first modification of "Bruno" began to be produced in the spring of 37
  2. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 17 May 2016 07: 52
    thanks for the article - Grandfather Vasily fought there - the tanker was wounded near Terruel - he said that the tanks suffered losses mainly from anti-tank artillery and in the city buildings from bottle throwers - they acted from the roofs. Land to the down with my grandfather and everyone who fought there!
  3. Monster_Fat
    Monster_Fat 17 May 2016 08: 58
    Not so long ago I had to spend some time on a business trip in Malaga. There on Saturdays it is held on the embankment, near the shipyard, something like a gathering-fair of political parties and trade unions, that is, like the sale of political literature, various junk with emblems of political parties, etc. There are a lot of leftist, "Trotskyist" parties. It is curious that when they learned that I was Russian they immediately recalled the USSR, that we helped the workers of Spain in the civil war (despite the fact that in Spain it was a "taboo" for this period), we tried to express our approval and gratitude, their propaganda, T-shirts and saw off with the slogans "Viva Russo!", "Viva Putin!"
  4. erased
    erased 17 May 2016 09: 59
    As a child, I read a wonderful book "I'm not afraid not to be" about the first Hero of the Soviet Union, tanker Paul Arman (Paul Tyltyn). Gold Star number 12. Then I learned about Dolores Ibarurri, Jose Diaz and others.
    The war in Spain is the first battle with Nazism and fascism, in which volunteers from around the world participated. Test of the Red Army.
    By the way, volunteers from the former Russian army fought on Franco's side. those who hated the USSR.
    Time was indeed heroic then. Now I can’t even believe it.
  5. Heimdall47
    Heimdall47 17 May 2016 10: 39

    Preston describes in detail the repressions against the clergy: “Wearing a cassock was enough to get shot on the side of the road. About 6800 clergymen were killed. Many churches and monasteries were burned or destroyed. ” Priests were regularly tortured and killed. In Spain, three times as many clergymen were destroyed as during the Jacobin terror during the French Revolution.

    These wonderful people - "simple workers and peasants", were helped by our military experts.
    1. kalibr
      kalibr 17 May 2016 11: 05
      The nuns in Barcelona burned alive. Doused with gasoline and set on fire. There is a photo ...
      Around 6,832 priests, monks and nuns were killed, of which
      - 13 Bishops, 4172 Priest, 2364 Monks and 283 Nuns. Basically, these killings were massive and carried out in public.
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 18 May 2016 20: 30
        Of course, I am against reprisals against clergymen (any official conversion)! But the Spanish Church has won back in full! After the victory of FALANGI FRANCO, the clergy of the Catholic hospital confiscated many more children from the "UNRELIABLE" CHILDREN! Telling them with swear words that they are DIED !!! And they were transferred to "RELIABLE FAMILIES" or a shelter at monasteries!
  6. Nikita Gromov
    Nikita Gromov 17 May 2016 10: 48
    "On July 18, 1936, Radio Ceuta announced:" Above all of Spain, a cloudless sky. This was a prearranged signal for the beginning of the fascist rebellion against the government of the Spanish Republic. "

    The standard propaganda myth of liberals and Marxists. It was they who, having been in power since 1931, with their anti-national and anti-state reforms, prepared the civil war for the people of Spain. Yes, the monarchy in the country then completely outlived itself and the king shamefully fled abroad. That was as it should be. But instead of a truly popular and national government, liberals and Marxists came to power, led by renowned Freemason and cosmopolitan President Asagni. And wild and destructive processes of disintegration and decomposition of the state and society went around the country - persecution and revelry of an anti-church orientation, arson and destruction of temples, mockery of believers, mass release of criminals from prisons, prosecution and arrest of political opponents from the right national-patriotic forces of the country, irreconcilable anti-army policy and reduction of armed forces, open propaganda of Marxism and liberalism, empty and impossible promises of industrial and land reforms.
    All this, over the course of six years, was accumulated by negativity in society and finally broke out in the uprising of the military and national patriots in July 1936, and then there was a long and protracted civil war that claimed the lives of 700 thousand Spaniards. But the victory was won by the Spanish national patriots, not the communists and liberals. Here is the main outcome of that war. And the battered ideological cliches in this article only obscure the true nature and events of this struggle.
    Today, using the example of our joyless and fully materialized life, we can clearly see what the system of liberalism and its "values" are. We also remember the era of Marxism. Therefore, our entire society and state needs a third way - the way of the national-patriotic structure and development of the country and society. Only in this way can we revive our Russia and our people. And this is an indisputable fact.
    1. kalibr
      kalibr 17 May 2016 11: 11
      Yes, based on our today's realities and knowledge, local people come out ... with support from abroad, they staged in Spain ... Maidan! And some were for the Maidan, others were against! Those who were against were called fascists for propaganda purposes. In fact, they were "statists" and supporters of ... ha ha - a market economy! And they were not fascists, although they used the help of the Germans and Italians. And it turned out that the "statesmen" turned out to be stronger than the "internationalists" and this was the first blow signal to what might await us in the future.
      1. Heimdall47
        Heimdall47 17 May 2016 13: 52
        Quote: kalibr
        Those who were against were called fascists for propaganda purposes. In fact, they were "statists" and supporters of ... ha ha - a market economy! And they were not fascists, although they used the help of the Germans and Italians.

        If you move away from the Soviet and other leftist fables and look at things realistically, then the fascist is the statesman, the conservative. And not the one who chokes Jews with gas.
        1. Roy
          Roy 17 May 2016 19: 58
          "If we move away from Soviet and other leftist fables and look at things realistically, then a fascist is a statesman, a conservative. And not at all the one who strangles Jews with gas."
          They are, moreover, clearly expressed national patriots. And they hated both liberalism and Bolshevism. After all, these are really anti-systems.
          1. Rastas
            Rastas 17 May 2016 21: 39
            What expressed their dislike for the liberals? Why then under Franco reforms were carried out by liberal forces? Do you know how to recognize big words and slogans from real affairs?
    2. Dimon19661
      Dimon19661 17 May 2016 15: 10
      This is a fact for you, for us not ... And by the way, remember the industrialization in the USSR of the 30s, with which you still live by the way, so all your speculations are, to put it mildly, error
      1. Heimdall47
        Heimdall47 17 May 2016 16: 11
        Quote: Dimon19661
        This is a fact for you, for us not ... And by the way, remember the industrialization in the USSR of the 30s, with which you still live by the way, so all your speculations are, to put it mildly, error

        And we live with the collectivization carried out in the USSR and now we have ruined agriculture and a killed village as a whole.
        Recall also that we live not only from industrialization in the USSR of the 30s, but from the entire inheritance left to us by Russian statehood over the millennium of its existence. And industrialization is not a written sack to rush with.
      2. kalibr
        kalibr 17 May 2016 16: 48
        We all live with something, remember Torsin - is this where industrialization began?
        What ships were the first to build in the USSR and why? Do not know? Timber trucks and why is understandable: apart from timber, icons and gold there was nothing to trade. By the way, the People's Commissar of the NKVD Yagoda was charged with the illegal sale of the US timber. They say that his account is still in one of the banks in Seattle. That is, they robbed, sawed ... yes, they collected makhra dust (they sold the makhra at home!) And sold it to the West for foreign currency as a remedy for moths! And fur! Watch the movie "A Girl with Character". In the USA we have ruined the furriers with our dumping fur. Everything was taken from something that was before, or taken away from someone!
        1. Victor jnnjdfy
          Victor jnnjdfy 18 May 2016 17: 48
          I recalled the stories of my grandmother about how my uncle and aunt, as children, found gold chains twice. Broken chains were traded in Torgsin and exchanged for food. Moscow early 30s. Everything went into business ... Any little thing.
    3. Rastas
      Rastas 17 May 2016 21: 34
      Look, your comment is just an example of propaganda clichés. To begin with, such "national-patriots" as Generals Llano and Cabanellas were also Freemasons, for information. Then, Franco was greatly supported by oligarchs, for example, such a colorful figure as H. March, who made a fortune on smugglers. He sent a pre-insured ship with goods to France and brought this information to the Germans, who sunk the ship. Thus, March received both money for the goods and insurance for the blood of the unfortunate sailors. In addition, during the bombing of Madrid, the rebels strenuously hit the working-class neighborhoods, while the areas where the nobility were located were not touched. Then, you are confusing chronology. Since 1933, your favorite nationalists have been in power in Spain, while for some reason they carried out reforms in the spirit of liberals, so in the elections of 1936 the people chose the leftist force. For some reason, Franco, who came to power, also began to implement a policy in the interest of a large oligarchy, leaving the economy in the hands of the liberals. At the same time, he entered NATO, subjugating the country to the United States, using anti-communist ideology to obtain cheap American loans.
  7. Romin
    Romin 17 May 2016 11: 35
    After reading, there are some parallels with the situation in Ukraine.
    Fascism had to be crushed then in Spain, seriously systematically crushed and fought on Spanish soil. Fortunately, the USSR would have had enough strength, but Stalin had no mind at that time to foresee the catastrophe.
    So in Ukraine ... It was necessary to put pressure on the rudiment of Natsik and take responsibility! And of course it turned out well with Crimea! But in relation to Ukraine and the population, it looks ... er, a bit like eagerness, Crimea yes, but here you are with the others .....
    Putin acted frivolously and not systematically!
    And this can give us a shit.
    Remodeling machine launched in Ukraine!
    What do you think that the population is not dying and not being renewed? They are now retraining not only young people, but also children, starting from kindergartens. Teach what they need! And in 10 years we will get a stable generation of Russophobia, much more aggressive and not comparable, than, for example, in the same Poland!
    And after 20 years?
    And who say thank you for that?
    Putin even thought what he was doing and what it would lead to !?
    If you thought, then somehow the logic of the situation in Ukraine suggests otherwise!
    1. Kim Klimov
      Kim Klimov 17 May 2016 20: 03
      Both Bolshevism and liberalism must be crushed - these are both Zion-Kagal systems.
    2. veteran66
      veteran66 17 May 2016 21: 12
      Quote: Romin
      Fascism had to be crushed then in Spain,

      what for? to turn it into a backward country of victorious internationalism? These "heroes" could not even win the war. Moreover, that in Spain under Franco, in Chile under Pinochet, there was a sharp rise in the economy and an improvement in the life of the people. So why crush what was not there? About Nazism in Germany - I agree. Only, after all, they themselves fed the Wehrmacht and the Luftwaffe on their own heads in Kazan and Lipetsk.
      1. Rastas
        Rastas 17 May 2016 21: 58
        Your antihistoricism, Veteran66, is simply amazing. Who fed Nazism in Kazan? Then still Hitler was not in power like that. Then, with the supposedly economic growth under Pinochet, it is well shown in the book by V. Katasonov "Capitalism". In Chile, the "national patriot" Pinochet carried out reforms in accordance with the Friedman monetarist program. As a result of the first stage, unemployment doubled - from 9,1 to 18,7%; production fell 12,9%. It was the worst depression in the country since the 30s.
        At the second stage of reforms (since 1976), active attraction of foreign capital to the country began. Only loans between 1977-1981 increased three times. In the period 1976-1981. what was called the “economic miracle” was happening: the average annual growth rate of the social product was 6,6%. However, this is a hoax: in fact, there was no “miracle”. In this case, there was what is called a universal rule: "the deeper the depression, the greater the subsequent growth." The mechanism of this "growth" is very simple. At the time of depression, millions of workers lose their jobs, factories are idle. During the rise, the workers return to their places and there is the appearance of growth. Such growth is achievable quickly and without much labor and sacrifice.
        The third phase of reform began in 1982, when the world started an economic depression (caused in part by the debt crisis). Depression painfully hit the Chilean economy, it lay in ruins.
        The maximum unemployment rate was 34,6%; industrial production in 1982-1983 decreased by 28%. The reason for this fall is a sharp reduction in the inflow of foreign capital, which coincided with the moment when it was necessary to pay space interest on previously obtained loans.
        The Spanish "economic miracle" under Franco developed under a similar scenario. These are the direct teachers of the Gaidarites (I mean Yegor). And you put them as an example. You, my friend, turn out to be a liberal himself.
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 18 May 2016 22: 45
          And who fed "Nazism" in SWEDEN and SWITZERLAND ??? When Hitler was not in power and there was only the Weimar REPUBLIC ???
  8. King, just king
    King, just king 17 May 2016 12: 04
    800 aircraft, 362 tanks - only of our supplies - nothing to myself, my dear mother. Yes, with such forces, some kind of rebels Franco ...
    Apparently, our specialists fought, and the international brigades, foolishly went to the brothers in socialism (it is not known which one) to help out. Apparently local professional styles. The "common" people and the "middle" class did not support the Republicans strongly.

    But our gold reserves weren’t lost, they compensated, so to speak ...
    1. veteran66
      veteran66 17 May 2016 21: 14
      Quote: King, just king
      But our gold reserves weren’t lost, they compensated, so to speak ...

      but on the next branch, the comments say "the damned allies took away the loot for the lend-lease"
      1. kalibr
        kalibr 17 May 2016 21: 36
        Hugh Thomas says in detail how this gold was exported, how much ... it will be necessary to find and translate this story!
      2. hohol95
        hohol95 18 May 2016 22: 50
        Spain bought at market prices! And not only in the USSR! France didn’t give back the goods !!!
    2. hohol95
      hohol95 18 May 2016 22: 48
      Read how the locals fought! The SB-2 collected by the Spaniards (in engines) was full of SAND !!!
  9. RoTTor
    RoTTor 17 May 2016 13: 57
    “Plus” for the topic itself - semi- or almost forgotten.
    About a lot, for example, about the military repair of military equipment, is interesting. But glorious, heroic, romantic. All the youth of those years, first of all, the young commanders of the Red Army, still dreamed of joining the ranks of volunteers. The best ones were selected.

    Few surnames of our volunteers, only some of the well-known.
    It was lucky to personally know several of our "Spaniards", Hero of the Soviet Union, Major General Aviation EF Kondrat - for a long time and quite close.
    He, then senior lieutenant, went to Spain in the first batch of our pilots. Even with a fake passport in the name of a citizen of Yugoslavia, through Paris. He fought there on the I-16 for more than a year. He shot down several fascists and was awarded two orders for Spain. By 1941, he had already commanded an air regiment, and subsequently the second guard in the Red Army Air Force.
  10. rus-5819
    rus-5819 17 May 2016 15: 02
    My grandfather, Gonzenbakh Kirill Vladimirovich, also fought in the company of Paul Matissovich Arman
  11. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 17 May 2016 15: 35
    If technical specialists, tankers, pilots greatly helped the Spanish
    communists, the command of the commissar of the Civil War KA Meretskov was absolutely a failure.
    And in the future, the Finnish War, Tikhvin, Volkhov Front only confirmed
    military prof. unsuitability of Meretskov.
    1. Dimon19661
      Dimon19661 17 May 2016 15: 47
      Meretskov was awarded the Order of VICTORY, but he didn’t give it anyhow, and the defeat of the Kwantung Army shows it well.
      Hero of the Soviet Union (21.03.1940/XNUMX/XNUMX);
      Order of Victory (No. 18 - September 8.09.1945, XNUMX);
      Seven Orders of Lenin (3.01.1937/21.03.1940/2.11.1944, 21.02.1945/6.06.1947/6.06.1957, 6.06.1967/XNUMX/XNUMX, XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX, XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX, XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX, XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX);
      Order of the October Revolution (22.02.1968);
      four orders of the Red Banner (20.02.1928/10/2.03.1938 [3.11.1944], 6.11.1947, XNUMX, XNUMX);
      two orders of Suvorov 1st degree (28.01.1943/21.02.1944/XNUMX, XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX);
      Order of Kutuzov 1st degree (29.06.1944/XNUMX/XNUMX);
      medal "For the Defense of Leningrad";
      medal "For the defense of the Soviet Arctic";
      medal “For the victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945”;
      Medal “Twenty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945”;
      medal "For the victory over Japan";
      medal "XX years of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army";
      medal "30 years of the Soviet Army and Navy";
      medal "40 years of the Armed Forces of the USSR";
      medal "50 years of the Armed Forces of the USSR";
      medal “In memory of the 250th anniversary of Leningrad”.
      Foreign states
      Cavalier of the Grand Cross of the Order of St. Olav (Norway, 1945);
      Legion of Honor Order of the Commander-in-Chief (USA, 1946);
      Order of the State Flag of the 1st degree, (DPRK, 1948);
      Order of the Clouds and Banner of the 1st class (Republic of China, 1946);
      medal "For the victory over Japan" (MPR, 1946);
      medal "For the Liberation of Korea" (DPRK, 1948).
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 17 May 2016 16: 03
        Do not look at the awards (in the USSR, absolutely all generals have awards
        did not fit on the chest - both in excellent military and mediocrity), but on
        battles lost to him, or won with such losses that
        in the world are called "Pyrrhic".
        1. Dimon19661
          Dimon19661 17 May 2016 16: 14
          Well, look at the won battles. August 1945 is also a "Pyrrhic" victory ??? By the way, he did not fight on the couch.
          1. veteran66
            veteran66 17 May 2016 21: 16
            Quote: Dimon19661
            August 1945 is also a "Pyrrhic" victory ???

            against who? Mobilized reservists of the second category and indigenous tribes?
  12. rus-5819
    rus-5819 17 May 2016 15: 51
    "I'm Not Afraid Not to Be" is a book-memory about Paul Matisovich Arman, in whose company my grandfather, KV Gonzenbakh, fought.
  13. Kirill
    Kirill 17 May 2016 19: 03
    Quote: Heimdall47

    Preston describes in detail the repressions against the clergy: “Wearing a cassock was enough to get shot on the side of the road. About 6800 clergymen were killed. Many churches and monasteries were burned or destroyed. ” Priests were regularly tortured and killed. In Spain, three times as many clergymen were destroyed as during the Jacobin terror during the French Revolution.

    These wonderful people - "simple workers and peasants", were helped by our military experts.

    This is the specificity of the Spaniards. Look at the pictures of Goya, Dali. Cruelty is inherent in the Spaniards. This was noted even in the 15th century.
    1. Heimdall47
      Heimdall47 17 May 2016 19: 53
      Quote: kirill

      This is the specificity of the Spaniards. Look at the pictures of Goya, Dali. Cruelty is inherent in the Spaniards. This was noted even in the 15th century.

      What - the Francoists also nailed priests to the doors of churches? I have not heard. In general, the specificity of the Spaniards is religiosity and church commitment.
      But socialists and communists are outside national. They rule the Bronstein and Blank.
      1. Kirill
        Kirill 17 May 2016 20: 31
        I assure there was everything. Recall the African parts ...
        1. Heimdall47
          Heimdall47 18 May 2016 11: 14
          Quote: kirill
          I assure there was everything. Recall the African parts ...

          Of course it was. They can be forgiven and understood, because African and other parts did not want to join collective farms, live in communal apartments, go to concentration camps and to settle. And the Republican Spanish comrades would send most of their citizens to these wonderful places unambiguously following the example of their big brother.
      2. Rastas
        Rastas 17 May 2016 21: 20
        The Francoists killed priests even more. Those who found themselves on the side of the Republic, especially in the Basque Country and Catalonia. The Moroccans were not sickly atrocities. But I would not cry for the clergy. If you call for the slaughter of the "red-bellied", if you actively participate in the courts, where people are sentenced to death, then get ready to receive a response.
        1. Heimdall47
          Heimdall47 17 May 2016 21: 47
          Quote: Rastas
          The Francoists killed priests even as. Those who sided with the Republic, especially in Basque Country and Catalonia. The Moroccan atrocities were not sickly.

          I guess I don’t understand something, or we are talking about different things. Priests on the side of the republic? Well, they probably were, but it’s the same as a priest on the side of the Soviet regime or an Orthodox Jew - a fan of Hitler. The absurdity is shorter.
          But I would not cry for the clergy. If you call for the slaughter of the "red-bellied", if you actively participate in the courts, where people are sentenced to death, then get ready to receive a response.

          A familiar song when everything is turned upside down. We will encircle everyone as sticky, we will send to the heap both the right and the guilty, and then we will write them all retroactively into the counter-revolution.
          If the priest calls to cut the "red-bellied", then obviously not for the fact that he stepped on his foot - it means there was a serious reason. And it is clear what this reason is.
          1. Rastas
            Rastas 17 May 2016 22: 15
            Of course, it’s clear what the reason is, given that the Republicans were in favor of separating the church from the state, the church was losing decent land that it owned. The church owned 11 thousand estates, banks, newspapers, and even cinema companies. But the main influence, up to the establishment of the republic, was exercised by the church through the education system controlled by it. Half of the Spanish population was illiterate, and there were few public schools. And now the church was losing its main weapon. The church actively sought to control the education system and charity, taking advantage of the underdeveloped state social security mechanism. The church persistently penetrated into business, establishing its own banks and credit organizations. So it’s not surprising why the church hated the Republic. Notice nothing personal, only money and influence.
            1. Heimdall47
              Heimdall47 17 May 2016 22: 26
              Yes, everything is clear, we passed it in the USSR. It is necessary to burn the counterrevolutionaries alive, hang, saw, rot in the camps, nail them. All for people's happiness. And on this wonderful basis we will build paradise on earth. And who does not want all this is a fascist and we will drive him into the ground.
              1. Rastas
                Rastas 17 May 2016 22: 38
                You know, Christianity in Europe, and not only there appeared under a similar scenario. The nations also baptized with fire and sword. For the happiness of the people. And whoever is the Gentile will be burned (drown, slaughtered, etc.). Inquisition to help you. The believer himself, but the church is far from the covenants of Christ. I do not know, besides, in what USSR did you go through. I didn’t burn anyone in the USSR, I didn’t stain, I don’t remember this at all. It was all good, but not super, of course, but better than today for sure. You probably lived in some other USSR, with a different interpretation of this abbreviation.
                1. Heimdall47
                  Heimdall47 18 May 2016 08: 30
                  The nations also baptized with fire and sword. For the happiness of the people. And whoever is the Gentile will be burned (drown, slaughtered, etc.). Inquisition to help you.

                  These are the mores of people. The church tried to soften them just. Life then did not cost anything and the issues were resolved simply. If an illiterate pagan prince / king who pours blood like water accepts Christianity for his own reasons, this does not mean that he will come out of the font as a meek sheep. It is naive to think so. And his children will not be lambs either.
                  The believer himself, but the church is far from the covenants of Christ

                  Well, the evaluation of the church is a personal matter for everyone.
                  I didn’t burn anyone in the USSR, I didn’t stain, I don’t remember this at all

                  And I did not burn, but I did not make a revolution either - it does not follow from this that it did not exist.
                  You do not know that in the late 30s the church in the USSR was almost liquidated? And it remained free, if I am not mistaken, three like the bishop of everything. Here's an example from Comrade Yezhov’s message:

                  From a special message to N.I.Ezhov and I.V. Stalin

                  Top secret

                  SECRETARY OF THE CENTRAL CPSU (B.)
                  comrade STALIN
                  In connection with the growth of counter-revolutionary activity of churchmen and sectarians, we, recently, have dealt a significant operational blow to these elements.

                  In total, in August-November, the months of 1937, 31.359 churchmen and sectarians were arrested; of them:

                  Metropolitans and bishops .................................. 166
                  priests ................................................. ................ 9.116
                  monks ................................................. ............. 2.173
                  church-sectarian kulak asset ............ 19.904

                  Of this amount convicted to VMN ................... 13.671
                  Bishops ................................................. .......... 81
                  priests ................................................. ................. 4.629
                  monks ................................................. ............. 934
                  church-sectarian kulak asset ............. 7.004
                  As a result of our operational measures, the episcopate of the Orthodox Church was almost completely liquidated, which greatly weakened and disorganized the church.

                  It was there that they stained and boiled up. And then we went to Spain to help scum do the same.
                  1. Basil50
                    Basil50 18 May 2016 17: 51
                    It is a pity that the church does not study, they again climb into power and fool believers. Why are churches and their followers * allowed * any bestiality? Why do not want to remember the victims of Christianization? Why do they forgive the slave trade? Why are they turning a blind eye to cooperation with the Nazis? Very few church leaders have found the strength to remain RUSSIAN PEOPLE during the GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR. In the 90s, what was done on behalf of * Christ * will never be forgotten. And today, the main pop of RUSSIA insults RUSSIAN people and insults OUR ancestors. Do you really think that this will be forgotten and forgiven?
  14. Kirill
    Kirill 17 May 2016 19: 05
    Thanks to the author for the article. This is a very interesting period in history. I would like to continue this topic.
  15. bbss
    bbss 17 May 2016 19: 54
    Quote: Romin
    Fascism had to be crushed then in Spain

    Maybe in Germany in 1933? Or in Italy in 1923? Each vegetable has its own time ...
  16. The comment was deleted.
  17. hohol95
    hohol95 18 May 2016 22: 58
    Sitting in front of a monitor in the 21st century, it is easy to judge the 30s of the 20th century !!! Not living at that TIME !!! Our PEOPLE THINKED that they should help Spain! China !!! We and Ethiopia tried to help in the war with ITALY !!! Why not! Yes, they did not live "ICE", as they say now! BUT it is now! Not then! Let all those who consider help in vain and senseless sacrifices - WORSHIP TO THE EARTH TO THOSE WHO HELPED THE WARS OF THE 20TH AND 30TH YEARS !!! GREAT BRITAIN, FRANCE AND OTHER EUROPEAN UNION BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY !!!
  18. Vladycat
    Vladycat 4 October 2016 10: 00
    Article plus. The topic is extremely interesting. The first time I encountered it when I was re-reading the memoirs of I.G. Starinov. There were people! such bombs were made of canned goods and tires !!!
  19. zombirusrev
    zombirusrev 9 November 2016 21: 56
    Here is an interesting old very old article on this subject http: // .....
    and the epilogue to this article ....

    Why is this article written? Our children no longer know not only about Alexander Matrosov or Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya, but also about Yuri Gagarin, so to speak about Thor, Anna Nikulina, Ku-Li-Shen or Lizyukov. We still remember Stalingrad and Berlin, but we almost forgot about Hassan, Yeln, Khingan, Barvenkovo ​​and Zelenaya Brahma, and we don’t know anything about Guadarrama and Wuhan, Teruel and Taipei.

    So tell your children! Only one weapon was left to us in the fight against vile, deceitful and ignorant television, with mentally defective history books - these are our own stories. Tell them that the Soviet government declared war on world fascism on October 23, 1936, and that the soldiers of freedom complied with the order of the Soviet government.

    Tell your children that of all the governments of the world, only the Soviet in 1936 realized that world fascism had to be stopped at all costs, and the Soviet Union threw everything that it had then into battle. The best pilots and scouts, tankers and submariners, artillerymen and saboteurs fought and died in burning cities and on the polar plains, in waterless mountains and rice fields, in Europe and Asia, and maybe not only there.

    Brave, modest, funny and businesslike people. The war against fascism began for them long before June 22, 1941, and for many then ended. Not always under the red star, sometimes under the red-yellow-violet emblem of the Spanish Republic or the white twelve-pointed star of the Kuomintang, or without any insignia at all - they wholeheartedly gave their lives for someone else's and their freedom.

    “We raised the coffin to shoulder level and inserted it into the top row of niches. We watched as the worker quickly, deftly, with a spatula, bricked up the hole.

    - What inscription should be done? the ranger asked.

    “There is no need for any inscriptions,” I replied. - It will lie for now without an inscription. Where necessary, they will write about him. "
    These were times of liberal dominance!