New - well forgotten old. “Gentlemen! Europe is in danger! ”
The Third Reich stubbornly delayed the denouement, but it nevertheless approached inevitably. Many people gazed into the future through the aiming bars, squinting and accompanying their actions with comments from the folklore. But there were others. They were far from the scene, but they also squinted, studying the numbers and summaries with the eyes of professional players on the stock exchange. Not everyone shared the joy of the imminent end of the war in Europe. Weighed the balance of power, already new, post-war, counted divisions and resources. The traditional rival - this one, which made the eyes look so insane, is one sixth of the land, - the title of the main enemy was returned to the plans and plans. Moreover, the current enemy (for an annoying misunderstanding for many members of the club) has already been writhing in agony. Business people, not spoiled by sentimentality, wanted to get a benefit even in this position.
War is war and business is on schedule
The war was one of the most profitable types of business. This truth is the descendants of dashing guys in leather riding pants and a product of Mr. Colt in their pockets understood better than the law of God in elite schools, which far from all got. In 1918, the United States took its first jackpot in this century. Old and not so much, the empires lay in ruins, the opponents were thrown into poverty and devastation. The winners, bleeding and washing away from tired faces afterwards, leaned on the kindly hand of the kind Uncle Sam who had been carefully substituted. He was very generous, supplying machine guns, trucks, canned meat and all sorts of useful stuff for a modest fee in unreasonable quantities until quite recently striking Entente. A very profitable enterprise consistently yielded income, although at the beginning of 1918, it almost went bankrupt, and I had to “send the guys across the ocean.” After the shooting ended in a large saloon called “Europe”, a dazzlingly smiling Woodrow Wilson went there, immediately explaining who was the senior business partner and who was offering coffee. ... No matter how belligerently Mr. Blemanceau’s bristling mustache is.
The peaceful post-war years were not good for Uncle Sam. And if the economic crisis 1920 – 21. caused only acute migraine, then a much more serious 1929 – 1933 ailment led to severe depression. A consilium of doctors of finance and captains of big business has prescribed vigorous foreign policy as an effective means of treatment. In fairness, not everyone wanted it. There was a heresy dangerous for the patient called “isolationism”. Its essence was based on quite logical postulates: Europe is far away, it is very strange and in general, “we are on this bank, and you are on that”. Franklin Roosevelt, who was at the helm among the waves of crisis, maneuvered skillfully and carefully. The United States strongly distanced itself from the Italian-Ethiopian and Spanish Civil War. But in Europe it smelled of powder again. The former corporal of the Kaiser army, who made his fiery speeches in pubs and at rallies, became head of Germany. And then a thunderstorm broke out.
Initially, Uncle Sam was in no hurry to fight, muttering to himself that this was not his fight. However, the gentlemen who knew this character well allowed themselves to doubt the sincerity of the hardened rogue. The homeland of the founding fathers, the mistress of the seas, shyly hiding the patches on the once pretentious and expensive dress, spitting on pride, turned to overseas cousins for help. And they helped, guided by the axiom expressed by Roosevelt about selling a fire hose to a neighbor who has a house on fire. And a proud empire, crooked and not blushing (not the time to be embarrassed), gave its islands and bases for a handful of old destroyers. But Uncle Sam would have been a simple ingenuous man in the street, if he had forgotten about those who threw torches into the house of the abused neighbor. They also need and could ... buy something. After all, business people will always find something in common with each other. Germany officially declared war on the US 11 on December 1941 of the year, but in fact fighting between German submarines and American escort ships was fought long before this date. While the waters of the Atlantic, once again stained with blood and fuel oil, foamed with traces of torpedoes, profits and losses were counted in the silence of the cozy cabinets. The second ones were considerable, but the planned figures of the first ones were simply impressive. And there were desperate gentlemen who remembered the advice of grandfathers who like to grumble around the fireplace about the fury of the redskins: take little fortune by the hand, you have to force her to sit down next to him and have a drink for brotherhood.
Germany, with its industry, one of the most developed in the world, was virtually isolated. The scarce raw materials, so necessary for many types of productions, had to be found literally with circus artistry. Venerable gentlemen (among whom were not only descendants of successful gold prospectors and pioneers of the Wild West, but also people from good families, with traditions and manners), could not indifferently look at the difficulties of other, no less well-born colleagues. Nothing that they were enemies ... what a trifle! German and American firms had a strong partnership: since the autumn of 1924 through 1929, the German industry received loans of more than one billion dollars, an amount more than impressive at the prices of that time. By the beginning of the 1930's. in Germany, more than sixty factories and enterprises were already operating, which were branches of overseas firms. In the spring of 1938, the Morgan financial and industrial group signed a mutually beneficial agreement with the European Steel Trust, which was based on German corporations for the issuance of bonuses and bonuses to countries that do not use the steel export quota. In addition to the United States, Germany benefited, whose steel industry was absorbed by military orders.
17 June 1940, when the outcome of the German offensive in the west was no longer in any particular doubt, Roosevelt tried to stop a possible outflow of large financial resources from the United States, ordering the French assets to be frozen in American banks. But it was not several hours after the decree was signed, as someone from the leadership of the Rockefeller Chase Neshenel Bank ordered to transfer a million dollars from the accounts of the Latin American branch of the Franco-Italian bank to special accounts in Argentina and Uruguay, countries known at that time for their pro-German orientation. War is war, but partners cannot be let down.
There are many examples of cooperation between American banks and the German Reichsbank. Not lagged behind the bankers and industrialists. The oil giant Standard Oil worked closely with the chemical giant IG Farbenindustri. There were many such examples. Since the captains of big business were guided by the simple, pragmatic and out of the category of good or evil, the principle of “nothing personal - only business”, these corporate partnerships persisted after December 11 of 1941. Standard Oil successfully traded oil from the Reich through neutral Spain and Switzerland. The largest banks (for example, Chase Bank, which belonged to the Rockefeller family) made major deals in occupied Paris with the full consent of their management. In the territory occupied by the Wehrmacht of France, the factories belonging to one of the largest automakers Ford worked quietly, and there is no doubt for whose needs the cars they produced were used.
Mr. Soostenes, head of the International American Telephone Corporation ITT, Ben went even further. He traveled through Spain to Bern, where he had close business contacts with business partners. Partners were a little concerned and needed advice on improving the guidance systems of the latest guided bombs. Through Latin America, American ball bearings were shipped to Germany, and they knew about the final route of production even in government circles. One cannot go against corporate ethics and tradition. The financial and industrial elite of the United States represented, and indeed appears to be, even now, a certain private club of the elect, within which there are excellent, unique to him, laws and rules. And these rules stood above federal legislation, the Constitution with all amendments, the Declaration of Independence and such inappropriate concepts as conscience. The amount of US investment in Germany on the eve of December 11 came close to half a billion dollars, and the gentlemen did not want to refuse from such funds.
In Germany itself, attempts were made to suppress the activities of some "enemy" corporations. But since none other than Walter Schellenberg, being first deputy and then head of the VI directorate of the RSHA, that is, foreign intelligence, part-time member of the ITT board of directors, all these attempts to prevent business relations were put on the brakes. Franklin Roosevelt was also initiated into the delicate connections of his country's business circles with the enemy. Many of the most active supporters of business partnerships (for example, James Mooney from General Motors and William Davis from Davis Oil Company) were even monitored because of the annoying state of war. But everything was limited to observation - they do not take out the rubbish from the corporate hut, but hide it deeply. Roosevelt also belonged to this circle and knew the rules of the game.
Who is war, and who is ...
The military confrontation of the western countries and Germany was considered by many in both camps as an annoying coincidence, misunderstanding, tragic mistake. A general view of what is happening, the mentality, the worldview - all this gave a shaky, but the ground for a possible consensus. The first over the problem of concluding an agreement began to think, obviously, in Germany. Beginning in a vigorous and confident manner, the Eastern Company in the fall of 1941 began to give its first failures. The war on two fronts stood in front of the Reich in full growth. He actually waged an unlimited war, having very limited resources compared to his opponents. In Germany, there was some opposition to Hitler, the opposition, of course, silent and cautious. Many of the military, diplomats, high-ranking officials were not thrilled by the dangerous and shaky path taken by the homeland of Bach and Goethe marching in brown shirts and black uniforms. The idea “not to quarrel with the West” prevailed mainly because in the Soviet Union they saw not a partner, but rather a threat. The outbreak of war accelerated the thinking processes of alternatively reasoning German top - the most sober-minded and pragmatic already felt the cold of the abyss, to which their country was steadily moving.
About the first probes of the ground for possible negotiations, the Schellenberg office found out in the autumn of 1941, when the prominent diplomat Ulrich von Hassel, who fell into disgrace, had confidential conversations with the representative of American banking circles Stanford. The latter conveyed the words of Roosevelt about the arrest and transfer of Hitler to the allies, as a necessary condition for resolving the conflict. After the US entered the war, diplomatic contacts became unofficial and disguised, however, those who were supposed to know about the state of affairs in both countries. Pragmatic Schellenberg, who had extensive connections in business circles, was by no means obsessed with the obsession of war to the last opportunity. The soil was probed through several channels, primarily through the elderly Prince Ernst Hohenlohe, who came out through his old connections through Lisbon to US representatives. He believed that it was necessary to negotiate, like all "civilized people", and Franz von Papen, who was also somewhat offended by the Nazi regime. The former vice-chancellor of the Weimar Republic, who served as the German ambassador in Istanbul, was in regular relations with the American resident in the capital of Turkey, George Earl. In the autumn of 1942, von Papen made it clear that there are people in Germany who are capable of dialogue with the West. However, it was possible to learn about these manipulations by the ubiquitous Intelligence Service, and under some pressure from the allies the contacts were curtailed.
Meanwhile, the peak of the military successes of the Axis countries was passed, and there was no chance of a victorious end to the war. The main condition for establishing peace, formulated at the Tehran Conference of the Heads of the Allied Powers, was only unconditional surrender. But I did not want to capitulate, especially before the Russians. This discomfort was felt also overseas, where gentlemen, full of internal dignity, who smoke expensive cigars, considered the alliance with the Communists only the lesser of evils. The successes of the Red Army did not please them, but caused a feeling very similar to concern. Some have already appealed to the logic and pragmatism of doing business. For example, General Marshall sent a memorandum to Roosevelt, in which he convincingly insisted on reducing military supplies to the Soviet Union. This, according to the author of the economic plan of the same name, should have seriously reduced the pace of advancement of the Red Army. The number of supporters of a tougher and more unfriendly foreign policy towards the USSR increasingly increased in the leadership of the United States. In the fall of 1944, under pressure from the opposition, Roosevelt changed Henry Wallace, loyal to the Soviet Union, to Harry Truman as vice president.
At the beginning of 1943 in Bern, Switzerland, the prosperous employee of the Sullivan and Cromwell law firm, a talented intelligence officer and just a business man with a pipe in his mouth, Mr. Allen Dulles, settled down in the past. At the side of Germany, he organized and headed the European Center for the Office of Strategic Services of the United States. Of course, they soon found out about this from the other side of the border. And to Dulles stretched out the couriers, emissaries and parliamentarians. One of his closest employees and assistants in German affairs was German political émigré Gero von Schulze-Gevernitz, who left Germany shortly after Hitler came to power. His family had extensive connections in the high circles of the Reich, who now turned out to be more suitable than ever. Gevernitz knew Dulles since 1916, when the American was in Europe for diplomatic work. The resident had meetings with high-ranking Germans. Naturally, they did not take the form of negotiations, but only as conversations and exchange of opinions. Prince Douglas Hohenlohe, the disgrace after the failure of the offensive near Moscow, Field Marshal Brauchitsch and other distinguished gentlemen, came to visit Dulles. The parties talked quite constructively, finding understanding on many issues. The United States did not want, as they called it, "the Soviet occupation of Germany," nor did they preserve British positions in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
Puffing a pipe, Dulles transparently hinted at the dislike of America’s highest political and business circles for the Soviet Union that this unnatural alliance is no more than a necessary measure. And in general, everything can be different if the German gentlemen strongly want this. The German gentlemen of this "other" wanted to be very heartfelt and the stronger, the closer to the west the line of the eastern front moved. The problem was that, according to Dulles, they were not any one monolithic opposition force, but simply representatives of different groups, dissatisfied with the regime, who came to Switzerland to grumble and openly express their disagreement with what was happening. In general, the former lawyer nodded sympathetically, complained about the war and other adversity, and expected more serious proposals from the German side. In 1944, a courier arrived on Dulles on behalf of conspirators who wanted to eliminate Hitler. Again, the parties did not come to a common opinion. The Germans wanted full-fledged peace negotiations, Dulles demanded unconditional surrender, and then - negotiations, and did not give any guarantees. It was not possible to come to an agreement, later it became known that the attempt on Hitler had failed and the alternatively thinking layer in the German summits was fairly thinned out. But towards the end of the war, not the old Kaiser grumblers or the generals offended by the resignation began to seek contact with Dulles, but the top of the Reich itself. Back in 1943, the Schellenberg Office succeeded in introducing its agent into the center of the Swiss web under the pseudonym Gabriel, who informed the BD about Dulles contacts and their content. The Germans were well informed about the growing contradictions between the USSR and the United States and Great Britain and saw their chance in playing on these contradictions.
The failure of the offensive in the Ardennes and the irrepressible onslaught of the Red Army urged the German leadership. In February, 1945 came to Dulles by emissaries from the General Directorate of Imperial Security with proposals for separate negotiations. 10 February at a meeting with the Americans even made a promise to convey all the valuable information that is available in Germany regarding Japan, in exchange for a truce on the Western Front. Judging by the growing activity of the German side, Dulles made the correct conclusion that at the top of the Reich there are rapidly growing contradictions regarding the further conduct of the war and, as real business people say, “the client has matured”. It should be noted that Switzerland itself has fully contributed to all kinds of confidential meetings on its territory. It was important for her business community to end the war as soon as possible. The intelligence officer of the Swiss General Staff Captain Max Weibel was in direct contact with Dulles. He had the authority to assist the right people in crossing the state border in both directions.
25 February 1945 Mr. Pope’s chamberlain Luigi Parilli went out through his Swiss channels to Gevernitsa and reported that a number of high-ranking SS officers in Italy want to come to an agreement, under the specious excuse to avoid destruction and casualties. Parilli was referring to the chief authorized SS in the group of armies "C" in Italy Obergruppenführer Karl Wolf. Wolf was not the last person in the top of the Reich and enjoyed the location of Hitler himself. Back in early February, Wolf visited Hitler at the reception, where, without much disguise, he expressed aloud the idea of the need to negotiate with the West in order to jointly oppose Bolshevism. The Fuhrer responded very vaguely and vaguely, but there was no definitive "no" from him. In fact, this could be regarded as a tacit permission to negotiate.
Already on March 8 in Zurich, Wolf and his accompanying high-ranking official, Eugen Dolman, met with Dulles. The Germans proposed to organize the surrender of German troops on the Italian front with the possibility of an organized retreat to South-West Germany. When leaving was promised to refrain from destruction and sabotage. Such a course of events would have allowed the Western allies to freely occupy northern Italy and Austria and move into the interior of Germany, ahead of the Red Army. This prospect caused the lively approval of English Field Marshal Alexander, the commander-in-chief of all the allied forces in the Mediterranean basin. Representatives of the Allied Command from Alexander's headquarters were sent to Switzerland: General Terence Airy, head of the intelligence department, and General Leiman Leitnitzer, deputy chief of staff. For conspiracy, they entered the country as simple sergeants serving in the Office of Strategic Service. The operation itself received the cheerful name Sunrise (Sunrise), hinting at the successful completion of the enterprise.
19 March 1945 in South Ascona, South Ossetia, has already held an extended meeting, which was attended by the allies and the military. The subject of discussion was organizational issues: the variants of coercion of the German command in Italy to capitulate were calculated. In this, Wolf relied on the parts of the SS entrusted to him, which, according to various estimates, there were at least 50 thousand people. So far, having surrounded himself with a cover of secrecy and significant precautionary measures, Dulles and his guests whispered about the prospects for cooperation, they were already closely watched by the watchful eye of Soviet intelligence. Information came not only from agents in Germany, but also from allied countries, as Dulles contacts with the German command became more extensive.
Having decided to make secure, the allies of March 12, through their ambassadors in Moscow, Harriman (USA) and Kerr (Great Britain), brought to the notice of the Soviet leadership information about the arrival of Wolf in Switzerland with the aim of negotiating the surrender of German troops on the Italian front. People's Commissar Vyacheslav Molotov on the same day informed both ambassadors that the Soviet government considered it necessary to send representatives to these talks, and in response letters from representatives of the United States and Great Britain was refused. Dulles in his memoirs motivated him with technical difficulties: the difficulty of sending Soviet representatives to Switzerland, the inability to conceal the presence of Russians from the Germans from the Germans. In fact, the Allies initially did not want the presence of the Russians, who in their plans and calculations had already firmly taken the place of enemies. On March 16, in the repeated message of Molotov to the ambassadors of the allies, it was stated that the refusal of the Soviet Union to participate in the negotiations was regarded as a breakdown in international agreements and an attempt to separately agree with the enemy.
Giving information how to digest, Molotov, with the knowledge of Stalin, deals another powerful diplomatic blow. 22 March 1945, in letters to Harriman and Kerr Molotov directly and without florism, demanded an immediate end to the negotiations with the enemy, pointing to the loss of confidence in the allies. To top it off, there was a lively correspondence between Joseph Stalin and Roosevelt, where the head of the Soviet state described in great detail and thoroughly all the examples and facts of violation of agreements between the two countries and delaying military issues important for the USSR. Roosevelt tried to justify himself. They say that we are talking only about the military capitulation of one single front — utter nonsense. But Comrade Stalin in his statement of concern was cold and hard. Roosevelt understood well what the price and consequences of such a concern might be, especially on the eve of planning landing operations on the Japanese islands at the beginning of 1946.
Due to the outbreak of scandal, negotiations were terminated and curtailed. Wolf returned to Berlin. On April 9, the Allied forces launched an offensive on the Italian front; on April XN, Soviet troops launched the Berlin offensive. Thus, the Germans did not succeed in solving the matter by the separate world. The United States at this stage did not want to fully carry out the break with the Soviet Union - the war in the Pacific was in full swing, and the USSR made a promise to join it after the defeat of Germany. However, the level of hostility increased. Already after the signing of Germany’s capitulation, Winston Churchill offered to arm German prisoners of war in order to strengthen the Allied forces in case the situation with the Soviet Union deteriorated. Business people did not want the complete destruction of Germany - it was already taken into account by them in a promising confrontation with the USSR, which had borne the brunt of the struggle. The captains of big business were pleased. The second jackpot was taken by the United States at minimal cost. By actually renting out their mass-produced military products and receiving gold in return, finally removing England from the list of competitors, weakening the USSR, Uncle Sam, rubbing his hands rather well, considered himself entitled to indicate and dictate his will to the whole world. The Kremlin held a different opinion, and business people had a weighty reason to increase their wealth, complaining about a new enemy. History the world smoothly moved to a new chapter called the Cold War. Business people remained in their own interests - they had to carefully prepare the conditions to hit the third jackpot - in 1991 year.