In the fall of the 1945 of the year, the 10-year plan of military shipbuilding was approved in the Soviet Union. 22 April 1946 of the year issued an order to transform the branch of the TsKB-17 branch, located on the territory of the present Northern shipyard, into a separate Central Design Bureau under the number 53. It is from this date that the countdown begins. история Northern Design Bureau, which has been part of United Shipbuilding Corporation since March 2007.
The activity of the newly formed bureau was aimed at the design of squadron destroyers and patrol ships. Almost the entire ocean fleet of the Soviet Union was created by its specialists, and many of the projects became truly epochal. For a number of parameters, they are recognized as a benchmark in world shipbuilding. Western experts have repeatedly pointed out that Russian ships are an excellent example of industrial design, since they combine crushing shock power, excellent protection, efficiency of engineering solutions and a dynamically aggressive architectural appearance.
Creating a modern warship is the work and intelligence of many teams and thousands of specialists from the most diverse branches of shipbuilding. And still the main role in ship design is played by the design office, the creator of the engineering structure. And the Northern PKB has been successfully solving all the tasks assigned to it for 70 years.
WHAT THE FRIGATES SING
Bureau projects have always been ahead of their time - almost every one of them has become a milestone in the history of not only domestic, but also world military shipbuilding, and at the same time a hallmark of the Northern Design Bureau. Today, in each new project, created no longer on the drawing boards, but with the help of the most up-to-date computer technology using the computer-aided design system, the most advanced technical equipment and weapon models are laid. Over the years the existence of the Northern Design Bureau for its projects was built around 500 ships and vessels.
The Northern PKB designed the first ship in the world with an anti-ship missile weapons (in the terminology of the time, “a ship with jet armament”) was a squadron destroyer of the 57-bis project (chief designer - Orest Jakob). The destroyers of the 58 project (chief designer - Vladimir Nikitin) were also created there. Because of the enormous shock power for their time after construction, they were reclassified into missile cruisers - a completely new class of ships.
The large anti-submarine ships of the 61 project (the chief designer is Boris Kupensky) were the first large combat surface ships to use gas turbines as the main power plant. They received the nickname “singing frigates” for the distinctive sound of a power plant operating at full power.
The Northern Design Bureau includes anti-submarine ships of projects 1134, 1134A, 1134B that have no analogues in the world (the main designers are Vasily Anikiev and Alexander Perkov), 1155 and 11551 (the main designers are Yevgeny Tretnikov and Valentin Mishin) and “killer aircraft carriers” - Project 1164 missile cruisers (chief designers - Alexander Perkov and Valentin Mutikhin). The bureau’s engineers created project 956 destroyers with exceptional seaworthiness, armed with anti-ship missile systems and four 130-mm universal artillery pieces (chief designers Vasily Anikiev and Igor Rubis), and project 1135 patrol ships (chief designer Nikolai Sobolev). Nowadays for Russian fleet the project 11356 created on their basis is under construction.
And finally - this is the pride of the Russian Navy's heavy nuclear missile cruiser project 1144 (chief designer - Boris Kupensky). The last in a series of four cruisers "Peter the Great" (project 11442) is the flagship of the Northern Fleet.
As part of the state defense order, work is underway to create a fundamentally new squadron destroyer, documentation is being developed for the repair and modernization of the heavy nuclear missile cruiser Admiral Nakhimov (project 11442М), on which Sevmash is working.
BLACK SEA ADMIRALS
Today, the bureau is working on designing and supporting the construction and commissioning of patrol ships and frigates of 11356 and 22350 projects. The patrol ships of the 11356 project (chief designer - Peter Vasilyev) are built at the Yantar plant of the United Shipbuilding Corporation. The lead ship "Admiral Grigorovich" transferred to the Black Sea Fleet 11 March 2016.
Two more ships of the "admiral" series - "Admiral Essen" and "Admiral Makarov" - will be commissioned until the end of 2016.
The basis of the strike armament of the patrol ship of this project is a vertical launcher designed for the impact missiles of the Caliber complex. Also, the ship is armed with 100-millimeter universal automatic artillery, anti-aircraft missile complex "Shtil-1" and two six-barreled 30-millimeter AK-630M. Anti-submarine and anti-torpedo weapons are represented by two torpedo tubes and a rocket-propelled bombing installation.
The creation of the ship was carried out taking into account the stealth technology stealth technology. In addition, measures have been taken to reduce acoustic visibility and protect against weapons of mass destruction.
One of the features of the ship is its main power plant. It consists of four gas turbine engines, but is designed so that the ship can have a course when only one turbine is operating. This achieves high efficiency of the power plant, increases the resource of its work. At one time, the decision to build guard ships of this type caused an ambiguous reaction. A number of experts pointed to the fact that the Russian fleet simultaneously orders two types of patrol ships - 11356 and 22350. However, there are objective reasons for this. First of all, the patrol ships of the 11356 project are mastered by the domestic industry. Six ships of this project were built for the naval forces of India and are being successfully operated. This greatly reduced the risks when creating ships for the domestic fleet. It should be borne in mind that these ships are designed for the Black Sea Fleet, while the 22350 frigates of the project are designed for operation in the Northern and Pacific fleets.
The 22350 frigates (chief designer Igor Shramko) are ships of a completely new quality, technology of the 21st century. Their serial construction is carried out at the Northern shipyard. The 22350 frigates of the project became the first large surface warships built in Russian shipyards after the collapse of the USSR. The lead ship, the Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Gorshkov, is already undergoing state tests. The frigates "Admiral of the fleet of Kasatonov", "Admiral Golovko" and "Admiral of the fleet of the Soviet Union Isakov" are in varying degrees of readiness.
The multi-purpose frigate of the 22350 project is equipped with the most modern integrated complexes and weapon systems and provides a highly efficient solution to a wide range of combat missions. When designing a ship, elements of stealth technology were widely introduced, which ensured a reduction in the level of physical fields and, accordingly, the ship's visibility in the respective ranges. The ship is equipped with highly efficient radar, optical and electronic lighting systems for air and surface situations, powerful sonar systems, the latest generation of combat information and control systems, modern integrated radio-electronic warfare and jamming systems, as well as communication complexes.
The composition of the aviation complex provides for the deployment of a helicopter and a stock of aviation fuel. The ship is equipped with a highly economical diesel-gas turbine unit. The control of the power plant, electric power and general ship systems is carried out by the integrated control unit of technical means, equipped with the means of data exchange and being an element of the integrated ship control system.
When designing, much attention is paid to the placement of personnel. The maritime qualities of the frigate allow him to serve in any areas of the oceans, but first of all these ships are intended for the Northern Fleet.
BETTING ON MODULE
The frigate project 22350 "Admiral Gorshkov." Photo courtesy of JSC "Northern PKB"
Another fundamentally new project that is being implemented for the Russian fleet at the Zelenodolsk plant to them. A.M. Gorky, - patrol ships of the far sea zone of the 22160 project (chief designer - Aleksey Naumov). This is the first Russian ship, designed with the use of a modular concept of weapons. Part of it is mounted at the construction stage and does not change during the whole service. The areas and volumes reserved during the repair or modernization can be used to accommodate additional weapons. In addition, there are special places for removable modules for various purposes, which during operation can be changed depending on the tasks. The dimensions of the modules are specially selected for the dimensions of standard sea containers. They can be installed a variety of equipment and weapons: attack missiles, medical modules, anti-mine and diving and rescue complexes and much more. In addition, a helicopter hangar and a stock of aviation fuel are provided on board. The ships of the 22160 project are notable for their good autonomy and seaworthy qualities - with a displacement of 2 KT, they will have the same seaworthiness as the frigate of the 11356 project, which is twice as large in displacement.
The Northern Design Bureau still creates ships for Russian border guards. At the Almaz shipbuilding company and the Eastern shipyard, the serial construction of the border ships of the 22460 project (chief designer - Alexey Naumov) is carried out.
Seven ships: "Ruby", "Brilliant", "Pearl", "Emerald", "Amethyst", "Sapphire" and "Coral" - have already been handed over to the frontier service, the other five are under construction. It is planned to order two more units of the series. For the creation of the project of this ship, the design team was awarded the Prize of the Government of the Russian Federation.
The armament consists of one X-NUMX mm AK-30 artillery mount and two 306 mm Kord machineguns. Such a composition of weapons is sufficient to perform the tasks assigned to the ships of the Rubin class.
One of the main features of the project is the aft landing pad for a light Ka-226 helicopter or a helicopter unmanned aerial vehicle located aft. There is also a multifunctional hangar with a stern slip, where special equipment or high-speed inflatable boats can be placed, for example, for fast delivery of an inspection team to a vessel-intruder. All this significantly expands the functionality of small ships. Today, one project ship serves in the Caspian, four in the Black Sea and two in the Pacific. Rubin class ships can rightly be considered the new generation of patrols. They are well proven during the most stringent tests.
In the development of all modern projects, the most advanced FORAN automated three-dimensional modeling system is being actively applied today. The first models of three premises using this technology were made on the 11356 order. Technological modules of the FORAN system were also acquired, which allow metal cutting for hull structures in automatic and semi-automatic modes and obtaining pipe sketches for automated pipe bending machines.
The first project, made with maximum detail in 3D, is the head frigate of the 22350 project. The introduction of 3D-design and change management based on the 3D-model allowed, for example, to reduce the amount of purchased materials, reduce the number of issues by order of head order, ensure rational and convenient placement of mechanisms and systems in the hull, high maintainability of the ship, short deadlines design and high pace of construction.
For interaction with the construction plant on various issues, an electronic book of questions and answers has been developed. The messaging format allowed to automate communications and increase the speed of decision-making. In 2015, a project for the exchange of design data between a bureau and a construction plant via a secure channel was implemented. This allowed the operational group of the bureau at the plants in Severodvinsk and Zelenodolsk to remain in a single information space with the designers in St. Petersburg. In the future, this will provide the possibility of creating a unified information environment with the construction plant.
LESSONS OF GEOGRAPHY
Special attention should be paid to the topic of foreign trade cooperation between the bureau and foreign customers. Since 1957, ships designed in the Northern Design Bureau have been supplied to Bulgaria, Poland, the GDR, Egypt, Indonesia, Finland and the PRC. These include destroyers of projects 30-bis (30BA, 30BK), 31 and 56А, as well as patrol ships of the project 50. Some of them were built in the People's Republic of China according to the documentation of the Central Design Bureau 53.
Of particular note is the cooperation with the Republic of India. It would not be an exaggeration to say that the creation of the surface navy of India is largely due to the specialists of the Northern Design Bureau. In 1974 – 1976, a bureau based on the national project 61М developed the frigate 61МЭ (chief designer - Alexander Shishkin). The lead frigate of the Rajput series was handed over to the customer in 1981 year, and the last (only five ships) in the 1987. The ships of the 61ME project are currently undergoing modernization, which consists in equipping them with the Indo-Russian anti-ship complex BrahMos, as well as with modern anti-aircraft missile systems.
At the request of the Indian government, the Northern Design Bureau, together with representatives of the Navy, determined the composition of Soviet-made weapons and military equipment for installation on ships designed in India. With the technical assistance of the Russian side, ships of the projects 15, 15А, 16, 16А, 25 and 25А were built and handed over to the fleet at the shipyards of the customer. Since 1999, the Northern Design Bureau has provided technical assistance in the creation of the 17 project by Indian specialists. The transfer of the head frigate Shivalik to the Indian Navy took place on April 21 2010. Such ships will be the basis of the Indian fleet in the first half of the XXI century. At the end of 90, technical documentation was developed for a new frigate of the 11356 project for the Indian fleet (chief designer Vilior Perevalov). Subsequently, two series of three ships each were handed over to the Indian sailors.
In 1999, the patrol-patrol ship of the PS-500 project (chief designer - Valentin Mutikhin) was handed over to the naval forces of the Republic of Vietnam. In 90, in an extremely difficult time for our country, all these orders played a huge role not only for the bureau, but also for the domestic shipbuilding as a whole, allowing us to retain qualified engineering and working personnel. The main merit in this belongs to Vladimir Yukhnin, who at that time held the post of chief and chief designer of the Northern Design Bureau.
The specialists of the Northern PKB and the foundation of the naval forces of the People’s Liberation Army of China created it. At the end of the 80s, a naval doctrine began to be developed in this country. China needed modern technologies that it did not possess. This also applied to naval equipment.
In 1999 – 2000, two squadron destroyers of the 956 project, modified according to the 956E project (chief designer - Igor Rubis) were transferred to the People's Republic of China. The first ship made an unprecedented transition 13 seas and three oceans. At the same time all the equipment behaved immaculately. According to the results of successful cooperation in January 2002, a new contract was signed for the supply of two more destroyers of the 956EM project (chief designer - Valentin Mishin). The ships were built and transferred to the Chinese fleet in 2005 and 2006. At the end of February, 2001 was signed a contract for the provision of technical assistance for the installation of weapon systems and equipment on the Chinese destroyers of the 052В project. The topic is called "968". On ships, a large number of systems installed on ships of the 956 project were used, in connection with this, in the West it was dubbed "Chinese modern." Collaboration was completed in 2005. The 052В project ship became the platform for the design of the already Chinese destroyer of the 052С project. In April, 2002 was signed an intergovernmental agreement and a contract for the provision of technical assistance for the installation of Russian equipment on Chinese destroyers of the 051C project.
In 2004 – 2005, by request of Kazakhstan, the bureau developed a project for the supply boat of the 22180 project (chief designer - Alexey Naumov), designed to deliver cargo and personnel to the Caspian drilling platforms.
Along with the design of ships for the navy, the Northern Design Bureau continues to develop designs for civilian fleets.
Currently, the most promising and knowledge-intensive work in this direction has been the creation of projects of vessels for the transport of liquefied natural gas. Technical and conceptual projects of gas carriers of various capacities were made using different cargo storage systems (chief designer - Dmitry Kiselev). The ships created by the designers of the bureau carry out their hard service in all the fleets of the World Ocean and adequately ensure the defense capability of Russia.
As one of the essential links in the structure of the United Shipbuilding Corporation, the Northern Design Bureau supports and shares its plan for the further development of the domestic shipbuilding industry, the intensification of technical progress in the field of naval armaments and the emergence of Russia as a great maritime power.