In January, 1954, the Soviet defense industry experts held several meetings, during which further plans for the development of new weapons and equipment for the Navy were determined. By this time, a number of major projects had been implemented, which made it possible to come to grips with the creation of promising submarines with ballistic missiles. 26 January issued a resolution of the Council of Ministers, in accordance with which it was required to develop a complex of missile weapons for installation on submarines.
During the first few months, the aim of the work was to assess the existing opportunities and determine the prospects for the project. This stage allowed to determine the basic requirements for the new technology, as well as to shape the appearance of a new missile complex with ballistic missiles. In addition, some design work was carried out to modify existing products that were planned to be used as the basis for a new weapons. In August 1955, the requirements for the new project were formulated and approved by the customer.
The launch of the R-11FM rocket from the submarine of the 629 project. Photo Ruspodplav.ru
The first Russian ballistic missile for submarines was supposed to be the P-11FM product. As a basis for this weapon, it was proposed to take the P-11 rocket, a little earlier adopted by the ground forces. This made it possible to accelerate the development of a new missile system, as well as to a certain extent, simplify mass production and operation. The missile system for submarines based on the P-11FM rocket was named D-1. Its development was entrusted to SRI-88, headed by S.P. The Queen. It should be noted that the rocket for the new complex was chosen before the final requirements were approved. Moreover, by this time, specialists had time to complete a number of basic works.
To use the "land" missile as a submarine armament, it was necessary to modify its design, as well as to create some new components and assemblies. In particular, it was necessary to ensure the normal operation of rockets in sea conditions, as well as to develop new launch systems with appropriate characteristics. Due to the main features of the proposed operation, the completion of the rocket was relatively simple: all that was needed was to seal the hull in order to avoid water and to make some other adjustments. As for the starting devices, in this case it was required to develop a large number of new systems from scratch.
The P-11FM product, which was a modified version of the basic P-11, was a single-stage liquid-ballistic missile. All units were located inside the cylindrical body with a pointed head fairing and X-shaped tail. Separation of the rocket in flight was not envisaged, the head part was not separated. The entire trajectory of the product was to pass as a single unit.
The P-11FM has retained the layout of its predecessors, characteristic of ballistic missiles of the time. The head of the product contained a warhead, the central part was given under the tanks for fuel and oxidizer, and in the tail were the instrument compartment and the engine. To facilitate the design, load-carrying fuel tanks with wall thickness up to 3-3,5 mm were used. In the tail section of the hull there were trapezoidal stabilizers on which graphite gas-dynamic rudders were mounted.
Rocket "earth-to-earth" Р-11 on the transport trolley. Photo Militaryrussia.ru
Rocket for fleet received a C2.235A type liquid engine running on kerosene and nitric acid. To launch, according to some reports, a mixture of TG-02 was used. Consuming 7,9 kg of fuel and 30 kg of oxidizer per second, the engine could develop traction up to 8,3 tons (on the ground). The maximum operating time was 90 s, but in practice the operating time depended on the flight program.
The rocket control system was based on gyroscopic systems. The gyroscopic integrator of longitudinal accelerations L22-5, the gyrovertic L00-3F and the gyro horizon L11-3F were used. The task of this equipment was to monitor changes in the course of the rocket and issuing commands to the steering cars. Like other ballistic missiles of the time, the P-11FM had to be induced by turning the launch pad in the right direction and by entering the necessary data into the automation. After starting, the autopilot and the gyros had to maintain the desired trajectory, as well as at the right time to turn off the engine. After that, the rocket was supposed to go on an uncontrolled flight along a ballistic trajectory.
It was proposed to destroy the target using a special warhead in the form of an RDS-4 charge of 10 power. In addition, according to some sources, a high-explosive warhead could be used. The payload of the P-11FM rocket could reach 1000 kg, however, some of the proposed combat units had less weight.
The P-11FM missile had a length of 10,4 m and a case diameter of 0,88 m. The span of the stabilizer was 1818 mm. The launch weight of the product did not exceed 5350 kg, of which less than 1350 kg was accounted for the design and equipment of the rocket. The tanks fit up to 3700 kg of fuel and oxidizer.
By changing the parameters of the trajectory achieved by adjusting the course and reducing the operating time of the engine, a new type of missile could fly from 46 to 150 km. Some sources mention the possibility of shooting at 160-166 km. The circular deviation when shooting at a maximum range, according to the project requirements, should not exceed 3 km. Further improvement of the guidance systems has significantly improved the accuracy of mass-produced missiles.
To use the new P-11FM ballistic missile, the D-1 launch complex was developed. On the submarine carrier should install a set of special equipment responsible for the storage and launch of the rocket. Systems of the D-1 complex, including with some modifications, were used in several projects of promising submarines.
It was proposed to store the rocket in special vertical mines inside the hull of a submarine. The shaft was supposed to be a sealed container that provides a safe dive. In addition to the rocket in the mine, it was proposed to locate the CM-60 launch pad with a set of fasteners for the product, as well as a lifting device. Due to the lack of the necessary technologies, it was proposed to launch the P-11FM rocket in the surface position of the carrier from the launch pad raised to the mine cut. It was proposed to bring the table with the rocket into position with the help of a special lifting system based on cables.
In preparing the submarine to go to sea, it was proposed to fill the rocket with fuel and oxidizer. In the filled state, the R-11FM missiles could be stored for three months - until the end of the carrier’s combat patrol. The absence of the need to refuel before launching made it possible to significantly speed up the process of preparing the rocket for firing in comparison with previous developments in this field.
Together with the launch systems, the submarine carrier was supposed to receive the Dolomite shipboard calculating device. His task was the calculation and introduction to the automation of the rocket flight program. In addition, as part of this device there was a so-called. pitching alert. This subsystem was to track the position of the submarine in space and determine the optimal time for issuing a command to start the rocket engine. It was assumed that the rocket will start with the minimum possible deviation from the vertical.
The number of missiles on a submarine depended on the type of the latter. Different projects of submarine carriers of the D-1 complex implied the installation of various numbers of mines for the transport of missiles and other special equipment. In addition, different types of submarines could differ from each other in the composition of the additional equipment. Due to the relatively large dimensions of the missiles and the small size of the submarines, the ammunition of serial submarines of new types did not exceed three missiles.
In the spring of 1955, it was decided to transfer the development of a new project to another organization. NII-88 / OKB-1 now had to deal with other systems, and the project of the D-1 complex with the R-11F missile was transferred to SKB-385 (now the State Rocket Center). The new project manager was V.P. Makeev. The Makeev Design Bureau completed the development of a new missile system, and later created a large number of new systems of similar purpose.
At about the same time, the P-11FM project reached the stage of ground tests. Kapustin Yar proving ground became a platform for checking the renewed rocket. According to reports, the first launches were carried out with a stationary launcher. Later, in tests, a swinging stand of the type CM-49 was used. This device imitated the rolling of a submarine carrier and made it possible to check various means of the complex, including the pitching warning. The ideas and solutions applied were justified: the rocket flew even from the bobbing stand without any problems and malfunctions.
Since 1953, the development of a promising submarine, which was to become the first carrier of the D-1 missile system, was underway. The design of this submarine was entrusted to TsKB-16 (now the Malakhit SPMMB), the works were supervised by N.N. Isanin. The base for the submarine with missile weapons was the project "611". The new project received the designation B-611. The new project differed from the basic version by withdrawing a number of components and assemblies, instead of which it was proposed to install new elements of the missile system.
For use as an experienced carrier of rockets, the diesel-electric submarine B-67 of the 611 project, which was accepted into the fleet in the 1953 year, was identified. In the course of the modernization, which began in 1955, the submarine lost all the equipment of the fourth compartment. Dismantled all the devices from the bottom of a solid hull to a solid logging. Structures separating the decks were also removed. In the released volume, both in the hull and in the wheelhouse, they installed new systems for transporting and launching missiles. The submarine received two mines for missiles with a height of 14 m and a diameter of about 2 m. Inside the mines were placed launching tables with mechanisms for lifting to the working position. In addition, various systems were provided for securing the missile in a transport position, preventing its movement.
The capabilities of the upgraded submarine B-67 made it possible to perform surface shooting at sea waves up to 5 points at speeds up to 10-12 nodes. To prepare for launch, the submarine crew was required to carry out a number of special procedures, which took about two hours. In this case, the submarine could remain at depth. Immediately before the launch, it was necessary to emerge and complete the preparation. The lid of the mine opened, and the launch pad with the rocket was raised. The first launch could be done 5 minutes after the ascent. The launch of the second rocket took the same 5 minutes.
15 September 1955, the submarine B-67 for the first time in the world was armed with a ballistic missile. In the conditions of the strictest secrecy in one of the bases of the Northern Fleet, new weapons were loaded into the submarine mines. Soon the submarine went to sea. September 16 in 17: 32 local time in the White Sea area, the world's first launch of a ballistic missile from a submarine took place. Until the end of the year, seven more launches were conducted in the framework of the first stage of testing.
The following year, tests were held, the purpose of which was to test the missile system in a real campaign. For several weeks, the submarine B-67 was on the patrol route and tested the performance of all new systems. According to some information, during this campaign rocket shooting was carried out.
The tests of the P-11FM missiles on the B-67 submarine continued until the 1958 year. During this time, several dozen missile launches were carried out, most of which ended in the successful defeat of conventional targets. According to reports, during the tests were shown increased accuracy characteristics. KVO missiles in practice were significantly lower than estimated. In 65% launches, the deviation did not exceed 1050 m - almost three times better than the required technical task.
According to the results of tests in February 1959, a resolution was issued on adopting the D-1 complex with the R-11FM missile into service with the navy of the Soviet Union. By this time, the Navy had only one submarine capable of carrying new missiles — the B-67 of the B-611 project. Nevertheless, measures have already been taken to significantly increase the submarine group with ballistic missiles.
By the end of the decade, on the basis of existing developments, a new version of the diesel-electric submarine project was created with the designation “AB-611”, which was a further development of the B-611 project. In accordance with this project, at the end of the fifties, an experienced B-67 was upgraded. In addition, the B-611, B-62, B-73, B-78 and B-79 submarines were soon redesigned according to the AB-89 project. Like the B-67, they carried two P-11FM missiles each.
The first launch of the R-11FM rocket from the submarine B-67, 16 in September 1955. Photo Defendingrussia.ru
Since 1956, TsKB-16 has been developing the 629 project. His goal was to create a diesel-electric submarine capable of carrying new types of missiles. Until a certain time, the project was created taking into account the use of only the D-1 complex. In the future, there was a proposal to include in the design of the boats some features that allow them to be upgraded using the promising D-2 complex. Thus, in the distant future, new submarines were able to change their main weapon without any difficulty.
The 629 project meant equipping the submarine with three mines for missiles and related equipment. Relatively long blocks of mines were placed inside a solid hull and cabin. In addition, there was a characteristic projection bottom. Due to a slight improvement in design compared to existing projects, the “629” type boats had higher characteristics in terms of launching rockets. So, the possibility of firing at waves to 5 points was preserved, and the maximum speed at the time of launch increased to 15 nodes. Prelaunch preparation in an underwater position took only an hour. It took 4 minutes to launch a rocket after ascent. The full salvo took 12 minutes, after which the submarine could go deep.
The head submarine of the 629 project, the B-92, was laid in the autumn of the 1957 of the year. The fleet received it at the very end of 1959. Until the end of 1962, a new type of submarine was built and transferred to the 23 customer. All of them were distributed between the main operational-strategic associations of the Navy of the USSR.
The construction of new submarines allowed the Soviet Union to deploy a full-fledged grouping of submarine forces with ballistic missiles. With some reservations, the AB-611 and 629 boat can be considered the first domestic strategic missile-launched submarine cruisers. Despite the relatively short range in 150 km, the P-11FM rocket was able to hit various important ground targets on the territory of a potential enemy using nuclear warheads.
The operation of the 29 submarines with the D-1 missile system continued until the 1967 year. During this time, the crews performed 77 launches, 59 firing was declared successful. However, only three launches ended in an accident for technical reasons. Seven more failed because of personnel errors, including in the determination of the coordinates of the submarine, and the causes of the eight could not be determined.
The D-1 complex with the R-11FM missile was removed from service in 1967. The reason for the rejection of these systems was the emergence of new weapons with higher characteristics. First of all, the replacement of existing systems was carried out using D-2 systems with P-13 missiles. So, the submarines of the 629 project were initially developed with regard to possible re-equipment, and in the mid-sixties such plans were implemented. Over the next few years, the former carriers of the R-11FM missiles used the weapons of the new model.
The result of the D-1 / P-11FM project was the emergence of the first in our country and in the world of a ballistic missile suitable for use on submarines. In terms of basic characteristics (for example, in range, which did not exceed 150-160 km), the P-11FM was inferior to similar ground-based systems, however, even with the available parameters, it was quite a powerful weapon. The submarine carrier could secretly pass into a given area and deliver a nuclear missile strike on the coastal target at a considerable distance. The appearance of such submarines significantly increased the strike potential of the fleet, and also made it an element of strategic nuclear forces.
By modern standards, the D-1 missile system was not distinguished by high performance. However, for its time it was a real breakthrough in the field of naval armaments. The project of the D-1 complex with the R-11FM rocket not only proved the fundamental possibility of equipping the submarines with ballistic missiles, but also led to the re-equipment of submarine forces. The D-1 / P-11FM project was the first representative of its class and launched many new developments that are still used to ensure the strategic security of the country.
Shirokorad A.B. Weapons of the domestic fleet. 1945-2000. - Minsk: “Harvest”, 2001