Military Review

Tsar's surplus

51



The surplus is traditionally associated with the first years of Soviet power and the extreme conditions of the Civil War, but in Russia it appeared under the imperial government long before the Bolsheviks.

"Wheat and flour crisis"

Since the beginning of the First World War, the basic necessities have risen in price in Russia, prices for which have increased by two to three times by 1916. The prohibition of governors on the export of food from the provinces, the introduction of fixed prices, the distribution of cards and purchases by local authorities did not improve the situation. Cities suffered severe food shortages and high prices. The essence of the crisis was clearly presented in a memorandum of the Voronezh Exchange Committee to a meeting at the Moscow Stock Exchange in September 1916. She stated that market relations had penetrated into the village. The peasantry was able to sell less important items of production for a high price and at the same time hold bread for a rainy day because of the uncertainty of the outcome of the war and increasing mobilization. At the same time, the urban population suffered. "We consider it necessary to pay special attention to the fact that the wheat and flour crisis would have come much earlier if trade and industry didn’t have a certain reserve of wheat in the form of the next cargo lying at railway stations waiting for loading from 1915. and even with 1914, the stockbrokers wrote, “and if the Ministry of Agriculture did not release wheat mills from its stock in 1916 ... and that was intended in a timely manner, not for the population’s food, but for other purposes." The note firmly expressed confidence that a solution to the crisis that threatened the whole country could only be found in a complete change in the country's economic policy and the mobilization of the national economy. Such plans have been repeatedly expressed by various public and state organizations. The situation demanded radical economic centralization and the involvement of all public organizations in the work.

Introduction of the surplus


However, at the end of 1916, the authorities, not daring to change, confined themselves to a plan for mass requisition of grain. The free purchase of bread was replaced by the surplus between the producers. The size of the attire was set by the chairperson of the special meeting in accordance with the yield and size of stocks, as well as the consumption standards of the province. Responsibility for the collection of bread was assigned to the provincial and district councils. Through local surveys, it was necessary to find out the right amount of bread, subtract it from the total attire for the county, and spread the rest between the volosts that were supposed to bring the size of the dress to every rural society. Distribution of orders by county councils should have been held by December 14, by December 20, outfits for the townships, those by December 24, for rural societies and, finally, by December each 31 every household should have known about their attire. The withdrawal was entrusted to the district authorities together with the ombudsmen.


A farmer during a plow Photo: RIA News

Having received a circular, the Voronezh Provincial Government convened a meeting of the chairmen of the Zemstvo councils on December 6-7 of December 1916, at which the layout was worked out and the outfits were calculated in the counties. The council was tasked with developing schemes and volost lists. At the same time, the question of the impracticability of the dress was raised. According to the telegram of the Ministry of Agriculture, the province was overlaid with a distribution in 46.951 thousand pounds: rye 36.47 thousand, wheat 3.882 thousand, millet 2.43, oats 4.169 thousand. At the same time, the minister warned that an additional distribution could be made due to an increase in the army, therefore " I present to you now to increase the number of loaves designated by point 1 in the list, and in the case of an increase by at least 10%, I undertake not to include your province in a possible additional list. " This meant that the plan rises to 51 million pounds.

The calculations carried out by the zemstvos showed that the complete implementation of the development is associated with the withdrawal of almost all the bread from the peasants: then there was only 1,79 million pounds of rye left in the province, and wheat was threatened with a deficit of 5 million. This amount could hardly be enough for consumption and the new sowing of bread, not to mention the feed of livestock, which in the province, according to an approximate calculation, there were more than 1,3 million heads. Zemstvos noted: "In record years, the province gave 30 millions throughout the year, and now it is supposed to take 50 millions during 8 months, moreover a year with a below-average crop and provided that the population not confident in sowing and harvesting the future harvest, can't help but strive to make stocks. " Considering that the railway lacked 20% wagons, and this problem was not solved at all, the meeting considered: "All these considerations lead to the conclusion that collecting the above amount of bread is in fact impracticable." The zemstvo noted that the ministry had calculated the list, clearly not based on the statistics presented to it. Of course, this was not the accidental bad luck of the province - a similar rough calculation, which did not take into account the real state of affairs, concerned the whole country. As it was found out from a survey of the Union of Cities in January 1917: “the bread was distributed in the provinces from what calculation, sometimes with nothing incongruous, placing a completely unbearable burden on some gubernias”. This alone indicated that the plan could not be fulfilled. At the December meeting in Kharkov, the head of the provincial government VN. Tomanovsky tried to prove it to the Minister of Agriculture A.A. Rittih, to which he replied: "Yes, all this may be so, but such an amount of bread is needed for the army and for factories working for defense, since this distribution only covers these two needs ... we need to give it and give it are required. "

Also, the meeting informed the ministry that “there are neither material resources nor means of influence on unwilling to comply with the conditions of the distribution”, therefore the meeting proceeded to give them the right to open svypnyh points and requisition premises for them. In addition, in order to preserve fodder for the army, the meeting asked to cancel the provincial outfits for cake. These considerations were sent to the authorities, but had no effect. As a result, the Voronezh residents had a distribution, and even with the recommended increase in 10%.

The deployment will be completed!


The Voronezh provincial assembly due to the amusement of the chairmen of the county governments, who were engaged in collecting grain in the villages, was postponed from January 15 1917 to February 5, and then to February 26. But even this number quorum did not take place - instead of 30 people. 18 gathered. 10 people sent a telegram that they could not arrive at the congress. Chairman of the Zemsky Assembly A.I. Alekhine was forced to ask those who had appeared not to leave Voronezh, hoping that a quorum would meet. It was only at the March 1 meeting that it was decided to "immediately" begin collecting. This meeting also behaved in a dual way. After an exchange of views on the proposal of the representative of the Valuysk district S.A. Blinov’s meeting worked out a resolution for reporting to the government, in which he actually recognized his demands as impracticable: "The size of the outfit given to the Voronezh governorate is undoubtedly excessively exaggerated and virtually impossible ... since its full implementation would have led to the withdrawal of the entire bread without residue. " The meeting again pointed out the lack of fuel for grinding bread, bread bags, the collapse of the railway. However, references to all these obstacles ended in that the assembly, submitting to the highest authority, promised that the "common joint efforts of the population and its representatives - in the person of Zemstvo figures" will be done. So, contrary to the facts, those "extremely resolute, optimistic statements of the official and official press" that accompanied, according to contemporaries, the campaign were supported.


Chairman of the Voronezh district council assembly A.I. Alekhin. Photo: Homeland / provided by the author

However, it is difficult to say how real the assurances of the zemstvos were about the withdrawal of "all the bread without a trace" in the case of full implementation of the distribution. It was no secret to anyone that there was bread in the province. But its concrete amount was unknown — as a result, the zemstvos were forced to derive figures from the agricultural census data in their hands, consumption and seeding standards, farm yields, etc. At the same time, the bread of previous harvests was not taken into account, since, according to the administration, he had already gone for consumption. Although this opinion seems controversial, given that many contemporaries mention the grain stocks of the peasants and the markedly increased level of their well-being in the war, other facts confirm that the lack of bread in the village clearly existed. Voronezh city shops were regularly besieged by poor peasants from the suburbs and even other volosts. In the Korotoyak district, according to the reports, the peasants said: "We ourselves would hardly get the bread, but the landowners of the landowners have a lot of bread and a lot of cattle, but they have requisitioned little cattle, and therefore they should requisition more bread and cattle." Even the most prosperous Valuisky district provided itself largely due to the delivery of grain from the Kharkiv and Kursk gubernias. When supplies were banned from there, the position of the county deteriorated markedly. Obviously, the problem is in the social stratification of the village, in which the poor of the village suffered no less than the poor of the city. In any case, the implementation of the government’s plan for the distribution was impossible: there was no organized apparatus for collecting and recording bread, the layout was arbitrary, there was not enough material resources for collecting and storing grain, the railway crisis was not resolved. Moreover, the surplus, aimed at supplying the army and factories, did not solve the problem of supplying cities, which, while reducing the stocks of grain in the province, was only supposed to escalate.

According to the plan, in January 1917 the province had to hand over 13,45 million pounds of grain: of these, 10 million pounds of rye, 1,25 - wheat, 1,4 - oats, 0,8 - millet; as much was supposed to prepare in February. To collect grain, the provincial zemstvo organized 120 collection points, 10 per county, located 50-60 versts from each other, most of which were to open in February. Difficulties began already during the layout: Zadonsky district assumed only a part of the order (instead of 2,5 million pounds of rye - 0.7 million, and instead of 422 thousand pounds of millet - 188), and of the defined pounds of bread into February, 1,76 million pounds of bread were unrolled by February 0,5 million. The deployment of the parish by the parish was released from the control of the administration due to the lack of reliable communication with the villages, so the case there was much delayed.

"A whole series of parishes completely refuses ... the distribution"


Already during the period of procurement, the Zemstvo was skeptical about their result: "At least, the reports from some counties already convince this, firstly, that a number of volosts completely refuse any distribution, and, secondly, and in those volosts where the distribution was made by the volost assemblies completely - later on, with a settled and household distribution, it becomes impossible to carry it out. " The sale was unimportant. Even in Valuysky district, which was the smallest layout, and the population was in the best position, things went badly - many peasants insisted that they did not have that much bread. Where bread was, laws were dictated by speculation. In one village, the peasants agreed to sell wheat at 1,9 rubles. for a pood, but soon they secretly abandoned it: “Then it happened that the respondents to the proposal of the authorities did not have time to get money for the delivered bread, as they heard that the fixed price for wheat had risen from 1 ruble 40 kop. to 2 rub. 50 cop Thus, the more patriotic peasants will receive less for bread than those who have kept it in. Now the peasants are so convinced that the more they keep their bread, the more the government will increase firm prices and the local bosses do not need at Ery, since they only deceive the people. "


Md Ershov, in 1915-1917 and about. Governor of the Voronezh Province. Photo: Homeland / provided by the author

The procurement campaign was not backed by real means of execution. The government tried to overcome this with threats. On February 24, Rittikh sent a telegram to Voronezh, ordering, first of all, to proceed with the requisition of grain in the villages that most stubbornly did not want to perform a pattern. At the same time, it was necessary to leave on the farm one pood of grain per capita before harvesting a new crop, but no later than the first of September, as well as for spring sowing of fields according to the norms established by the county council and for feeding the livestock - according to the standards established by the authorized person (even mismatch of actions). Governor MD Ershov, fulfilling the demands of the authorities, on the same day sent out telegrams to the county district councils, in which he demanded to immediately start deliveries of bread. If the delivery does not start within three days, the authorities were instructed to proceed with requisitions “with a decrease in the fixed price of 15 percent and, in case of failure of the owners to deliver the bread to the receiving point, less the transportation cost”. The government has not provided any specific directives on the implementation of these instructions. Meanwhile, such actions required the provision of an extensive network of the executive apparatus, which was absent from the zemstvos. It is not surprising that, for their part, they did not attempt to be zealous in the performance of a deliberately hopeless enterprise. Ershov's order from December 6 to render the police "every possible assistance" to the collection of bread did not help much. V.N. Tomanovsky, who was usually very strictly in the public interest, took a moderate tone at the March 1 meeting: "From my point of view, we need to collect bread, as far as possible, without resorting to any drastic measures, it will be some plus to that amount of stocks which we have. It is possible that the movement of the railway will improve, a greater number of cars will appear ... to take drastic measures in the sense that "let, carry, by all means," it would seem inexpedient. "

"The deployment undertaken by the Ministry of Agriculture has definitely failed"

Mv Rodzianko wrote to the emperor just before the revolution: “The development undertaken by the Ministry of Agriculture definitely failed. Here are the figures characterizing the latter’s progress. It was supposed to deploy 772 million poods. Of these, 23 January was theoretically expanded: 1) provincial zemstvos 643 million poods. E. On 129 million pounds less than expected, 2) county zemstvos 228 million poods. And finally, 3) volosts only 4 million poods. These figures indicate a complete collapse of the distribution ... ".


State Duma Chairman M.V. Rodzianko was forced to state that the surplus, started by the Ministry of Agriculture, failed. Photo: Bibliothèque nationale de France

By the end of February, 1917, the province not only failed to fulfill the plan, but also failed to deliver to 20 million pounds of grain. Collected bread, as was evident from the very beginning, could not be taken out. As a result, 5,5 million pounds of grain accumulated on the railway, which the district committee pledged to take out no earlier than in two and a half months. No wagons for unloading, no fuel for the locomotives were registered. It was impossible even to transport flour to dryers or grain for grinding, as the committee did not deal with internal flights. Yes, and fuel for the mills, too, was not, because of what many of them were idle or preparing to stop work. The last attempt of the autocracy to solve the food problem failed because of the inability and unwillingness to solve a complex of real economic problems in the country and the lack of the state centralized control of the economy necessary in wartime conditions.

This problem was inherited by the Provisional Government, which followed the old path. Already after the revolution, at the meeting of the Voronezh Prokkommittee 12 in May, the Minister of Agriculture A.I. Shingarev said that the province had failed to deliver 17 from 30 million pounds of grain: "It is necessary to decide: how right is the central administration ... and how successful is the implementation of the attire, and can there be a significant excess of attire?" This time, the members of the administration, clearly having fallen into optimism of the first revolutionary months, assured the minister that "the mood of the population was already defined in the sense of bringing up grain" and "with the active participation" of the pro-auction, the order would be fulfilled. In July, 1917 outfits were performed on 47%, in August - on 17%. There is no reason to suspect local leaders, loyal to the revolution, of lack of zeal. But the future showed that this time the promise of the Zemstvo was not fulfilled. Objectively, the situation in the country — the economy’s withdrawal from the state’s control and the impossibility of regulating the processes in the village — put an end to the well-intentioned efforts of local authorities.

Notes
1. Voronezh Telegraph. 1916. N 221. 11 October.
2. Journals of the Voronezh Provincial Zemsky Assembly of the regular session 1916 of the year (February 28 - March 4 1917). Voronezh, 1917. L. 34-34
3. State Archive of the Voronezh Region (GAVO). F. And-21. Op. 1. D. 2323. L. 23ob.-25.
4. Journals of the Voronezh Provincial Zemstvo Assembly. L. 43ob.
5. Sidorov A.L. The economic situation in Russia during the First World War. M., 1973. C. 489.
6. Gavo. F. And-21. Op. 1. D. 2225. L. 14ob.
7. Journals of the Voronezh Provincial Zemstvo Assembly. L. 35, 44-44ob.
8. Voronezh Telegraph. 1917. N 46. 28 February.
9. Voronezh Telegraph. 1917. N 49. 3 March.
10. Sidorov A.L. Decree. cit. C. 493.
11. P.A. Popov Voronezh city government. 1870-1918. Voronezh, 2006. C. 315.
12. Gavo. F. And-1. Op. 1. D. 1249. L.7
13. Voronezh Telegraph. 1917. N 39. 19 February.
14. Voronezh Telegraph. 1917. N 8. 11 January.
15. Voronezh Telegraph. 1917. N 28. 4 February.
16. Gavo. F. And-21. Op.1. D. 2323. L. 23ob.-25.
17. Voronezh Telegraph. 1917. N 17. 21 January.
18. Gavo. F. And-1. Op. 2. D. 1138. L. 419.
19. Gavo. F. And-6. Op. 1. D. 2084. L. 95-97.
20. Gavo. F. And-6. Op.1. D. 2084. L. 9.
21. Gavo. F. And-21. Op. 1. D. 2323. L. 15ob.
22. Note M.V. Rodzianki // Red archive. 1925. T. 3. C. 69.
23. Bulletin of the Voronezh district zemstvo. 1917. N 8. 24 February.
24. Gavo. F. And-21. Op. 1. D. 2323. L. 15.
25. Bulletin of the Voronezh Provincial Food Committee. 1917. N 1. 16 June.
26. Voronezh Telegraph. 1917. N 197. 13 September.
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 1 May 2016 07: 58
    +3
    Thank you, it’s very interesting .. As an example, the Voronezh land-black earth, and what the situation was in the non-black earth, on the national outskirts ...
  2. vladimirvn
    vladimirvn 1 May 2016 08: 37
    +7
    In, in! And then all the dogs for the invention of food surplus, were hung on the Bolsheviks. Reforms must be carried out in a timely manner, and then repressive measures will not be needed.
    1. AK64
      AK64 1 May 2016 09: 55
      +10
      In, in! And then all the dogs for the invention of food surplus, were hung on the Bolsheviks.


      You will not believe, the royal government has also invented the Cheka.
      Yes, yes: under the king-priest there were many emergency commissions и emergency committees

      They are all bastards. Yes Yes.
      1. sherp2015
        sherp2015 1 May 2016 10: 04
        -5
        Quote: AK64
        You will not believe, the royal government has also invented the Cheka.


        The check seems to be translated from the Hebrew "Slaughterhouse for cattle"
        1. Nagaibak
          Nagaibak 1 May 2016 12: 00
          +1
          sherp2015 "The check seems to be translated from the Jewish" Slaughterhouse for cattle "
          The site of the Jews is full. You would ask them how the slaughter for livestock is translated.))) There is nothing complicated about it.))) And then they would write.))) The minus is not mine.
          1. sherp2015
            sherp2015 2 May 2016 07: 57
            +4
            Quote: Nagaibak
            The site of the Jews is full. You would ask them how the slaughter for livestock is translated.))) There is nothing complicated about it.))) And then you would write.


            As for "asking around" it is you somehow yourself, you are more used to it. To believe the "chosen of God" who, over the course of several millennia, have learned to lie fantastically, honestly and faithfully looking into the eyes of the goyim - you will excuse me.
            All Fenya (prison jargon) is their invention.
            1. shasherin.pavel
              shasherin.pavel 2 May 2016 20: 24
              0
              Quote: sherp2015
              Whole fenya

              these are words taken from other languages ​​of the Russian population, which is Mordovian norm, for the moderator is a mate and an insult.
        2. Nikolaevich I
          Nikolaevich I 1 May 2016 15: 22
          +1
          And where did you get such large "cockroaches"? belay Doesn't "Cheka" (in your pronunciation!) Mean: "Extraordinary Commission"?
          1. sherp2015
            sherp2015 2 May 2016 07: 59
            -1
            Quote: Nikolaevich I
            And where did you get such large "cockroaches"? Doesn't "Cheka" (in your pronunciation!) Mean: "Extraordinary Commission"?


            This is in YOUR pronunciation
            1. Nikolaevich I
              Nikolaevich I 2 May 2016 12: 41
              +1
              No need to "blame" your sick head on my healthy ...
      2. Awaz
        Awaz 2 May 2016 11: 57
        +2
        Well, the fact that the Stalinist "troikas" were borrowed from tsarist times is real. If I am not mistaken, then during the Stolypin reform, so-called courts were created from among officers to suppress riots, so that the verdict would be delivered at a speedy pace without any burden. But unlike Stalin's times, there were not even lawyers there. Just a few officers of the punitive detachments sentenced the men. Well, at least they did not kill so many people. Although they may have provoked the revolution along with all the problems
    2. Vladimirets
      Vladimirets 1 May 2016 14: 49
      +5
      Quote: vladimirvn
      And then all the dogs for the invention of food surplus, were hung on the Bolsheviks.

      The peasants were robbed of everything, at all times and in all countries. As history shows, those who produce the most valuable for the rest - food, that is, the very opportunity to live, have always been the most disenfranchised. yes
    3. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 1 May 2016 15: 16
      +1
      Well, here's another "explanation" on the topic: why did the revolution happen? "
  3. AK64
    AK64 1 May 2016 09: 53
    -14%
    This "article" is an example of a typical communist lie and fraud, when completely different things are called by the same word.

    So, for example, the word sabotage the Communists simply called ... refusal to perform work (that is, generally speaking, the inalienable right of any employee). With all over the world sabotage -- this intentional damage and destruction of structures and equipment.

    Therefore, in order to somehow name these actions, that is, the destruction of structures, the communists began to use the word "sabotage". But all over the world, all normal people, sabotage is called banal distracting operation. (Or a distraction in general)
    1. Verdun
      Verdun 1 May 2016 11: 41
      +12
      This "article" is an example of a typical communist lie and rigging, when completely different things are called by the same word
      And in many countries, the word "democracy" means the folk rule of government. At the same time, they somehow forget to mention that democracy is different. Bourgeois and communist, monarchical, as in Great Britain, and even slaveholding, as in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. Arguments about the advantages of "democracy in general" are demagoguery. And what you are doing, forgive me, is also demagoguery.
      1. Beefeater
        Beefeater 1 May 2016 12: 34
        -5
        Quote: Verdun
        This "article" is an example of a typical communist lie and rigging, when completely different things are called by the same word
        And in many countries, under the word "democracy" At the same time, they somehow forget to mention that democracy is different. Bourgeois and communist, monarchical, as in Great Britain, and even slaveholding, as in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. Arguments about the advantages of "democracy in general" are demagoguery. And what you are doing, forgive me, is also demagoguery.

        Sorry, communist democracy - what is this? I perfectly remember the election with 99% of those who voted for Brezhnev
        1. Verdun
          Verdun 1 May 2016 12: 38
          +8
          Sorry, communist democracy - what is this? I perfectly remember the election with 99% of those who voted for Brezhnev
          As the centuries-old experience of human activity shows, you can distort any, even the most beautiful idea. But this is an occasion to get rid of perverts, and not at all from the idea itself.
        2. lelikas
          lelikas 1 May 2016 15: 03
          +3
          Quote: Beefeater
          Sorry, communist democracy - what is this? I perfectly remember the election with 99% of those who voted for Brezhnev

          There were good choices, with free pies and compote in the buffet :).
          I wrote somewhere already - but, in the last election, one acquaintance, for a small share - had to go to the polls and vote for edro - it was not required - they all overfulfilled.
        3. Verdun
          Verdun 3 May 2016 17: 46
          +1
          I perfectly remember the election with 99% of those who voted for Brezhnev
          Interestingly, 99 percent is how? LI Brezhnev was the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and Secretary of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU. Within these governing bodies, the actual elections for these positions took place. Since the composition of the Politburo and the Armed Forces never reached 100 people, do you assume that someone voted for Leonid Ilyich "partially"? laughing
    2. V.ic
      V.ic 1 May 2016 22: 24
      -1
      Quote: AK64
      Despite the fact that throughout the world sabotage is

      Pa'r'don musyu, and what, "clogs" were worn all over the world?
    3. gladcu2
      gladcu2 3 May 2016 19: 02
      +2
      AK64

      It's good that you wrote there is someone to argue with.

      The communists revived the state and created a practically new country. They knew exactly what they needed to do. And they did everything with a high degree of efficiency.

      The tsarist monarchy had a constant dilemma. On the one hand, there are taxes that must be collected, squeezed from the landowner. On the other hand, there is a state which constantly lacks funds for the maintenance of the army and other institutions. And the landowner, if he didn’t sell the surplus, would conceal and destroy. So the monarchy had to go for food distribution.

      What at one time did the Communists, who got the killer and a dull country.

      They gave the land to the peasants, gave the factories to the workers. Landowners and industrialists were removed as an unnecessary parasitic element between the producer of the resource and the state.

      Once the Bolsheviks had to take advantage of the food service. Russia has a risky farming zone. The resource was not enough. But later on, the communists forcibly drove the peasants into collective farms as large farms could pay for the services of machine and tractor stations and plow more land. Food problems are a thing of the past. And they never returned.
  4. vladimirvn
    vladimirvn 1 May 2016 10: 10
    +3
    The tsarist regime rotted, and from that it collapsed. But to hold power, it’s not in the Duma to sharpen the line, as the liberal bourgeois parties did at one time. The Bolsheviks took power and revived the country. Good or bad, it depends on whose taste. But the country! You need to chat less, but work more!
    1. Basil50
      Basil50 1 May 2016 11: 40
      +8
      How are you not ashamed to call * liberals and tiligents * to work. Verbal pon.s basis of liberalism and democracy, and YOU * work *. Their gentle spiritual * constructions * do not tolerate, well, any violence and rudeness. All * these * then in the Volga region created KOMUCH (committee of the constituent assembly), and so much blood poured that the Allies began to shoot them, and the remains were destroyed by Kolchak.
    2. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak 1 May 2016 12: 09
      +6
      vladimirvn "The tsarist regime was rotten, and that's why it collapsed."
      Why are you writing this? Everyone knows that commies are to blame for everything.)))) But the whites were honor and conscience, and so on. Everything, everyone came up with the reds and concentration camps and food surpluses and an 8-hour working day ... Although no, I got excited with the latter.)) )
      Here is what they had. Now this is already gone or has not yet been removed. But, I think soon there will be nothing left. God forbid, an 8-hour working day will remain.)) Under item 10, disputes may arise))), but otherwise everything is true.
    3. Beefeater
      Beefeater 1 May 2016 12: 36
      -10%
      Quote: vladimirvn
      The tsarist regime rotted, and from that it collapsed. But to hold power, it’s not in the Duma to sharpen the line, as the liberal bourgeois parties did at one time. The Bolsheviks took power and revived the country. Good or bad, it depends on whose taste. But the country! You need to chat less, but work more!

      We will not stand for the price
      Drove tens of millions to the ground
      Spawn
      1. MrK
        MrK 1 May 2016 12: 49
        +8
        Quote: Beefeater
        Drove tens of millions to the ground


        And how many million people drove your filthy liberals into the earth.
        1. 97110
          97110 1 May 2016 13: 57
          +4
          Quote: mrark
          And how many million people drove your filthy liberals into the earth.

          And not in the inflamed (from the search for the Chekist under the bed) brain of Novodvorskaya, but in front of our eyes, during the reporting 24 years of the triumph of the power of the American people (democracy)? No wonder Uncle Sam awarded the HMS medal. And the Nobel committee equated the maxim to it. How great are the services of some "patriots" to their United States! In the destruction of the people who trusted him!
        2. Beefeater
          Beefeater 1 May 2016 22: 55
          -8
          Quote: mrark
          Quote: Beefeater
          Drove tens of millions to the ground


          And how many million people drove your filthy liberals into the earth.

          Really, how much?
          How many disappeared in basements and camps for an anecdote? We now live at least in the world. Your communists fought in Vietnam and Angola and in Somalia, Ethiopia, Egypt, Libya, Afghanistan, all over the world, generously paying for their stupid claims to the world "proletarian" revolution with Russian blood

          One WWII cost 25 million
          1. gladcu2
            gladcu2 3 May 2016 20: 29
            +2
            Beefeater

            The fact that the USSR took part in wars, so the USSR never plundered those countries to which it came.

            The USSR waged this war in defense of its national interests. After all, there was another side, which encroached on the interests of the USSR.

            When the USSR left, wars only intensified.
          2. sergnow
            sergnow 9 May 2016 05: 17
            0
            Fool, all of the above is unleashed by you and only by them! And you are really just a fucking bastard.
      2. 97110
        97110 1 May 2016 13: 51
        0
        Quote: Beefeater
        We will not stand for the price

        How much are you selling? At what rate are your pieces of silver on the US dollar?
      3. Awaz
        Awaz 2 May 2016 12: 00
        0
        if now it is real to begin to fight corruption and "pests" by the same methods that were done under the king or early communes, then there will be no less victims. Those who have deserved two meters underground have accumulated too.
    4. Aleksander
      Aleksander 2 May 2016 09: 39
      -5
      Quote: vladimirvn
      The tsarist regime rotted, and from that it collapsed. The Bolsheviks took power and revived the country

      Bolshevik owls rotted power, and that collapsed. And it was rotten initially.
    5. The comment was deleted.
    6. gladcu2
      gladcu2 3 May 2016 20: 15
      0
      Vladimir vn.

      A good country was created by the communists. Removed the extra parasitic element in the form of owners of large property between the state and production forces.

      Therefore, they hate the Communists.

      If God created the world, then the Communists revived and saved it.

      The only problem was this.

      The communists used ideology to revive the country.

      Ideology is an artificially and forcibly changed morality.

      If ordinary morality is a way of survival, then communist morality-ideology required all efforts to devote to the development of the state to the detriment of personal interests.

      Like any ideology, ideology tends to be reborn, returns back to ordinary morality.

      Among the Communists appeared degenerates, who sold the state from top to bottom.

      That is why one must be extremely careful with ideology.

      Ideology revives the country but can also kill.
  5. Verdun
    Verdun 1 May 2016 10: 52
    +7
    Quote: vladimirvn
    The Bolsheviks took power and revived the country. Good or bad, it depends on whose taste. But the country!
    I fully agree with this statement. According to the comments of those who are nostalgic for tsarist Russia, one often gets the impression that in 1917 the villains destroyed almost an exemplary state. At the same time, each of these people apparently believes that in tsarist Russia he would certainly have been at least a middle-aged landowner or manufacturer. Well, at the worst, a prosperous peasant. Well, how would it turn out to be horseless?
    1. Beefeater
      Beefeater 1 May 2016 12: 43
      -3
      Quote: Verdun
      Quote: vladimirvn
      The Bolsheviks took power and revived the country. Good or bad, it depends on whose taste. But the country!
      I fully agree with this statement. According to the comments of those who are nostalgic for tsarist Russia, one often gets the impression that in 1917 the villains destroyed almost an exemplary state. At the same time, each of these people apparently believes that in tsarist Russia he would certainly have been at least a middle-aged landowner or manufacturer. Well, at the worst, a prosperous peasant. Well, how would it turn out to be horseless?

      What are you speaking about ?
      Compare how peasants live in Russia and Finland
      But starting opportunities in Russia were higher
      And climate and industrial development.
      1. Verdun
        Verdun 1 May 2016 12: 51
        +2
        What are you speaking about ?
        Compare how peasants live in Russia and Finland
        But starting opportunities in Russia were higher
        And climate and industrial development.
        I don’t understand what are you talking about? What are you comparing with? The population of Finland is less than the population of Moscow. This country contains neither a serious army, nor a huge oligarchic superstructure. And if in the seventies you would have ended up in any of the Baltic republics, you would easily have discovered that the locals live no worse than in Finland ...
        1. 97110
          97110 1 May 2016 14: 02
          +2
          Quote: Verdun
          I don’t understand what you are talking about?

          And this is a troll. Hopes on its 30 pieces of silver. Yesterday appeared, look how cheerfully the training manual implements.
          1. Verdun
            Verdun 1 May 2016 14: 27
            +1
            look how cheerfully the training manual implements.
            The manual is painfully illiterate. They used to be more solid.
          2. Stena
            Stena 1 May 2016 14: 49
            +2
            Quote: 97110
            And this is a troll. Hopes on its 30 pieces of silver.

            From the fact that it is written no matter how follows.
            What exactly is trollism expressed in this case in your opinion?
            I see the following - the person expressed his opinion. No insults, no transition to personality. Why are you minus a person?
            1. terehvlad
              terehvlad 3 May 2016 23: 19
              0
              We have a democracy, we want and minus. And for what - it takes a long time to explain. Wasserman is on YouTube, he reads a whole book "Why is socialism better than capitalism"
          3. Beefeater
            Beefeater 1 May 2016 23: 04
            -5
            not silver coins but wooden rubles. With Lenin, for whom you can’t buy anything.
        2. Anglorussian
          Anglorussian 1 May 2016 22: 18
          +3
          At seventy in Britain, in the families of workers, people took turns bathing in a hot tub, and in our winter balconies were open-heated.
          no worse than in Finland
        3. Beefeater
          Beefeater 1 May 2016 23: 02
          0
          Quote: Verdun
          What are you speaking about ?
          Compare how peasants live in Russia and Finland
          But starting opportunities in Russia were higher
          And climate and industrial development.
          I don’t understand what are you talking about? What are you comparing with? The population of Finland is less than the population of Moscow. This country contains neither a serious army, nor a huge oligarchic superstructure. And if in the seventies you would have ended up in any of the Baltic republics, you would easily have discovered that the locals live no worse than in Finland ...

          Exactly
          There, in the Baltics, at the expense of Central Russia, they created a showcase of "socialism" I'm talking about the fact that despite the enormous resources, the USSR never created acceptable living conditions for its people
      2. The centurion
        The centurion 1 May 2016 16: 49
        0
        Quote: Beefeater
        Compare how peasants live in Russia and Finland

        Finns live in Finland. They know how to count money. The standard of living, first of all, does not depend on the social system, but on the qualities of the individual owner. However, for the average Russian person, this postulate is a virtually unknown Chinese alphabet. In Europe, on average, about 80% of households have a family budget and bookkeeping, while in our country 80% of households do not even know what it is. We like to tell jokes about the Chukchi, and in Germany about us. Here is a typical, you can say the most harmless. They ask a Russian and a German: “Do you have a family budget?” Both make their eyes at 7 cents, but for a completely different reason. The Russian says: “Why?” The German says: "But how can it be otherwise?"
        When I started working in 2008 in Romania under a contract, I was shocked by the following circumstance. Romanians then received even less than in Russia, but they lived better. It was western Romania, which was formerly Austria-Hungary. The locals have explained to me, they love the plan and account. And then I think. After all, he himself could guess. For many years of work in the steelmaking workshop, where people have been getting roughly the same, and not small, salaries for decades, I could personally observe the enormous amplitude in the standard of living of different people because of their different economic qualities. For the most part, Russians, in the sense of economics, are a people surprisingly careless and stupid, even an educated layer. About the strata are uncultured and uneducated, and there is nothing to say, in their heads and pockets there is a complete financial mess and mess.
        1. Anglorussian
          Anglorussian 1 May 2016 22: 06
          +3
          Well, the British consider money for the most part do not know how, and nothing, they live.
          Finns live. They can count money
      3. gladcu2
        gladcu2 3 May 2016 20: 22
        0
        Beefeater

        Each country is unique in its own way.

        One cannot directly compare Russia and Finland. There are features.

        One thing is clear. The USSR had the best state in the world and at the moment there are no similar states.

        Such an incredible level of social protection so far that no one has created. Even with the modern development of technology.

        It is not known how many more years will have to be missed for such a country to appear again.
      4. Basil50
        Basil50 4 May 2016 16: 34
        0
        To Beefeater.
        The Finnish reality was completely different, where farm laborers and employees were not counted as peasants. Only the landowner was * a peasant *.
      5. The comment was deleted.
  6. Uralets
    Uralets 1 May 2016 16: 03
    0
    I read this article before. It is clear that the Bolsheviks themselves did not come up with this idea ... Only they succeeded more effectively)
    1. The centurion
      The centurion 1 May 2016 19: 27
      +1
      Quote: Uralets
      It is clear that the Bolsheviks themselves did not come up with this idea.

      Labor in the countryside was predominantly manual, and the departure of millions of young and healthy men to the army inevitably led to a reduction in production. But the sharp decline in food exports since the beginning of the war had a positive effect on the domestic market and at first compensated for the decline in production. In addition, the remaining workers of the village, as best they could, tried to compensate for the loss of labor. In addition to people, horses were the main labor force in the village. Statistics show that, despite the attraction of millions of horses to the army, their number in the civilian sector in 1914-1917 not only did not decrease, but increased. All this made it possible to have a satisfactory food supply for the army and the rear until the fall of 1916. For comparison, the main warring powers in Europe introduced the rationing system already in the first year of the war. But it must be said that the disciplined European peasants, be they Jacques, John or Fritz, despite all the difficulties, continued to regularly pay draconian food taxes to their states. Our Ostap, Ivan and Khasan demonstrated something different. The harvest of 1916 was good, but rural producers, in the face of war inflation, began to massively hold back food, expecting even greater price increases. Tax evasion is the centuries-old trouble of our producer. In a "good" time, the state grows fat on duties from foreign trade and taxes on large corporations and allows itself to turn a blind eye to these tricks of small and medium-sized businesses. But in a hard time, this "people's fun" will certainly provoke the state to repressive measures, which the owner then has to bitterly regret. In our Russian history, this "fun" led to many troubles, not only to the introduction of surplus appropriation in 1916, but also became a decisive moment for the implementation of forcible collectivization after the peasants (and not only kulaks) disrupted tax grain production in 1928 and 1929. It is still unknown how small and medium-sized businesses will end up with their current "fun" with the state tax authorities, but most likely it will be the same. But this is a lyrical digression.
      And at that time, in order to stabilize the supply of food to the cities and the army, the tsarist government in the spring of 1916 also began to introduce a rationing system for some products, and in the fall it was forced to introduce surplus appropriation and begin the formation of a "bread army" to carry out food requisitions (some "enlightened" anti-communists still believe that all this was invented by the Bolsheviks).
    2. The centurion
      The centurion 1 May 2016 19: 48
      +3
      Quote: Uralets
      It is clear that the Bolsheviks themselves did not come up with this idea ... Only they managed to do it better

      As for efficiency, the issue is debatable, but they have more than enough fanaticism. Due to the sharp intensification of the surplus appraisal by the Bolsheviks in the spring of 1918, the civil war actually began. The most scandalous thing in this story is that the bread and sweat squads were not cleaned up for Russian cities and the army. The fact is that the predatory Brest peace sharply exacerbated the already tense food situation in the country. After the conclusion of this peace, external control was actually established in Soviet Russia. Germany was starving, and curators from the German embassy persistently demanded that the Council of People's Commissars immediately pay debts and indemnities. In this case, the main reparations were to be carried out by gold, bread and food. Being strongly dependent and obliged to the German government, the Bolshevik leaders began to pay indemnities from state reserves and sharply intensified the surplus appraisal. An acute food shortage pushed Soviet Russia towards the bread-rich south. Anti-Soviet resistance began with villages near Novocherkassk, a wealthy region that was most affected by the looting of the Reds and their forcible seizure of food. Awakening of the Cossacks went faster than its fall. Ataman Kaledin failed to force the Don Cossacks to rebel against Bolshevism. But this was easily done by the communist experiment.
  7. Vadim42
    Vadim42 1 May 2016 16: 27
    +3
    Always during disputes I tell my friends that the (Reds) did not come up with anything new, that this situation, that the camps, the penal companies, are all from past generations. This world is all the same, one thing pleases Russia has always lagged behind the enlightened world in its atrocities.
  8. lubesky
    lubesky 1 May 2016 16: 44
    +2
    And what is this article about? That the Bolsheviks did not commit a crime, they say, but only continued the policy of "bloody tsarism"? The country was at war and the food problem was solved like this. But this cannot be compared with what the young Soviet regime was doing. I don't even want to write about this nasty thing, just remember whether there were peasant uprisings and a terrible famine before the revolution, or did it all happen under the RSDLP? They drowned in blood and took away everything that was and did not even exist, and now they are writing articles. The monarchy needs criticism, for objective correction of errors, but not dirty slander and stretching of facts and comparisons. History can be rewritten, but facts about the Soviet surplus appropriation system, for example, cannot be deleted from memory ...
  9. Faust
    Faust 1 May 2016 22: 23
    +2
    This article has a lot of juggling. Tsar Nicholas - did not enter the surplus appraisal. Referred to the Ministry of Agriculture, and not one government event was never presented. There are many questions and claims to the essence of the problem. But this does not change the fact that, in fact, the expansion itself began after the revolution!
  10. Faust
    Faust 2 May 2016 02: 57
    +3
    Quote: Beefeater

    Your communists fought in Vietnam and Angola and in Somalia, Ethiopia, Egypt, Libya, Afghanistan, all over the world, generously paying for their stupid claims to the world "proletarian" revolution with Russian blood


    Yeah, the horses mixed up in a bunch, people ... And nothing concrete. These were wars on distant frontiers. At nearby NATO, you would have been shown such a thing that if you had seen, then the Russian amusements with Donald Cook would have seemed to you babble.
  11. Aleksander
    Aleksander 2 May 2016 10: 55
    +3
    Sly article. The author does not indicate that in parallel with the food service there existed free trade in bread, where the price was slightly higher than the price for bread handed over during the requisitioning. That is, the pro-intelligence was actually a VOLUNTARY deed, calculated on the patriotism of the population. Rittich in the Duma: "In this direction, voluntary, I recognized it necessary to exhaust all means. "But the reckoning on patriotism was justified only partially. The Provisional Government tightened the policy in the procurement of grain: in addition to the requisitioning of surplus from large landowners at fixed prices, it managed to collect more than half of the planned volume, there was no hunger ...
    A terrible famine erupted precisely after the October revolution, when industrial production collapsed, the Bolsheviks gave the grain areas to the invaders, inflation destroyed the money: -the peasants had nothing to give for their bread. And then he was simply taken away with the battles and killings of the peasants of the Prodarmia and komedy (ordinary armed robbery).
    Tsuryupa: " Now that we have no ... goods, when our stocks are not replenished and we live the inheritance we received, we cannot trade on a large scale. "
    There is even a decree on the organization of special harvesting and harvesting requisition units. Each such detachment must consist of at least 75 people and have 2-3 machine gun(!).
  12. Old old
    Old old 4 May 2016 00: 27
    0
    Gap template liberals. Yearly article.