Military Review

The path from the tank "Christie" to the BT-2

58
Light Wheeled Track Family tanks BT ("high-speed tank") is well known not only to lovers stories. This tank became the personification of the pre-war Soviet tank industry. The recognizable silhouette and impressive to this day dynamic characteristics of this tank make it quite famous. Managed to become a tank and a movie star, BT tanks were shown in the popular pre-war film "Tractor Drivers." The BT-2, which was mass-produced at the Kharkov Locomotive Plant (KhPZ) from 1932 to 1933, became the first-born in the BT lineup. Also, this tank was called "Russian Christie", and this name was given to the combat vehicle not by accident.


The transformation of the American prototype into a serial Soviet tank

18 July 1929 of the USSR Revolutionary Military Council approved a new "Red Army Tank-Tractor and Armored Arms System", which approved the organization of armored weapons of the Soviet Union, as well as the classification of tanks and their functions in future military conflicts:

- reconnaissance tank - fast, all-terrain, cheap combat vehicle (tank or wedge), possibly floating;
- a combined arms tank - the main tank of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army;
- operational tank - breakthrough tank, he had not to be drawn into battles with tanks and anti-tank artillery of the enemy, but to go into the breakthrough with troops on armor and develop an offensive, destroying the enemy’s rear;
- tank quality amplification TRGK (tanks reserve of the main command) - a powerful medium tank with strong weapons;

- powerful special purpose tank also belonged to TRGC. It was a heavy breakthrough tank with powerful artillery weapons capable of withstanding enemy anti-tank artillery fire.

BT-2 with gun and machine gun armament


At that time, the Soviet Union almost did not produce tanks that would meet the requirements. The country had to create an entire tank industry from scratch, train and train specialists (design and production personnel), prepare an industrial base and design bureaus to provide the army with modern armor in a short time. 22 November 1929 was established in the country by the Department of Motorization and Mechanization of the Red Army, the first head of which was Commissar I. A. Khalepsky. He was an ardent supporter of accelerating the production of tanks in the USSR through the acquisition and licensing of the latest types of equipment abroad. For the Soviet tank building such an approach he considered a kind of "doping."

6 December 1929 of the year Sergo Ordzhonikidze, who was the chairman of the head of the People's Commissariat of Industry, made a decision on the allocation of funds for the purchase of foreign tanks. Already 30 of December of the same year, the procurement commission under the leadership of Halensky and the head of the engineering department of UMM S. A. Ginzburg went to the USA, where she held talks with the American designer, inventor and businessman John Walter Christie about the possibility of buying several copies of his M1931 tank and the subsequent Licensing of tank production in the Soviet Union. This combat vehicle was largely advanced in terms of applied design solutions. In the tank there was a suspension, which was patented by Christie, the dense layout of the units, the use of welding when assembling the hull, the transverse arrangement of the engine. In addition, the tank could move on wheels (on the highway) and on tracks (over rough terrain). At that time, it was the fastest tank in the world (the speed is more than 70 km / h on wheels and more than 45 km / h on tracks).

At the same time, members of the commission had a double impression about the tank: on the one hand, they were impressed by the speed characteristics of the combat vehicle, on the other hand, the role of the “operational tank”, where it was chosen, was not suitable. Perhaps the situation then turned the interest in the tank from the Polish military. Marian Rusyn, the captain of the Polish army, even before the Soviet delegation visited the United States, visited Christie’s enterprise, where he was shown the prototype of the M1928 tank and the design of its upgraded version of the M1931. The Pole was so pleased with the combat vehicle that a delegation led by the head of the Military Institute for Design Research (WIBI), Colonel Tadeusz Kossakovski, arrived in Poland on February 26. She signed an agreement with Christie for the delivery of the finished tank and the license for its release in Poland. In this case, the Poles made an advance in the amount of 50% of the cost of the tank.

Designer Christie on his tank


To the surprise of the Polish side, the Americans terminated the contract unilaterally, returning an advance. The reason was the decision of the Soviet side to buy the Christie’s M1931 tank, all the more so since the matter of creating their own “operational tank” in the country did not work. The design of the T-24 tank and its introduction into production at KhPZ was very slow. But, apparently, the main reason for the termination of the US-Polish treaty was the strong desire of the Soviet side, which, until 17 September 1939, considered Poland as the main likely enemy. The presence of the Polish army’s own fastest tank in the world was not included in the plans of the Soviet military and the country's leadership, so they did not spare the money to outbid the tank and take it out from under the nose of the Poles.

In the US, two M1931 tanks were ordered with a total value of 60 thousand dollars, as well as spare parts for them for the sum of 4 thousand dollars. Another 100 thousand dollars the Soviet Union pledged to pay for the right to produce these tanks for 10 years. Christie had to personally come to the USSR to assist in setting up the serial production of his tank, however, being a real capitalist, the American inventor treated the world's first socialist state, to put it mildly, not quite approvingly. It is possible that the designer was forced to conclude this deal by the very difficult financial circumstances in which he found himself at that moment in time, due to the refusal of the American army to purchase tanks for its design.

The M1931 was shipped from the US to the Soviet Union on 24 December 1930. Diplomatic relations between the countries at that time were still absent, so the company Amtorg Trading Corporation, a joint-stock company registered in New York State for Soviet capital and specialized in the purchase and supply of the latest equipment, weapons and technology in the USSR, was involved in the delivery. In the Soviet Union, the tanks arrived without towers, in addition, the set of documentation by the Americans was not transferred in full. But in this situation, the Soviet side was helped out by the foreign intelligence service - the missing tank drawings were secretly acquired from Christie's assistants and forwarded to the USSR. As a result, 25 was not paid thousands of dollars to the American, but in response he refused to go to the Soviet Union, on this the cooperation between Christie and the Soviet Union ended.

The path from the tank "Christie" to the BT-2
Tests of Christie's tank in the USSR


At the beginning of 1931, the tanks were in the USSR, for the purpose of secrecy, the machines received the designation “Original 1” and “Original 2”. One of the arrived tanks was disassembled for a thorough detailed study, and the second was sent for ground tests. To simulate the missing tower on the body of the combat vehicle placed an additional ballast weight 800 kg. 14 March 1931, the tank was shown to the representatives of the command of the Red Army, making a favorable impression on them. In May-June, the 1931 of the year, Christie's tanks passed tests in the Soviet Union, based on the results of which a report was drawn up that required improvement of the design and elimination of a number of flaws in the combat vehicle. This made it impossible to directly copy the tank, as the Soviet leadership had originally planned. Tower of a tank with artillery weapons in general had to create from scratch. To finish the American tank, a special design bureau was established under the direction of N. M. Toskin. Nikolai Mikhailovich Toskin - military engineer of the 2 rank - erudite and energetic engineer made a great contribution to the creation and refinement of the design of the BT-2 tank, as well as the formation and development of the tank design bureau at the KhPZ.

It was in Kharkov that they decided to establish the production of a new tank, which received the designation BT-2. The production of a new tank at the KhPZ began in early 1932. Serial production of light wheeled tracked tanks BT-2 immediately faced a lot of different difficulties. At that time, the USSR was just beginning to master fully heavy industry. For the production of an advanced tank at that time, the country literally lacked everything - machine tools, trained personnel, and high-quality materials. There were problems with the release of high-quality armor and the formation of towers and buildings from it. There were problems with the engines, the production of the M-5 was discontinued. Engines began to be installed on the tanks, having exhausted their resource in aviation, also in the United States had to urgently purchase stocks of the already outdated Liberty engine. Problems arose with artillery weapons, Soviet industry could not arrange the release of the 37-mm B-3 guns in the proper volumes.

Despite all the difficulties, the American got accustomed to the USSR. Thanks to the efforts of the Soviet designers and engineers, he turned into a serial light tank BT-2, the first in a numerous line of BT tanks. As production problems are resolved, its release in Kharkov grew. In 1932, 396 tanks were assembled here, in 1933, 224 combat vehicles (total 620 tanks). Production of the BT-2 was discontinued due to the launch of the production of a more advanced BT-5, which received a new turret with an 45-mm tank gun.

The design of the tank BT-2


BT-2 was an unusual tank. It can be safely attributed to combat vehicles with the highest power density - 35,4 horsepower per ton. For example, in the T-80 tank, this indicator was 27,2. At the same time, their maximum speed on the highway was approximately comparable - 70 km / h (BT-2 could develop such a maximum speed when driving on a wheel track). The landmark was for the Soviet tank building and suspension design Christie, which was used on the BT-2. She defined the development of domestic tank building for the next 15 years - all light tanks of the BT series and the subsequent medium tanks T-34 and T-34-85 were equipped with just such a suspension. They abandoned it only at the very end of the war, when the T-44 and T-54 tanks were created in the USSR.



BT-2 was a lightweight single-wheeled wheeled-tracked tank of the classic layout, equipped with cannon and machine gun weapons and has anti-bullet armor. From the bow to the stern, the tank could be divided into 4 units: control, combat, power and transmission. The power was separated from the fighting compartment by a partition with gates (doors), behind it there was a transmission compartment, also separated by a partition with a cut-out for the fan.

The armor protection of the tank was anti-bullet, it provided protection against small-arms bullets. weapons, as well as fragments of shells and mines of small and medium caliber. The hull of the tank was assembled from armor rolled sheets of thickness 6, 10 and 13 mm. The forehead, the tower and the sides of the hull had an 13 mm reservation, the feed - 10 mm, the bottom of the hull - 6 mm. The armored hull of the tank served at the same time as the frame on which all its mechanisms were mounted. The case was box-shaped and assembled on rivets from individual armor plates. To ensure the rotation of the front steering wheels, the front of the tank hull was narrowed laterally. The nose part of the combat vehicle consisted of a steel casting, to which the front armor plates and bottom were riveted and welded. In addition, the casting served as a crankcase for mounting the arms and steering rack. The tank turret had a cylindrical shape and was riveted, its front part was chamfered.

The tank crew consisted of a 2-3 man. The driver was located in the control center in the nose of the combat vehicle. The commander of the combat vehicle, he is the gunner and loader, was in the fighting compartment in the middle part of the tank hull and turret. The crew consisting of 3-x people, as a rule, had a BT-2 tanks with cannon armament. In this case, the tank commander served as a gunner, and the third crew member - the loader and machine gunner. The landing and disembarking of the crew members from the tank was carried out through the hatch of the mechanical input and the hatch in the roof of the tower.



The power plant of the tank was represented by the 12-cylinder aviation four-stroke carburetor V-shaped liquid-cooled engine of the Liberty brand (or its analogue M-5-400 produced in the Soviet Union). The maximum power of this engine was HP 400. (294 kW) at 1650 rpm The engine was started either with two “MACh” electric starters with a power of 1,3 hp. each, which were mounted on the gearbox, or by a single “Scintilla” electric starter with an 2 horsepower, was also possible to start the engine manually using the crank.

Transmission BT-2 tank was mechanically, it consisted of a multiplate main clutch dry friction (steel on steel), a four-CAT (4 forward and one backward), two single-stage final drive two multi-drive steering clutches with band brakes and two pinion gears ( guitars) drive to the rear support rollers - leading during the wheeled course of the combat vehicle.

The BT-2 tank was equipped with an individual spring (“candle”) suspension, which later became widely known as the “Christie suspension”. With respect to each side of the tank, there were 3 vertical springs between the outer armor sheet and the inner wall of the hull side, another spring was placed horizontally inside the hull in the tank compartment. The vertical springs were connected to the rear and middle support rollers via balancers, and the horizontal springs - to the front controlled rollers of the tank.



The tank BT-2 was distinguished by the presence of a combined wheel-tracked drive. Its chassis consisted of a pair of front guide wheels with a diameter of 550 mm, a pair of rear driving wheels with a diameter of 640 mm and four pairs of dual track rollers having a diameter of 815 mm. Support rollers of the tank were equipped with rubber bandages. Each tank track consisted of 46 tracks, 23 of which were flat, and 23 - equipped with one ridge, the width of the track was 263 mm. The transition of the BT-2 tank from a tracked to a wheeled one was made by the crew of the combat vehicle in 30-40 minutes - in this case the drive was transferred to the rear pair of road wheels, and the front pair became the driving wheels. During the transition from caterpillar to wheel travel, each caterpillar was separated by the crew of the tank into 4 units and placed on the fencing shelves, after which it was fastened with straps in three places.

The main armament of the BT-2 was the 37-mm B-3 gun with a wedge gate. This gun had German roots. 28 August 1930 of the year, through the German front firm Byutast, specially created to work with the Soviet Union, the USSR acquired 6 artillery systems from the German company Rheinmetall, including the 37-mm anti-tank gun, which in the near future was to become known anti-tank gun 3.7cm PaK 35 / 36, the most massive in the German army to 1942 year. The Soviet counterpart of this instrument received a factory index 1-K. The gun was made at the Moscow-based plant number XXUMX Kalinin. At its base, a tank gun B-8 (factory index 3-K) was created, which was mounted on BT-5 tanks.

The gun B-3 allowed to fire fragmentation shells at a distance of up to 2000 meters, with a combat rate of fire of 12-15 shots per minute. An armor-piercing projectile of this 37-mm gun had an initial speed of 700 m / s and pierced the normal 1500-mm armor at a distance of 13 meters. The auxiliary armament of the BT-2 tank was an 7,62-mm DT machine gun, which was mounted in a separate ball bearing located to the right of the gun. Targeting a cannon and machine gun on a target in a vertical plane was carried out using a shoulder rest, and the turret was rotated in a horizontal plane using a planetary hand-operated turning mechanism. The tank ammunition included an 92 shot to the gun and 2709 ammunition (43 disk on the 63 cartridge).

BT-2 with machine guns


However, the development of the B-3 tank gun by the Soviet industry took place "with difficulty". Therefore, all 208 tanks (according to other 180 data) were made of cannon tanks, of which 60 combat vehicles had only gun armament (did not have a DT machine gun). As a result, most of the BT-2 tanks had only machine-gun armament, such tanks were 412. As the main armament they used a twin machine gun installation YES-2 7,62-mm caliber. Initially, on the part of the tanks armed with this installation, the autonomous 7,62-mm DT machine gun was kept in the ball mount, but later, due to the inconvenience of using two machine-gun installations, it was simply dismantled, and an armored stub was installed in its place.

As a result, the BT serial tanks, which produced only 620 units, had the 4 version of the installed weapons:

- cannon (only 37-mm gun B-3);
- cannon-machine gun (37 gun B-3 + 7,62-mm machine gun DT in ball mounting);
- machine gun (twin machine gun installation YES-2);
- enhanced machine-gun (twin machine gun + DT machine gun in ball mounting).

There was simply no special means of observation and communication on the BT-2 tank. In a combat situation, the mechvod monitored the terrain through the viewing slot, and the commander through the scope. Radio stations were not installed on the tank; combat vehicles were supposed to support external communication using flag signals. For this, a special hatch was placed in the tower. Internal communication between tank crews was carried out using light-signaling.



Service and combat use of tanks BT-2

The BT-2 tanks that entered the troops quickly began to be viewed as more like training machines. The process of their development by personnel at the beginning of the 1930-s was quite difficult. Not particularly high quality build tanks, which was multiplied by the low qualification of their staff, led to constant breakdowns. Troubleshooting has often been made difficult by the lack of necessary spare parts. Despite the shortcomings of the dynamics of the tank BT-2 was impressive.

The chip of the BT-2 tank was its “jumps” - during acceleration and from a springboard, the combat vehicle could fly over the ground to 40 meters. Naturally, after such overloads, the suspension and support rollers of the tank quickly failed, but this element looked spectacularly at demonstration exercises, tankers proudly showed it not only to the high authorities of the Red Army, but also to foreign guests. At the same time, the “jumps” also had practical application - the BT-2 could rapidly force small water barriers, trench lines, ditches, in order to support the infantry units that had escaped ahead with fire and maneuver.

For the first time, the BT-2 light tanks took part in the 1939 fighting in the Khalkhin Gol river area. 3 July 1939, the Japanese troops occupied the dominant height of Bain-Tsagan, located on the western bank of the river, they created a threat to cut off along the coast and then defeat the Soviet-Mongolian units that occupied positions on the eastern bank of the river. Zhukov, who at that time commanded the first army group, decided to attack the Japanese units with the forces of the 11 light tank brigade, which was staffed mainly with BT-2 and BT-5 tanks. After a long and very exhausting march, a brigade without infantry support went into a frontal attack on the enemy. The light tank crew suffered heavy losses, which was caused by the lack of support for infantrymen. The 132 of the BT-2 tank and the BT-5 of which 46 were lost were burned down, the 36 were destroyed, but the crew was able to complete the task, defeating the Japanese units that had been dispatched. At the same time, the massed tank attack demoralized the Japanese. This attack demonstrated that such an attack is permissible at least when it is caused by operational considerations.

Wehrmacht soldiers in the burning machine gun BT-2 from the 34 tank division of the 8 mechanized corps of the Red Army in the area of ​​Dubno, June 1941 of the year


A sufficient number of these combat vehicles took part in the Polish campaign 1939 of the year, without causing any special complaints. They took part in the Soviet-Finnish war 1939-1940. As part of the first light-tank brigade at that time there was an 82 tank BT-2. Most of these tanks during the war failed for technical reasons due to breakdowns, but there were also combat losses of combat vehicles (the 2 of the tank was drowned, another 2 was destroyed by anti-tank fire of the Finnish army).

On 1 June 1941, the 580 BT-2 linear tanks remained in service with the Red Army, including 396 vehicles located in the western border districts. Of these 580 tanks, only 366 machines were on the move, they were used only as training; more 119 tanks BT-2 demanded medium, and 30 - overhaul; another 72 tank was purely training, they were used only as training stands and layouts. With the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, all the training tanks BT-2 that were in the army were returned to service. BT-2 were part of the motorized and tank divisions of mechanized corps and participated in battles on almost the entire front. Their main mass was lost in the battles of the summer-autumn 1941 of the year. Separate combat vehicles of this type were encountered at the front in 1942-1943 (there is a photograph of the BT-2 machine-gun tank in battle, which is dated to the summer of the 1942 of the year). In addition, part of the tanks was used on the Leningrad front, for example, in the summer of 1943, they were still 12. According to some reports, some of these machines fought back in 1944 year.

Unfortunately, to this day not a single copy of the BT-2 tank has been preserved. Only in Kubinka there is an interesting “hybrid” that may be the prototype of an experienced tank, the BT-2M transitional machine: a chassis sheet and a tower of the BT-5 tank are installed on the chassis of the BT-2 light tank.

Tank BT-2М, preserved in Kubinka


Information sources:
http://www.aviarmor.net/tww2/tanks/ussr/bt-2.htm
http://tanki-v-boju.ru/tank-bt-2
http://warspot.ru/1974-bronirovannyy-amerikanets-na-sluzhbe-sssr
http://pro-tank.ru/bronetehnika-sssr/legkie-tanki/85-bt-2
Edition: Pavlov M.V., Zheltov I.G., Pavlov I.V. Tanks BT. M .: Exprint, 2001.
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  1. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack April 27 2016 06: 21
    +10
    for its time was a good car. Grandfather began to fight on BT - though 7m - already diesel. Thank you for the article!
    1. goose
      goose April 27 2016 11: 10
      0
      Quote: Volga Cossack
      for its time was a good car. Grandfather began to fight on BT - though 7m - already diesel. Thank you for the article!

      It seems to me that excessive enthusiasm for the BT branch took away from the successful T-46, which slowed the introduction of torsion bars and the introduction of protivosnaryadny armor.
      1. Amurets
        Amurets April 27 2016 12: 14
        +2
        Quote: goose

        It seems to me that excessive enthusiasm for the BT branch took away from the successful T-46, which slowed the introduction of torsion bars and the introduction of protivosnaryadny armor.

        Which T-46? There were several varieties. Only T-46-5 (T-111) had protivosnaryadny armor
        http://www.aviarmor.net/tww2/tanks/ussr/t-46.hthttp://www.aviarmor.net/tww2/tank
        s / ussr / t-46.htm
        http://www.aviarmor.net/tww2/tanks/ussr/t-111.htm
    2. Alexey T. (Oper)
      Alexey T. (Oper) April 27 2016 12: 46
      +5
      My grandfather studied with them, and then he taught others at the Poltava Tank School, where before the war he was a teacher in the rank of military technician of the 3 rank.

      By the way, back in 2008, in the center of Poltava, near Korpusny Park, there was an iron lamppost with a large, deep dent. Grandfather in front of granny showed off and crashed laughing , just on BT.
      1. kugelblitz
        kugelblitz April 27 2016 19: 49
        +1
        My grandfather also started on BT.
    3. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 April 27 2016 22: 53
      +2
      What kind of diesel? BT-7 was gasoline My grandfather was and

      instructor - mechanical driver from 39 to 42 for a year, then they were sent to the front.
      And I minus the article, because Ordzhonikidze didn’t understand nichrome in production, and his deputy, Pyatakov, was engaged in all this.
      1. Alf
        Alf April 27 2016 23: 01
        +2
        Quote: Mordvin 3
        What kind of diesel? BT-7 was gasoline

        This refers to the BT-7M.
        Four pre-production BT-7M (BT-8) were released in 1938. Serial production of the tank (factory index A-7M) began in December 1939. Externally, the tank almost did not differ from the BT-7. The main technical difference was the installation of a V-2 diesel engine on the tank instead of the M-17T carburetor. The rigidity of the BT-7M hull was increased due to the installation of braces, a sub-motor hatch appeared in the bottom, the size of the hood of the air filter-dust collector decreased. The high fuel efficiency of the diesel engine made it possible to reduce the transportable fuel supply and abandon additional tanks on the fenders. However, the main principal advantage of a diesel engine over a carburetor was its low flammability: tanks equipped with a V-2 diesel engine were significantly safer than their gasoline counterparts.
        BT-7M was produced until September 1940, for some time - even in parallel with the T-34. In total, in the years 1938-1940, 4 copies of the BT-8 and 784 BT-7M were made. Of the latter, in May 1940, 72 BT-7M tanks received M-17T engines; they entered the NKVD. Total total release of the latest BT modification amounted to 788 tanks and 2 prototypes with a BD-2 diesel engine.
        1. Mordvin 3
          Mordvin 3 April 27 2016 23: 48
          +2
          Thanks for the answer. Grandfather drove gasoline.
          1. Alf
            Alf April 29 2016 22: 02
            0
            Quote: Mordvin 3
            Thanks for the answer. Grandfather drove gasoline.

            It's my pleasure. Always happy to help.
  2. kalibr
    kalibr April 27 2016 06: 36
    +6
    Very good and complete stuff. The only way I could advise the author to insert a photo from the Patton Museum for the "final" completeness and comprehensive visualization of such an interesting object. There is a live Christie tank.
  3. inkass_98
    inkass_98 April 27 2016 07: 23
    +12
    This attack has demonstrated that such an attack is acceptable at least when it is prompted by operational considerations.

    Something like this represents Korean cinema:
    1. Somad
      Somad April 27 2016 11: 15
      -1
      What's the movie's name?
      1. 17085
        17085 April 27 2016 15: 16
        +2
        mine camph ... only in korean ...

        rare blot # votin ...
      2. Somad
        Somad April 30 2016 11: 26
        0
        And they put a minus for the fact that I do not know the name of this "masterpiece of cinema", which every student knows? Well sorry! I have never been a fan of Korean cinema, unlike you ... Or maybe just shit got out of all the cracks and could not resist - clicked on "-"? Tell me, please...
    2. Alf
      Alf April 27 2016 23: 05
      0
      Quote: inkass_98
      корейский

      Japanese.
      1. 17085
        17085 April 28 2016 19: 29
        +1
        this is a Korean film ... about a poor Korean who was abandoned by evil Yapis to fight against the harsh Russians, who, in turn, defeating him, sent the poor little boy to fight for his Soviet homeland, while cruelly trying between cases, against the Germans who won again and they sent him to defend the great Reich ... uh ... from whom? you ask, from the sweet ... Americans ... they also defeated him .. but did not offend, but let him go home. I'll cry right now ... here ...
        1. 19001900
          19001900 April 28 2016 20: 40
          +1
          You are not entirely faithful as far as I remember that cute "americos" killed the poor Korean, but when dying, the poor Korean gave the medallion (documents) to the equally unlucky Japanese (who from his youth competed and offended the poor Korean and even tortured him a couple of times and wanted to execute him) due to which the unlucky The Japanese survived and returned home under the name of the poor Korean. In the film, there was a hint that cute Americans could have swatted the unlucky Japanese in memory of one resort island. This is such a Santa Barbara. :)
          1. 17085
            17085 April 29 2016 05: 50
            +1
            Right! Here it is! Wood! and man over his jacket! (c)

            ... watched for a long time, forgot already ...

            thanks for correcting
  4. parusnik
    parusnik April 27 2016 07: 24
    +12
    and in response he refused to go to the Soviet Union, on this the cooperation of Christie and the country of the Soviets ended. .. And it doesn’t matter, it went like: We would, scheme, al drawing .. we started a top-up .. smile K. Simonov dedicated the poem "Tank" to the attack of the 11th light tank brigade. Published in "Krasnaya Zvezda" in 1939 ..

    Here he went. Trenches three rows.
    Chain of wolf holes with oak bristles.
    Here is the trail where he backed away when
    He was blown caterpillars mine.

    But there was no doctor under the arm,
    And he got up, suffering from lameness,
    Broken iron dragging
    Crouching on a wounded leg.

    Here it is, breaking like a ram,
    Circles crawled on their own trail
    And collapsed, weak from wounds,
    Having bought infantry a difficult victory.

    By dawn, in soot, in dust,
    Came still smoking tanks
    And together decided in the depths of the earth
    Bury his iron remains.

    He seemed to ask not to bury,
    Even in a dream, he saw yesterday's battle,
    He rested, he had strength
    He also threatened with his broken tower.

    So that it was visible far away,
    We poured a mound above it
    Beating a star plywood on a pole -
    Over the battlefield is a feasible monument.

    When would the monument be told to me
    To raise to all those who perished here in the desert
    I'd be on a granite hewn wall
    Put the tank with the sockets empty;

    I would dig it as it is,
    In holes, in torn iron sheets, -
    Nevayuschaya military honor
    There are in these scars, in charred wounds.

    Climbing high onto a pedestal
    Let, as a witness, confirm by right:
    Yes, victory was not easy for us.
    Yes, the enemy was brave.
    The more our glory

    Thank you for the article..
    1. lwxx
      lwxx April 27 2016 07: 45
      -2
      We often criticize the Chinese here ... But as it turns out, we ourselves started as well, and not only strategic bombers, but also in tank building, the beginning was stolen. But the whole thing is the end result, I hope the Chinese do not advance as far as we do.
      1. Amurets
        Amurets April 27 2016 08: 10
        +6
        Quote: lwxx
        We often criticize the Chinese here ... But as it turns out, we ourselves started as well, and not only strategic bombers, but also in tank building, the beginning was stolen. But the whole thing is the end result, I hope the Chinese do not advance as far as we do.

        I do not agree that everything is stolen. I still bought part of the licenses of the USSR, though not always successfully, for the simple reason that they wanted more and cheaper.
        1. lwxx
          lwxx April 27 2016 08: 44
          0
          Quote: Amurets
          Quote: lwxx
          We often criticize the Chinese here ... But as it turns out, we ourselves started as well, and not only strategic bombers, but also in tank building, the beginning was stolen. But the whole thing is the end result, I hope the Chinese do not advance as far as we do.

          I do not agree that everything is stolen. I still bought part of the licenses of the USSR, though not always successfully, for the simple reason that they wanted more and cheaper.

          So the Chinese, and not only them, also buy equipment with the right to manufacture, not everyone openly digs hi
          1. Amurets
            Amurets April 27 2016 09: 50
            0
            Quote: lwxx
            So the Chinese, and not only them, also buy equipment with the right to manufacture, not everyone openly digs

            But, unfortunately, the Great Leap Forward policy inflicted a big blow on Chinese industry. If the CPC and Mao followed the path that the Chinese followed after Mao's death, we would have a very powerful industrial power. I don't mean all the transformations of Deng Xiao Ping. I mean that the PRC received equipment and trained specialists in the USSR. Some highly educated specialists returned from the USA. But the policy of the "Great Leap Forward" and "Cultural Revolution" dramatically slowed down the development of the PRC.
      2. 97110
        97110 April 27 2016 11: 30
        0
        Quote: lwxx
        the beginning was ashamed

        Test. In "Parnassus" the place is booked, you will be a pegasus.
      3. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA April 27 2016 14: 38
        +6
        Quote: lwxx
        And as it turns out, they themselves started as well, and not only strategic bombers, but also in tank building, the beginning was stolen.

        Not everything is so simple. ©

        We started much earlier than BT - Soviet tank building began in Civilian with copying Renault FT-17. The first production tank was made on the basis of the Fiat 3000 (Italian reworking of Renault FT-17).
        But by the end of the 20s, the Soviet design school had reached an impasse. So we decided to get acquainted with the state of tank construction in the West. As a result, we absolutely officially bought a license for Vickers tanks (with CD, TD and Vickers obligation to notify of changes in the documentation). And almost officially bought the tanks from Christie (the US laws were circumvented in some places, but Christie had no special complaints).
        So, at the heart of the Soviet pre-war tank fleet (T-26 and BT range) were honestly bought cars. smile
        1. Amurets
          Amurets April 27 2016 15: 05
          +1
          Quote: Alexey RA
          So, at the heart of the Soviet pre-war tank fleet (T-26 and BT range) were honestly bought cars.

          By the way, a license was purchased from the Germans for the BMW-VI engines, which we know as M-17. Why do I mention this aircraft engine? Because the M-17T and M-17F were widely used in our tank building from BT-5 to T-34 and KV. True, the replacement of the V-2 diesel with the M-17 on the T-34 and KV tanks was forced, due to the lack of V-2 engines. Zubov, E.A. "Tank engines". Part one.
      4. Grandson of the victorious
        Grandson of the victorious 4 May 2016 00: 46
        0
        Not stolen but bought. If the Americans refused to purchase these tanks for their needs, then why would the good disappear.
  5. bionik
    bionik April 27 2016 07: 52
    +3
    ...... decided to attack the Japanese units with the forces of the 11th light tank brigade, which was equipped mainly with BT-2 and BT-5 tanks ......Officers of the 11th Soviet Tank Brigade on Mount Bain Tsagan on Khalkhin Gol before the attack.
    In the background are BT-5 tanks.
    1. bionik
      bionik April 27 2016 07: 56
      +1
      Tankers of the 11th Soviet tank brigade at the BT-5 tank on Khalkhin-Gol.
  6. svp67
    svp67 April 27 2016 09: 26
    +4
    They abandoned it only at the very end of the war, when T-44 and T-54 tanks were created in the USSR.
    Even before the war, the torsion bar suspension was on the SMK and KV tanks. Yes, and on the T-34M it was also planned to install a torsion bar suspension
  7. magician
    magician April 27 2016 09: 40
    +3
    wonderful article! to be continued?
  8. Caduc
    Caduc April 27 2016 10: 14
    +1
    Have you ever read about the tanks of those years. Have you read anything saying that nothing similar was created in the USSR?
    It's me about T 24 for example. Halepsky simply threw folk money down the drain.
    Now about the Christie tank.
    How did you manage to push the 12-cylinder engine across the tank?
    As for the BT tank itself, it is not an "American" at all, but a tank completely constructed in the USSR, from which Christie had only one idea left.
    The photo shows what Christie's "tank" was.
    1. yehat
      yehat April 27 2016 13: 13
      +2
      the idea of ​​layout was just the main thing.
      Compare other projects of that period: there weren’t even so close mobile ones,
      closer to the war, the British used the achievements of Christie to create a fleet of light tanks that were generally successful - crusaders, etc.
    2. svp67
      svp67 April 27 2016 13: 37
      0
      Quote: Kaduk
      How did you manage to push the 12-cylinder engine across the tank?

      At Christie, he stood along ...

      And how to put across, so here’s how
      Quote: Kaduk
      It's me about T 24 for example. Halepsky simply threw folk money down the drain.

      No. Bad experience, same experience.
      Quote: Kaduk
      As for the BT tank itself, it is not an "American" at all, but a tank completely constructed in the USSR, from which Christie had only one idea left.

      This can be said about the BT-3, BT-5, BT-7 and their modifications, BT-2 is an exact copy of Christie's tank.
      1. yehat
        yehat April 28 2016 11: 02
        0
        on t44 there was already no christie suspension laughing
      2. yehat
        yehat April 29 2016 09: 28
        0
        in the period from 30 to 41 about 60 different prototypes of tanks were made
        some people want to say that pests invaded the USSR laughing
  9. nivander
    nivander April 27 2016 11: 19
    +1
    machine-gun tanks BT-2 were part of the 36th and 42nd tank brigades killed near Kharkov in May 1942. And several more BT-2 tanks (also a machine-gun version) fought in the intelligence units of the 9th Tank Corps of General Mayr Panov ..... in the summer of 1944 (Operation Bagration).
  10. Verdun
    Verdun April 27 2016 11: 23
    +6
    Quote: Kaduk
    As for the BT tank itself, it is not an "American" at all, but a tank completely constructed in the USSR, from which Christie had only one idea left.
    The photo shows what Christie's "tank" was.

    Take someone else's idea and bring it to a more effective, efficient state is not shameful. The tank, which Soviet designers created based on the concept of Christie, turned out to be pretty good. He was very mobile and perfect for reconnaissance, quick flank attacks and ambush attacks. My grandfather, who started the Second World War as a tanker, stopped the advance of German tanks near Tula by a hidden flank attack. Under his command were the BT-5 and BT-7 tanks, if I am not mistaken, 19 vehicles. All that remains of the motorized division. But a long oncoming battle with BT tanks was contraindicated due to the weakness of the reservation. On the one hand, not all commanders understood this. On the other hand, it was not always possible to avoid oncoming combat ...
  11. Forever so
    Forever so April 27 2016 11: 40
    -5
    Tachanka)) But the installation of the 45 mm gun is not justified. The German T2 had 20 mm AUTOMATIC, and with almost identical performance characteristics, he covered our BT like a sheep. While 45 farts, the 20 mm queue will destroy anyway. Abydna, yes !!
    1. Stas57
      Stas57 April 27 2016 13: 08
      +2
      Quote: Forever so
      Tachanka)) But the installation of the 45 mm gun is not justified. The German T2 had 20 mm AUTOMATIC, and with almost identical performance characteristics, he covered our BT like a sheep. While 45 farts, the 20 mm queue will destroy anyway. Abydna, yes !!


      Yes, you had to take the place of Stalin, you would all of them !!!
      it’s a pity that it remained a secret for you that the mm machine purchased under the 20 license for the Soviet industry was too complicated and was discontinued
    2. yehat
      yehat April 27 2016 13: 16
      +2
      justified. firstly, the 45s still had potential, and secondly, automatic guns required more equipment and the composition of workers in the manufacture.
      The problem was different - in the manufacture of shells for 45-cams. There were many complaints about this,
      as to the equipment of the tank itself
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA April 27 2016 14: 27
        +2
        Quote: yehat
        justified. firstly, the 45s still had potential, and secondly, automatic guns required more equipment and the composition of workers in the manufacture.

        Heheheheh ... to make a 20-mm machine is not so bad. But then to exploit it later in the army ...
        Not in the Air Force, where the gun spends most of the time in the air and where there are competent weapons techniques. Not in air defense, where the guns usually work motionlessly at positions surrounded by a cloud of calculation numbers. And in the BTV, where the cannon is stuck in an armored box and a cramped tower mounted on a rattling box, which, jumping on potholes, rushes about on a dusty field.
        Look, we made our TNSh in 1941. As long as winter was - everything is fine. And in the summer of 1942, mass complaints began that the T-60 cannons were out of order and the tanks were turning into "females."
        1. Amurets
          Amurets April 27 2016 15: 40
          0
          http://www.battlefield.ru/20mm-tnsh.html
          Quote: Alexey RA
          Not in the Air Force, where the gun spends most of the time in the air and where there are competent weapons techniques.

          Quote: Alexey RA
          Look, we made our TNSh in 1941. As long as winter was - everything is fine. And in the summer of 1942, mass complaints began that the T-60 cannons were out of order and the tanks were turning into "females."

          I agree with you completely! I just want to add that the TNSh cannon traces its lineage from the ShVAK cannon. In the beginning of the Second World War, not only tankers suffered with these guns, pilots too, especially attack aircraft. True, I came across the memories of 230-ShAD pilots. V. Emelianenko "V harsh military air "Sivkov.G.F." Readiness No.-1, in other memoirs.http: //www.battlefield.ru/20mm-tnsh.html
    3. Alf
      Alf April 27 2016 23: 08
      +1
      Quote: Forever so
      But the installation of a 45 mm gun is not justified. The German T2 was 20 mm AUTOMATIC, and with almost identical performance characteristics, he winged our BT like a bull to a sheep. Until 45 farts, a 20 mm queue will in any case destroy.

      Justified. Remember the difference in the mass of high-explosive shells of 45 and 20 mm.
    4. Evrepid
      Evrepid April 28 2016 15: 18
      +2
      With bulletproof armor? 20mm gun.
      In general, according to the tactical studies of that time, the BT was intended for deep raids into the rear of the enemy where a maximum could meet a group of soldiers with machine guns / machine guns.
      And at these speeds, they were not his rivals.

      To engage in battle with fortified points was not the task of tank shock wedges.
      (I’ll point out, although most people probably know that Tukhachevsky was the author of deep tank raids. He personally personally taught at the academy where G. Guderian studied)
      1. Alf
        Alf April 29 2016 21: 45
        0
        Quote: Evrepid
        (I’ll point out, although most people probably know that Tukhachevsky was the author of deep tank raids.

        The author of deep tank raids was not Tukhachevsky, but Triandafilov.
        Quote: Evrepid
        With bulletproof armor? 20mm gun.
        In general, according to the tactical studies of that time, the BT was intended for deep raids into the rear of the enemy where a maximum could meet a group of soldiers with machine guns / machine guns.

        It was in such situations that the heavier HE shell of the 45 mm gun mattered.
        1. Evrepid
          Evrepid 3 May 2016 14: 53
          0
          I agree, for all 100.
          But let's not forget: "Tukhachevsky developed the theory of deep combat, the theory of continuous operations in one strategic direction."

          Of course, the more powerful the weapons, the better.
          As far as I remember at that time there was a statement: "By fire and pressure."
          Imagine an armored car that rushes at tremendous speed, thunders, spits fire, and only pistols and rifles can counter it. And basically the enemy in such operations is the police, not the army.
          Naturally, there are army units in cities and other settlements, but while the army moves forward, it will take positions and "find" rapidly moving enemy units.

          Do you know a lot, even at the current time of facts, when military units, without taking up a position in advance, were able to catch reconnaissance, if it could escape with a speed of up to 70 km / h?

          I do not argue that it is quite possible to consider the situation, that some part will meet fast-moving tanks and what will it do? What actions will happen in it?

          I think:
          1. The first one who finds will try to notify the person on duty
          2. The duty officer will contact the unit commander, raise the unit on alarm
          3. Open the arsenal
          4. Distribute weapons to soldiers
          5. Issue an action order

          An approximate time estimate of 20-30 minutes.
          And what will the attackers do at this time? Stand and wait? Vryatli.
          Recall what happened to the peacekeepers in South Ossetia?
          - Hurricane raid
          - loss of interaction
          - Panic
          - Confusion
          result: 171 dead (if I remember correctly)

          Well, okay, what happens next?
          Most likely, even if this is the artillery part, there are no locks in the guns, ammunition for 30-40 shells, the gun’s calculations are sleeping / resting / on vacation. The actual number of units at this moment is 70-80% of the full-time.
          Thus, the tanks break through the gates, sow panic and confusion.
          They are torn to the arsenal, destroying the greatest possible number of enemy soldiers, crushing equipment and weapons, setting fire to and destroying buildings, undermining the arsenal, demolishing communication and electricity pillars, etc.

          Everything, they fulfilled their task. The part is disabled and the resistance will not provide proper resistance.
          Something like this.
          And to check, try an experiment:
          get up at 3-4 a.m.
          without turning on the lights, get the keys to the car.
          And start and warm it up and put it about 100 meters from the house.

          And all the legs, without remote engine start.
          Get it done in half an hour.
        2. Evrepid
          Evrepid 3 May 2016 15: 15
          0
          Yes ... And remember what happened in the Brest Fortress during the Nazi attack.
          Light / attacking forces simply walked by sowing a panic destroying the nodes of communication and communication.

          And the other units were already "finishing off" the fortress. The vanguard did not get involved in battles. but just went on.

          There were approximately 9000 people in the fortress.
          The 45th Wehrmacht Infantry Division assigned 1500 men.
          "The assault detachment of the Germans, advancing through the Terespol fortification, initially did not meet serious resistance and, having passed the Citadel, advanced groups went to the Kobrin fortification"

          And so we get that approximately the ratio was 6-1 (3-1) according to various sources. not in favor of the attackers. While the Soviet command always considered it necessary to have 3-1 when attacking. There is a lot of question and this is a separate issue.

          I just showed that the Brest fortress could begin to provide resistance only by 7.00 in the morning. Those. The 45th division did what it wanted for 3,5 hours.

          But her task was to seize, and not to sow panic and incapacitate some.
          If we consider the initial task of breaking resistance / withdrawing from battle for a certain time, you will agree to 100%.
    5. Filxnumx
      Filxnumx 5 May 2016 23: 31
      0
      And nothing that the German "two" cannon 20K easily had from a distance of more than a kilometer, and a large-caliber machine gun (a 20 mm cannon is ridiculous, the Germans even abandoned it in aviation) on the T-2 could penetrate the armor of the "beta" only from a distance of less 500 meters. Even taking into account the fact that in a real battle, fire was opened from 600-800 meters to the Germans, these 150-200 meters to the effective defeat distance still have to go and our tank, in fact, to find, aim, aim. During this time, he is guaranteed to receive 2-3 full-weight 45-mm blanks. And do not forget that according to the Soviet doctrine of the use of tanks - this is a means of fighting infantry, suppressing machine-gun nests, light field cover of the enemy and supporting their infantry in the offensive. For these purposes (at the initial stage), the 20K gun was quite suitable. Anti-tank artillery was to fight the tanks.
  12. wanderer_032
    wanderer_032 April 27 2016 11: 45
    +2
    and the front pair became the driving wheels.

    Not leading, but managed.
  13. Alexey T. (Oper)
    Alexey T. (Oper) April 27 2016 12: 49
    +6
    In the penultimate photo, from the battlefield near Dubno, it is clear that the crew died along with the tank, and fired from personal weapons to the last: the hatches are closed and the loophole is for firing a revolver in the firing position (the plug hangs on the chain). Yes, and the Germans cautiously approach.

    Eternal memory, eternal glory!
  14. Evgeny RS
    Evgeny RS April 27 2016 13: 10
    +2
    It should be added that BT-type tanks survived by 1945 in the Far East and they even took part in the defeat of the Kwantung Army.
    1. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I April 27 2016 16: 49
      +1
      So tama and T-26 for the 45 year were ...
  15. igordok
    igordok April 27 2016 15: 01
    +11
    I will add. Today in RuNet found on http://nyka.livejournal.com/14546960.html


    A quarter of a century after the war, a BT-5 tank with a clearly visible tactical number 12 was found in the deep forest near Vyazma. The hatches were lifted up, a hole gaped on board.

    When the car was opened, the remains of a junior tank lieutenant were found in the place of the driver. He had a gun with one cartridge and a tablet, and on the tablet - a map, a photograph of his girlfriend and unsent letters.


    "October 25, 1941

    Hello my Varia!
    No, we will not meet with you.

    Yesterday, at noon, we smashed another Hitler column. The fascist shell struck the side armor and exploded inside. While I was driving the car to the forest, Vasily died. My wound is cruel.

    I buried Vasily Orlov in a birch grove. It was light. Vasily died, without having managed to say a single word to me, did not convey anything to his beautiful Zoya and white-haired Masha, who looked like a dandelion in the fluff.

    So one of the three tankers was left. In the dark I rode into the forest. The night passed in agony, a lot of blood was lost. Now, for some reason, the pain that burns through the entire chest has subsided and is quiet in the soul.

    It's a shame that we have not done everything. But we did everything we could. Our comrades will chase the enemy, who should not walk in our fields and forests. I would never have lived this life if it were not for you, Varya. You have always helped me: at Khalkhin Gol and here.

    Probably, after all, who loves is kinder to people. Thank you, dear! A person is aging, and the sky is always young, like your eyes, which you can only look at and admire. They will never age, do not fade.

    It will take time, people will heal wounds, people will build new cities, grow new gardens. Another life will come, other songs will be sung. But never forget the song about us, about the three tankers.
    You will grow beautiful children, you will still love.

    And I am happy to leave you with great love for you.

    Your Ivan Kolosov. "
    1. wanderer_032
      wanderer_032 April 28 2016 00: 47
      +2
      There is a good song on this subject:




      I got hooked on both hooks,
      I put the eyelids on the bog,
      And I saw clouds above me
      And the wind flying in the aspens.
      And I saw clouds above me
      And the wind flying in the aspens.

      And my time ran again
      As if you started yesterday,
      And again I heard ** your mother,
      And I realized that we won.
      And again I heard ** your mother,
      And I realized that we won.

      And I realized - I still have to live,
      Let - not a hero - a winner,
      My brothers, punched by the Germans,
      Forgive me and understand.

      Sorry - could not show skill
      Beautiful military work,
      Of the whole brigade - but only one
      I was saved by a swamp.

      German guns didn’t burn me,
      And the "Tiger" did not cripple me,
      Comrade Khrushchev did not melt me
      In a huge open-hearth furnace.

      There’s a reason, of course, to find your own,
      Today's people are gifts
      You can smell swallow battle
      My red star diesel fuel.

      Get in - don't be afraid to get your pants dirty
      In the blood and diesel fuel
      Feel the skin of the breath of war
      What your grandfathers burned on.

      I am a military crop thrown into the ground
      I am a monument to a perished company
      And peaceful technology rushing along the highway
      Because I was in that swamp.

      I'm with the gun sticking out obliquely
      For you it is incomprehensible and terrible,
      The piece of diesel oil smelling the truth
      The history of our homeland.

      That I survived - the crew is to blame
      Yes, our native nature,
      I am a tank - I am a killed Soviet soldier
      Second war year.
      I'm a tank - I'm a dead risen soldier
      Second war year.
      I am your grandfather killed a risen soldier
      Second war year.

      M. Kalinkin
  16. Kapralwdw
    Kapralwdw April 27 2016 15: 44
    -1
    I’m driving a Wartander in such a game! A nimble tank !! wink
  17. Kindzadza
    Kindzadza April 28 2016 00: 18
    +1
    Amer’s inside is always rotten: they received money from us, another 100 thousand for a license should have been received. But as always, it’s necessary to throw it away, not having supplied part of the documentation and components. And then when they have already thrown them (through our intelligence), to make oneself offended and cry that the Soviets are so bad. To this day, nothing has changed. Lisa:

    "Benefactors"
    Of the boxes chopped by a shell
    Banks rolled into the windy branches.
    Killed cook looks dimly
    On the stencil "Made in USA-Hey."

    He silently demands an answer,
    Dead man with a bloody wound at the temple.
    But the one who is hidden behind the letter of the stencil,
    It is silent in its overseas distant.

    Wallowing in a field of torn meat
    They didn’t see him from far away.
    His country lies overseas.
    There is silence, and smoothness, and God's grace.

    He is pure in heart, content and calm.
    He puts off profits for the future.
    Chicago Slaughter Products
    He sent on time for our blood.

    It’s halfway to him that he’s a captive
    Your little ones were torn to pieces by dogs.
    And he will get clean
    For every pound of Chicago sausage.

    And the day you win
    He wasting sweet words
    For fame, like a jackal, will come in the wake
    Wounded in the mortal battle of a lion.
  18. Evrepid
    Evrepid April 28 2016 14: 54
    0
    Interesting article. Thanks to the author.