In recent years, various resolutions and regulations have been passed, seemingly aimed at improving education. A policy has been proclaimed for the large-scale industrialization of the defense industry, which affects the fundamentals of domestic industry. However, a fundamental improvement in the situation with personnel in the military-industrial complex did not happen.
Production, scientific and human potential continues to decline. Many defense enterprises are experiencing an acute shortage of qualified personnel.
With 2018, a new phase of the state program of rearmament of the army will begin, adjusted for non-contact, hybrid wars. New automated systems for managing troops and fire, reconnaissance, etc. will be needed. To create such equipment, highly skilled personnel are needed, which may simply not turn out to be if national education was not restored, which was considered exemplary in the world in the past century, which is confirmed by outstanding achievements in space , science, medicine. “This is an extremely important issue, and at all levels - from ordinary workers and engineering personnel to business leaders,” Vladimir Putin said at the Security Council meeting on August 31 of the year 2012.
Forge frames for overseas
Previously, somehow I managed to plug this gap. Since the times of the USSR, a reserve of highly qualified scientists, specialists, engineers and workers, created before the economic reform was used in the defense industry. But this source has dried up: frames have grown old, retired and out of life.
There are also such multidirectional tendencies: along with the increasing requirements for qualification, the prestige of employment in the defense industry continues to fall, which is reflected in the critically low level of wages and social security. The outflow of young professionals, workers, scientists from the DIC is not stopped. According to the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), over three million specialists emigrated from Russia from 1992 to 2012 a year. By giving them an education, but not receiving a return, the state suffered serious damage. Meanwhile, the direct benefit of attracting one qualified specialist in the field of exact sciences and technologies ranges from 250 to 350 thousand dollars.
Russia has become a donor country that trains personnel at public expense for others. MIPT students, where the competition makes 30 – 40 people into place, are transnational companies buying before the end of the university. Among them, there are already Nobel laureates. The award of the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences 2010 of the year in physics was awarded to Andrei Heim and Konstantin Novoselov. Both graduates of MIPT are currently working in England. The first is the head of the Manchester Center for Mesonaucics and Nanotechnologies, the second is the professor of the University of Manchester in Physics.
Russia's intellectual losses and the corresponding financial losses are enormous. The share of young workers of the most productive age (up to 35 years) in the MIC does not exceed the sociological threshold of 25 percent required to transfer experience and knowledge from the older generation. The aging of personnel - from leading specialists to workers - is celebrated both in production and in sectoral science.
Given the current financial and economic condition of a significant part of the defense industrial complex organizations, it’s impossible to solve the problem of securing young people without state support. Grants do not solve the problem. Task number 1 in this situation is to retain qualified personnel regardless of age. Ensuring continuity in both the scientific and industrial sectors of the military-industrial complex is the second task of state importance. But is it possible to solve them in the context of the ongoing privatization of defense enterprises? The defense capability of a country cannot fully depend on the aspirations (including political ones) of a private producer. He is primarily interested in maximizing profits, which does not always coincide with the interests of the state. Although, of course, the private sector can participate in the implementation of the state defense order.
Marked and the other extreme. For the concentration of technological, industrial, financial and human resources several years ago large state corporations were created. But they became monopolists in the creation of military equipment. This can lead to such negative consequences as reducing competition at the level of manufacturers of final samples, curtailing the defense companies' initiative to create new types of weapons, price dictate and encouraging supplies that state corporations need, but not the country's defense. And yet the main problem is in the existing education system.
Minister - winner of the competition
One of the solutions is to create conditions for a personnel employee of the military-industrial complex comparable to the financial and fuel-energy sectors of the economy. The government must finally realize that no one will lift us from sanctions, which is what Vladimir Putin is talking about. Have to live in isolation. Ten years before the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, Stalin said that we should have time to industrialize the country or crush us. Today is a similar situation.
Analysis of the staffing of the industrial and scientific sector of the defense industry shows: a delay in taking measures to reproduce qualified personnel in the near future will lead to the destruction of design and scientific schools. There are, of course, enterprises that, without waiting for decisions at the state level, themselves train personnel, purchase or build housing for young specialists.
These are, as a rule, the leading defense enterprises, they can find the means. But many simply survive. Therefore, measures are needed on the scale of the state, and above all at the legislative level, which is due to the economic situation and the difficulties that the defense industry complex is currently experiencing, including modernization ones. We need a regulatory framework that promotes the consolidation of specialists in the industry, more precisely, the federal law “On the Defense-Industrial Complex of the Russian Federation”. As a basis, you can take the Federal Law "On State Support for the High-Tech Industrial Complex of the Russian Federation."
The reforms have destroyed an effective systemic education focused on the development of the country, including the strengthening of defense capabilities. The continuation of experiments conducted from school through to vocational education may result in the complete loss of the national system of personnel training.
It is necessary as soon as possible to restore the high standards of Soviet education as a minimum program and only then proceed to other reforms based on positive national experience. This was discussed at the meeting of the Russian Union of Rectors, the proposal was supported by outstanding scientists who have an undeniable authority: Academicians J. Alferov, V. Arnold, J. Osipov, V. Sadovnichy.
The year of the destruction of systemic sovereign education in the Russian Federation was 2010, when commercialization of budgetary institutions began, and education and health care turned from a state duty into the service sector. The Ministry of Education and Science with enviable persistence continues the devaluation of the jurisdictional sphere, justifying its correctness by foreign experience. But the reckless copying of someone else's system, in particular the United States, is rather vivid evidence of the helplessness and incompetence of officials "from education and science."
The office of Dmitry Livanov refers to the methodology for assessing universities by foreign rating campaigns, in particular QS, TNE and ARWU. In accordance with this, institutions are divided into effective and inefficient. That is, the ministry unconditionally switched to the classification of our universities according to foreign ratings, which has become an end in itself. And the evaluation system that was in effect in Russia in the past century by the criterion of the demand for graduates by production has sunk into oblivion. Although the price of foreign ratings, we know. They are turned into a tool for manipulating public opinion and political pressure.
According to the Federal Program for the Development of Education in the 2016 – 2020 years, it is planned to reduce the number of universities by 40 percent, and their branches - by 80. MATI already merged with MAI. Specialized universities have joined the MAMI: evening metallurgical, chemical-technological, plant-technical college, branch of MISiS, open university. The absorption of the Institute of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAIK) and the road institute is being prepared. Thus, the specialization of universities, the effectiveness of which is proven by half a century and more experience, is eliminated. What is this if not purposeful destruction of higher education? But to justify the defeat, the international project “Global Education” is used, which was presented by a “round table” of European industrialists, uniting 47 of the largest corporations and UNESCO, as a model for the whole world. The goal is to turn education into a highly profitable business. Only instead of knowledge, competences and skills are approved - a commodity that merchants need, but not the state.
According to the “5-100-20” project, the national education system of the Russian Federation will be replaced by the 2020 year with a circle of universities, which should enter the world's best 100. To do this (under the terms of participation in the project “5-100-20”), the university must have a certain percentage of specialists, teachers and students from abroad, a third of the programs in a foreign language, publications in English in international journals. If you talk abstractly, it's a good thing. But all this, firstly, is planned to be planted in educational institutions, where top-secret works are being carried out in the interests of the country's defense capability. Secondly, the implementation of the projects “Education-2030” and “Global Future Education” will complete the elimination of national traditional schools by 2030, replacing them with global educational platforms. Obviously, the main goal of the “transformations” is to undermine the sovereignty and defense capability of the country.
What to do in this situation?
First of all, we need a presidential decree on the order of appointment to the post of Minister of Education. A candidate selected by an authoritative commission after compulsory publication in the media and public discussion of applicants' programs can take the position, each of them is obliged to provide a complete system for the restoration and development of the national school.
Tasks for the government
State authorities of the Russian Federation need to:
- to create the Ministry of Defense Industry;
- to develop and adopt the federal law “On the defense-industrial complex”, where to determine the monopoly state administration of the defense industry complex;
- to take property and finances in state corporations under state control;
-to reduce VAT rates, to abolish the collection of value added tax from advance payments under contracts of state defense orders;
-reduce land tax and property tax on defense enterprises;
- establish a zero rate of import customs duties on imported technological equipment and spare parts for it, which do not have domestic analogues;
- to exempt from the tax on that part of the profit, which is directed to the development and technical re-equipment of production;
-to reimburse enterprises interest rate on loans raised for the technical re-equipment of production;
- to develop and adopt regulatory documents that limit the shareholding of the state-owned defense industry for each type and class of troops to a specific limit, guaranteeing industry enterprises regular state orders sufficient for development and a decent level of remuneration of employees;
-to adopt the Federal Law "On Social Protection of Workers of the Military-Industrial Complex" with the establishment of a minimum wage and pension benefits not lower than that of civil servants (or extractive industries), the Federal Law "On social protection of faculty members", amendments to the Federal Law "On Education ”, aimed at reorientation from foreign ratings to training specialists in accordance with the requirements and conditions of economic development and the country's defense, the Federal Law“ On the state status of a teacher, teacher, employee ”, regulatory document on budget financing of education in state organizations in the amount of five percent of GDP;
- to establish a premium for scientific degrees to doctors and candidates of sciences working in the organizations of the defense industrial complex, to provide measures to ensure workers in the industry, including young scientists and specialists, with affordable housing;
- to set the salary of the faculty of universities in the amount of 7 – 12 minimum wage, depending on the qualifications and experience of teaching, teachers - not lower than 5 minimum wage;
- to provide for measures to provide scientific and pedagogical workers with affordable housing;
- introduce voluntary participation of universities in the Bologna process and single-level training of specialists (engineers) in technical universities in the field of defense industry;
-to consider the feasibility of organizing the Ministry of Education (with the separation of science in another department);
- introduce a system of benefits for young professionals in order to secure them in enterprises;
- to exempt from taxation incomes of educational institutions, reinvested in the educational process;
s-the Ministry of Education and Science of the practice of eliminating the specialization of universities and their association without public discussion in the media and the consent of the Council of Rectors;
to cancel for technical higher education institutions training specialists for the military-industrial complex the ranking of the projects “Education-2030”, “Global Future Education”, “5-100-20”, etc., focused on foreign standards;
- to attract the potential of business to the development of the material and technical base of educational institutions to provide for the inclusion of the relevant expenses of enterprises for these purposes in the cost of production with exemption from taxes;
- by the Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation to introduce for students studying on a budgetary basis, contract training in technical universities and colleges, providing for mandatory internship at the enterprise for three years as an additional postgraduate professional education.
To the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation:
- along with the USE, introduce the final certification in the school in the traditional form with the participation of external examiners and provide graduates with the right to choose;
- introduce students to technical universities according to the results of entrance exams;
-To provide in the educational standards of technical secondary vocational educational institutions a two-level preparation: 1-level - the preparation of the worker, 2-level - the preparation of the technique;
- to introduce in the relevant educational standards for technical universities the receipt of a working profession by students during practice;
- to provide funding for the practice of students with the introduction of the provision on partial compensation for the costs of enterprises under this item;
-cancel per capita funding for technical universities at senior courses;
-to consider the feasibility of state accreditation of private universities;
- to provide for participation in the formation of basic educational programs and accreditation of educational institutions by representatives of industry unions and associations, large enterprises;
-organize the planning (forecasting) needs of employers, first of all enterprises of the military-industrial complex, scientific research institutes and the Russian Academy of Sciences in specialists of all levels and in accordance with this, introduce quotas for admission to educational institutions that train personnel for the defense-industrial complex;
-expand the list of specialties of higher professional education, confirmed by assigning the person with appropriate qualifications, in terms of training on the main types of production (technological preparation and implementation of projects, tests and test equipment, metrological, economic, environmental support of production) that meet the trends in the development of mechanical engineering.
For some, these measures may seem redundant, even revolutionary. But we must understand that the country is at the edge of the abyss. Time is working against us. Radical, decisive, fast methods of restoring the defense industry, which is the engine of the entire Russian economy, are needed.