Military Review

Plans and reality of the submarine fleet

23
In the coming years, as you know, about 20 trillion rubles will be spent on defense needs. Part of this money will go to needs fleet. And, apparently, a considerable part. For example, the president of the United Shipbuilding Corporation R. Trotsenko recently boasted that PO Sevmash (Severodvinsk) already has orders until 2022. One cannot but agree with him that such ambitious terms are rarely met in industry: the total value of all contracts of the enterprise is 280 billion rubles. Interestingly, this is the largest volume of agreements concluded with a legal entity in our country. A worthy cause for pride.


The bulk of the orders of the Severodvinsk plant is related to the construction of submarines of the fourth generation of projects 885 "Ash" and 955 "Borey". At the moment, the plans of the Ministry of Defense include the construction of ten boats of the first type and eight of the second. Recall the number of necessary "Ash" is constantly changing - it took three dozen, then only five ships, but in the spring of this year, it was decided to stay at ten. Although it cannot be argued that after the commissioning of these ten submarines, construction of new ones will not begin. Some optimism in terms of the feasibility of the planned construction is given by the fact that in recent 7-10 years the pace of construction of the head ships of both projects has increased significantly: Severodvinsk (885 Ave.) was laid back in 1993 year, and Yuri Dolgoruky (Ave. 955) in 96. Sometimes it is said that the duration of construction is caused by the use of radically new materials and technologies. However, this version does not contradict the opinion that for the time being, the “embryos” of the boats were gathering dust on the stocks due to the lack of normal funding. Nevertheless, in recent years, money has been found, and at the moment already three new submarines (Severodvinsk and two Boreas: Yuri Dolgoruky and Alexander Nevsky) are being tested. Two more ships were laid and are under construction (Kazan "of the 885 project and Vladimir Monomakh of the 955 project).

What happens: weapons

Our submarines of the near future have a number of problems. Previously, they were mainly associated with money, and now - with a variety of equipment. The most well-known and “advertised" snag of the Borey project at the moment is the Bulava R-30 rocket. Although the last five test launches of this missile at the moment were successful, there was no less skepticism about it, as well as various jokes. In addition, the media are pouring fuel on public opinion: after the launch of the 16 in August of this year, it was reported that it should have been held a week earlier, but it was transferred due to problems with the boat. Representatives of the Ministry of Defense, in turn, soon denied the information on the launch transfer. So a series of problem-free tests can be considered continued. With the torpedo armament "Boreev" special problems have not yet arisen, in any case, if they were, then did not cause a wide public resonance.

In the same way, the arming of the Yasen boats did not attract the attention of the people. And this is understandable: their main weapons are the anti-ship missiles "Onyx" and "Caliber" of various versions and modifications. To date, both families of missiles tested, brought and built serially. And, as you know, success is not as attractive as failures.

What happens: money and not only

Another problem with the new submarines is constantly “moving out” terms. For example, when the construction of Severodvinsk received an impetus in the form of normal financing, it was planned to introduce the boat into the fleet in 2011. However, for several reasons, this solemn event was moved to the second half of the 12. Sevmash claims that the Boreas, in turn, will have to wait until the Bulava is ready for adoption and mass production. Hopefully, the next dozen submarines will be launched, tested and put into operation in accordance with the plans.

This year, as a submarine from under the ice, two similar storiesrelated to the production of boats and financial flows. In April, one Tykhanov was sentenced to a fine due to the fact that his company, under a contract with Sevmash from 2009, led to welding, did not have the appropriate license. Under the article on illegal business, Tihanov was fined thousands of rubles for 30. In turn, his company received about two million for the work done. 8 December became aware of a similar case. The details have not yet been announced, it is only known that a certain company, under the guidance of a certain woman from 2007 to 2009, spent a year of installation work on 12 millions. What will end - we'll see.

In a similar context, the change of leadership of Sevmash is sometimes mentioned. Recall that in June the general director of the company, N. Kalistratov, wrote a statement “of his own will” and went to work in the legislative bodies of Arkhangelsk. A. Dyachkov, the now head of the Rubin Central Design Bureau, was appointed to the post of general director of the PO Sevmash. In the near-fleet environment, of course, there is a version about the reasons for the resignation of Kalistratov, connected with his specific activity as CEO, on the sly. However, the USC claims that this is only a kind of optimization of the work of the “daughter” in order to improve its work. In addition, in the spring, Deputy Prime Minister S. Ivanov expressed doubts about the advisability of finding Kalistratov as director of Sevmash.

Perhaps it is precisely such stories with obscure offices without licenses that became the main reason that the Ministry of Defense was in every possible way trading with shipbuilders about the cost of contracts. In any case, one can understand the Ministry: if all sorts of small “Sharashkin offices” “graze” around a large manufacturing plant, you can expect anything. From increasing the value of contracts to the disastrous consequences for the plant. For example, Saratovsky has already perished in a similar way. aviation the plant: at one time a lot of subsidiaries appeared around it, and financial flows in them were distributed in such a way that all the profits went to them, and all the costs and debts went to the plant itself. It is unlikely that anyone in our country wants a similar fate for Sevmash or any other defense enterprise.

Underwater strategy

It would be desirable that in the future there would be no problems with financing or signing contracts due to price disagreements. If everything is really the case, then another question will become topical: where will 18 new boats go? Boreas, as carriers of strategic missiles, may be included in The composition of any of the Russian fleets. The situation is the same with the “Ash”, although in the light of recent developments in the field of missile defense systems such boats may be more necessary in the Northern Fleet. If the United States continues to develop its missile defense, namely its part, based on ships with the Aegis system, then over time we can expect the appearance of such ships in the waters of the Arctic Ocean. As is well known, it is most expedient to “conduct” intercontinental missiles through this region. Accordingly, in the future, a certain number of anti-ship missile submarines may be needed to counter the US missile defense system. The maximum range of launching of Onyx or Caliber missiles reaches 300 kilometers, respectively, if necessary, it will be necessary to fire from the water area covered by ice. Only submarines can effectively solve such problems.

True, I must say, the exact plans for the distribution of new boats have not yet been published. There is even an opinion that they do not yet exist at all. It is unlikely that the Ministry of Defense will order the equipment without having plans to use it, but there is an opinion and this fact must be reconciled. Although no one forbids him to challenge. Where exactly the boats will go to serve, and whose version will prove to be correct - let's find out in a few years, the year for 17-18, when a sufficient number of boats of the 885 and 955 projects will not only be launched, but also completed the tests.
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  1. Varnaga
    Varnaga 20 December 2011 07: 46
    +8
    Honestly, I already got the stupidity of logging machines, applying the criteria for training and combat launches to test ones. Meanwhile, after the first launches of the R-30 with DD, it was clear to specialists that the missile had taken place.
    1. Glenn witcher
      20 December 2011 09: 21
      +4
      No, the very class - when the MMG is trying to call the "throw" an unsuccessful launch, they say, did not reach the landfill. wink
      1. urzul
        urzul 20 December 2011 09: 40
        +2
        Better launches are better than not doing anything at all.
    2. Desert Fox
      Desert Fox 20 December 2011 09: 36
      +7
      The 16th in a row and the second in 2011 test launch of Bulava took place on August 27, 2011. The rocket was tested for the maximum flight range, which, according to the test results, was 9,3 thousand kilometers. The Bulava tests were deemed successful. Overall, nine out of 16 rocket launches were deemed successful. Earlier it was reported that in the current year it is planned to carry out four to five missile launches, based on the results of which a decision may be made on the adoption of the Bulava into service. Along with the missile, the Yuri Dolgoruky submarine will also enter service with the Navy. In the future, the Bulava will form the basis of the naval component of the Russian nuclear shield and will be the main armament of the Borei project 955 / 955A / 955U strategic submarine missile carriers. The ballistic missile is capable of hitting targets at ranges of up to eight thousand kilometers and carrying from six to ten nuclear units with a capacity of 150 kilotons each. The rocket is launched in an underwater position in motion in an inclined plane.
      1. Denis
        Denis 21 December 2011 10: 31
        0
        The rocket's mace is excellent, it is necessary to bring it to mind and not pay attention to journalists, we will bring it to mind and it will not be equal.
  2. vadimus
    vadimus 20 December 2011 07: 53
    +7
    As always, the water in the mortar ... Build. Do not stand still. Happy
  3. KILLAvolt
    KILLAvolt 20 December 2011 08: 22
    +7
    Our boats are the bone in Pendosni's throat! Therefore ... it is necessary to build them so that the pendos are constantly in an encouraged state ... and, with red eyes from fatigue, peered into the horizon, sitting on the banks of the Hudson River, nervously shuddering from any shadow under the water ... the periscope, then the antenna ... will transmit to Moscow that "EVERYTHING IS QUIET POINT" in New York ... and again disappear into the depths of the sea ...
    (don’t hurt, I’m far from the naval details about the boats! .. laughing )
  4. Lytzeff
    Lytzeff 20 December 2011 08: 22
    +5
    All the same, I don’t understand those who criticize the quality, referring to breakdowns and failures, because new equipment always has problems, especially on submarines with their huge number of devices and systems, this is normal, and this is eliminated during the tests, it’s good that they budged, more equipment would be modernized at defense industry enterprises to reduce the cost and time of construction
    1. 20 December 2011 16: 57
      +4
      Yes, what can I say about submarines. Anyone who has ever been at the commissioning of technological equipment knows that even here there are many problems.
    2. Passing
      Passing 22 December 2011 01: 36
      +1
      Quote: Lytzeff
      All the same, I don’t understand those who criticize the quality, referring to breakdowns and failures, because new technology always has problems

      Usually, the "childhood diseases" of new technology are of a systemic nature: for example, a certain part constantly breaks during testing, it is reinforced, and there are no more breakdowns, while Bulava's breakdowns were not systemic, ie different reason every time. The reason for this can only be two things - either illiterate design, or low-quality manufacturing. It was empirically established that the manufacturers were to blame - after each locksmith's shoulder was literally put on the FSB, the rockets no longer fell.
      Hence the conclusion: either at that plant everyone wanted to work for a penny, or a real enemy of the people conked out. Rather, the first, because the alleged pest would spoil the same detail, respectively, and the cause of the failures would be the same. So with production, everything is not at all rosy with us, and the point is not in the absence of modern machines ...
  5. Anatoly
    Anatoly 20 December 2011 08: 56
    +5
    At one time, Academician Sakharov proposed a scheme of a nuclear strike from submarines into the water area of ​​the Atlantic Ocean. As he predicted, a giant tsunami wave, justified by just one explosion, could cover the entire east coast of the United States. where many industrial centers are located and most of the population is concentrated, the country's population. Strategically, he placed submarines above aviation and mine launches.
  6. ytqnhfk
    ytqnhfk 20 December 2011 08: 59
    +5
    It’s interesting when it comes to everyone that it’s time to drive all commercial firms away from the defense industry, because it is because of them that quality and production speed are falling, they are tearing a lot of money for their services with dubious quality!
  7. PSih2097
    PSih2097 20 December 2011 09: 16
    +2
    Sevmash claims that the Boream, in turn, will have to wait until the Bulava is ready for adoption and mass production. Hopefully, the next one and a half dozen submarines will be launched, tested and put into operation in accordance with the plans.

    Okay, we'll build the boats, then we'll wait for the missiles to appear. Only now the meaning of the construction of the 955 project is lost, one is ready, the second is almost ready, two more are laid. If the mace is not brought to mind, we will have 4 SSBNs in a state similar to the 941 project (only if there is a medicine for sharks - Makeevskaya R39UTTKh "bark", then there is no analogue to the mace).
    In any case, one can understand the Ministry: if all sorts of small “Sharashkin offices” “graze” around a large manufacturing plant, you can expect anything.

    Personally, I know a couple of such “sharashkin offices”, but the result of work is much higher and better than that of licensed organizations, and how I get licenses and how much it costs, both in money and in time - I also know.
  8. starded
    starded 20 December 2011 09: 33
    0
    It’s good when there are boats, many boats ...
    But it would not hurt to have a head on your shoulders!
  9. Foamas
    Foamas 20 December 2011 09: 39
    +1
    The review is not enough.
  10. Baron Wrangell
    Baron Wrangell 20 December 2011 09: 47
    0
    defense plants collapsed throughout great Russia
  11. Col.
    Col. 20 December 2011 12: 03
    +2
    Quote: Baron Wrangel
    Boreas, as carriers of strategic missiles, can be included in any of the Russian fleets.

    Not any, but SF or Pacific Fleet.
  12. Strabo
    Strabo 20 December 2011 12: 58
    +5
    Well, at least they decided to do it themselves, and not to buy in the west. Ito is already a plus. At first, they all collapsed, but now they began to think, maybe even with their head and not in another place.

    And commercial companies need to be driven away from the defense industry for a long time - That's right.
    1. belarus
      belarus 25 December 2011 22: 43
      -1
      Sometimes one can’t do without sharashkin’s offices even with the headmaster, they do better faster and for less money — they gave space to private traders — and they think they’re grandmothers — you just need to filter out the unclean ones and work with trusted ones and with a good reputation (which you still need to earn)
  13. dred
    dred 20 December 2011 14: 52
    0
    Pendosam in spite.
  14. patriot464
    patriot464 21 December 2011 09: 23
    +5
    It is no secret that our school of underwater shipbuilding is not the second. As a boy, I envy those who will play these toys. Russians are coming! Seven feet, men!
  15. Mr. Truth
    Mr. Truth 22 December 2011 01: 12
    +1
    They decided to only have a marine component of the strategic nuclear forces in the Northern Fleet.
    I hope that we won’t get by with ten ash-trees, a ship of just chic pieces 15-20 is definitely needed for Pacific Fleet and Northern Fleet for 1-2 brigades, and you can get by with diesels in the BLF and the Black Sea Fleet.
  16. MURANO
    MURANO 24 December 2011 00: 57
    +1
    Quote: Mr. Truth
    They decided to only have a marine component of the strategic nuclear forces in the Northern Fleet.

    And why did you decide. The first 955 go to the Pacific Fleet.
    Quote: Mr. Truth
    I hope that ten ash-trees

    These ships have no relation to the strategic nuclear forces.
  17. Gonoriy
    Gonoriy 25 December 2014 16: 16
    0
    It’s strange that they can’t decide on the number of boats. Who is sitting there in the ministry?