Military Review

Project anti-ship ballistic missile R-33

The first domestic project of a ballistic anti-ship missile (ASM) P-27K for the D-5 complex was completed with mixed results. The technical tasks were successfully resolved, but the missile was not adopted for strategic reasons: the deployment of such weapons could hit the naval component of the strategic nuclear forces. However, interest in ballistic RCC at one time led to the emergence of a new similar project. Since the early seventies, when the P-27K rocket has already been tested, the design of the D-13 complex with the P-33 rocket was in development.

At the very end of 1970, the P-27K rocket was put to the test. A few months later, it was decided to develop new weapons of this kind based on a system with higher characteristics. In June 1971 of the year by a resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR to the special design bureau No. 385 (now the State Rocket Center) headed by V.P. Makeev was instructed to develop a new missile system for submarines equipped with an anti-ship missile. The entire project received the symbol D-13, the rocket was called P-33.

In accordance with the technical specifications, a new type of rocket should have been based on the design of the P-29 product, have similar dimensions and weight, and also make extensive use of existing components and assemblies. It was necessary to equip the rocket with a homing system capable of searching for targets and ensuring their defeat with high accuracy. The flight distance was set at the level of 2000 km, for hitting targets one should use a monoblock or split head.

Project anti-ship ballistic missile R-33
Rocket P-29, which became the basis for the P-33

The proposal to develop a new ballistic anti-ship missile, in the first place, was associated with the need to increase the firing range. Thus, the P-27K product was based on the construction of a single-stage medium-range missile P-27 (up to 2500 km) and could attack targets at a distance of up to 900 km. The P-29 rocket, in turn, belonged to the intercontinental class and could fly 7800 km. Thus, it was possible to significantly increase the range of standardized RCC.

Already in the early stages of the P-27K project, by the mid-sixties, general features of the appearance of ballistic missiles designed to attack mobile surface targets were formed. With some changes, these developments were proposed for use in creating the new P-33 rocket. At the same time, it was necessary to refine them and change them in accordance with new opportunities and technologies. All this, in theory, allowed to solve the set design problem.

The product Р-33 was proposed to be built according to a two-step scheme. In this case, the first stage was to be based on the corresponding aggregate of the intercontinental rocket P-29 and ensure initial acceleration with subsequent output to the ballistic trajectory. The homing system, the warhead, its own engine for maneuvering and a set of other equipment were to be located in the second stage casing.

It was proposed to equip the second stage with a combined control system based on several guidance systems. On the active part of the flight, providing the correct trajectory outside the atmosphere, the rocket had to use an inertial guidance system. After entering the atmosphere, passively active radar homing head should have been activated. Its task, depending on the mode of operation, was to search for signals emitted by the target ship, or to search for a target using radar. According to the data obtained from the homing head, the second stage was to correct the trajectory of its flight and hit the selected object.

The requirements for the unification of the D-13 complex and the P-33 rocket with the D-9 and P-29 systems primarily concerned rocket dimensions and launchers, which made it possible to dispense with significant changes in the design of the submarine carriers. The length of the base missile P-29 was 13 m, the maximum diameter was 1,8 m. The launch weight was 33,3 t. The dimensions and weight of the anti-ship P-33 should have been at the level of the base intercontinental missile.

In addition, it was required to unify the two products on the power plant. Both stages of the R-29 rocket were equipped with liquid engines of various types. The first stage used the product 4Д75, the second - 4Д76. Both engines worked on the fuel pair heptyl and nitrogen tetroxide.

Increased requirements for the firing range led to the need to use appropriate targeting systems. By the early seventies, the navy of the Soviet Union already had a search system for ship connections of a potential enemy in the oceans. Initially, reconnaissance aircraft were used to solve such problems, later special space vehicles took over duty. The development of intelligence systems continued. To issue target designation to the D-13 missile system, it was proposed to use both existing and prospective search and detection systems.

The first version of the P-33 project implied the use of approximately the same solutions as in the case of the P-27K, but with the amendment to a different basic design. So, as the first step for the P-33, the corresponding P-29 unit was considered, modified accordingly. The second stage was to be developed from scratch, but using existing designs from the previous project.

Preliminary work on the project allowed to form the overall look of a promising ballistic RCC. At the same time, a number of extremely difficult design problems were identified, without which the successful completion of the project was impossible. First of all, there were problems with the dimensions of the second stage. Equipping this product with the required warhead and the necessary control systems led to an unacceptably large increase in size. The second stage with the required design characteristics occupied almost half of the total length of the rocket. Because of this, it was necessary to reduce the first stage and reduce its fuel supply. Calculations have shown that this version of the P-33 rocket will not be able to fly the required 2000 km. The estimated range reached only 1200 km - about two-thirds of the required value.

Particular problems arose during the elaboration of the structure of the second stage enclosure. The use of a radar homing head required to equip the rocket with a radio-transparent head fairing. The latter, however, had to withstand the harsh conditions that arise during high-speed passage through the dense layers of the atmosphere. Required mechanical strength and resistance to high temperature impacts. Making a fairing with all the necessary properties was an extremely difficult task. Due to the lack of the required materials, in particular, at one time it was decided to abandon the use of the guidance system in the final flight segment of the P-27K missile.

The work of the radar systems was also associated with another problem identified during the research. With the high-speed movement of the second stage in the atmosphere, the surrounding air had to warm up to the state of plasma. The ionized high-temperature gas surrounding the head fairing could seriously impede the operation of the radar seeker or even make it impossible. To solve this problem, additional research from relevant scientific organizations was required.

In 1974, SKB-385 specialists prepared an advance design of the new rocket complex. With the help of some technical solutions, it was possible to significantly improve the basic characteristics in comparison with the first version of the rocket. So, the firing range has now reached 1600-1800 km - on the order of 80-90% of the required. Due to a different design of the second stage, it was possible to slightly increase the supply of fuel in the tanks of the first stage and thereby improve the range performance by several hundred kilometers. However, the rocket still did not meet the requirements of the customer.

At the same time there were no less serious problems. In the mid-seventies, there were simply no materials and technologies suitable for solving the problem of creating the head fairing of the required structure. Also required to continue work on the study of the plasma formed during movement in the atmosphere. Such studies could further delay the development of the rocket, since they took an unacceptably long time. At the same time, calculations showed that a successful solution to the problem of the fairing could adversely affect the overall characteristics of the rocket. There was a real risk of making the required fairing, but at the same time reducing the flight distance by about a third.

The developed rocket Р-33 in its dimensions and weight corresponded to the basic product. Its length did not exceed 13 m, the diameter of the hull was 1,8 m. Starting weight at different stages of development varied within 26-35 t. Due to maximum unification with P-29, the new ballistic anti-ship missile system could be used with the corresponding 667B submarine mine launchers. At the same time, it was necessary to equip the submarines with some additional equipment intended for obtaining target designation and entering data into the rocket electronics.

The preliminary project of 1974 was planned to be submitted to naval experts for consideration next year. fleet. In the case of a positive conclusion, SKB-385 should continue the design work, according to the results of which preparation for the tests could start. In accordance with the preliminary work schedule, joint flight tests of the D-13 complex with the R-33 missile on a carrier submarine could begin in 1980.

Loading missile R-29 in the launch shaft of the submarine project 667B. Similarly, it was proposed to upload and P-33

In 1975, the specialists of the Institute of Armaments of the Soviet Navy reviewed the draft missile system presented. After completion of the analysis, a decision was made on the future of the promising project. Moreover, at that time, representatives of the fleet determined the prospects for two ballistic RCC projects at once. In accordance with the recommendation of the fleet, 2 of September 1975, the USSR Council of Ministers decided to stop work on the P-27K rocket. The resolution to continue the work on the D-13 system with the P-33 rocket did not come out. Its development also stopped.

Two promising projects were closed for several reasons. Thus, the accuracy of targeting left much to be desired, which could adversely affect the effectiveness of attacks. In addition, the proposal to use a nuclear warhead imposed serious restrictions on the deployment and use of anti-ship missiles. In terms of new international agreements like weapon did not differ from ballistic missiles used in the interests of strategic nuclear forces.

The deployment of the P-27K and P-33 missiles was also considered inexpedient due to the limited ability to build submarines. Due to unification with other types of missile systems, such weapons could be used by submarines of existing and promising projects. However, the launch of the P-27K and P-33 anti-ship missiles could hit the number of deployed P-27 and P-29. This adversely affected the strategic security of the country and therefore could not receive the approval of the command.

In the autumn of 1975, the development of two anti-ship ballistic missile projects was discontinued. The already tested P-27K rocket and the P-33 being developed only did not fully suit the customer, not only for technical reasons, but also for reasons of strategy. The P-27K missile was the first and last Russian ballistic RCC to be tested, and the P-33 remained in stories as the last representative of his class, which has come down to full development.

According to some data, it was further proposed to create an anti-ship missile based on the intercontinental SD-100, but such a project did not advance further than a preliminary review. Due to the presence of a mass of characteristic and fundamentally fatal deficiencies of one character or another, it was decided to abandon the further development of anti-ship ballistic missiles. It was now proposed to use only systems based on cruise missiles for attacking surface ships of the enemy - there were already great successes in this area.

Based on:
Shirokorad A.B. Weapons of the domestic fleet. 1945-2000. - Minsk: “Harvest”, 2001
Photos used:
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  1. D-Master
    D-Master April 27 2016 06: 49
    Interesting article. I personally have never heard of ballistic anti-ship missiles. Of course, it’s a pity that huge amounts of money invested in the development of really suitable weapons were spent in the empty and the project was frozen. However, the developments remained and were clearly used in the development of other types of weapons.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets April 27 2016 07: 54
      Quote: D-Master
      Interesting article. I personally have never heard of ballistic anti-ship missiles.

      About R-27K missiles in the SSBN reference books there was little information, I read about R-33 for the first time.
      1. Rus2012
        Rus2012 April 27 2016 11: 49
        Quote: Amurets
        R-27K in the SSBN reference books had a little information, I read about R-33 for the first time

        ... the theme of creating homing systems at medium and intercontinental ranges NEVER remained in oblivion in the USSR-RF -
        This direction consists in the creation of controlled weapons of destruction (USP) on an interspecific basis with the maximum use of the available scientific, technical and technological resources and existing key components in organizations of industry and the Russian Ministry of Defense. USP data will be part of reconnaissance-strike systems (RUK) with precision intelligent new-generation control systemsto ensure the defeat of highly protected stationary, and later, moving goals under the influence of anti-aircraft defense systems, radio and optical and electronic countermeasures of the enemy.
        The use of VTRSO with new ones, including penetrating USP, implies their use in single and group launches, and therefore saturation of the missile defense system with false targets cannot be the only means of overcoming the territorial or object missile defense system. It is important to reduce the visibility of combat equipment in the ranges of operation of the means of detecting and targeting missile defense and air defense systems, as well as the possibility of circumventing the affected areas or reducing the time spent in these areas.

        This problem can be successfully solved with the help of USP on the basis of a modular hypersonic winged vehicle (MGUKA), tests of one of the versions of which are currently underway and of a detachable homing element (SPE).

        Along with the capabilities of MGUKA and SPE, bypassing the zones affected by the missile defense system, the necessary conditions are provided for the operation of satellite and special navigation systems and an integrated multi-band optical-electronic correction and homing system in the final part of the trajectory. The proposed construction of MGUKA provides delivery of EIT in a given area with the required parameters of its movement and their separation at high speed pressures. At the site of the marching flight of the maneuvering MGUKA, its trajectory is corrected using navigation systems and a radio altimeter.

        After separation, the POC performs an autonomous controlled flight to the target area, where conditions for the functioning of finishing guidance systems in the final part of the trajectory are provided.

        SPE is created on the basis of the existing scientific and technical reserve for air-to-surface missiles, maneuvering blocks, etc., created within the frameworks of the “Fint”, “Zigzag”, “Bolid”, etc. The integrated multirange correction and homing system together with the navigation system provides high-precision guidance of the EIT on the target, practically, in any conditions of application at strategic and medium distances.

        Reflections on the discussion of the "4202 project" in foreign media ...

        hnyh-smi.html # comment-id-4816934
  2. magician
    magician April 27 2016 09: 19
    a plus! an interesting direction in rocket science, it's a pity the topic has not been developed further.
  3. snc
    snc April 27 2016 10: 20
    It’s interesting, but if you try at the current level of technology? For example, to make the head split into two parts, the first, going along a flatter and higher path, will be using the high-resolution side radar to direct the second, shock?
    1. DenZ
      DenZ April 27 2016 15: 24
      It’s interesting, but if you try at the current level of technology? For example, to make the head split into two parts, the first, going along a flatter and higher path, will be using the high-resolution side radar to direct the second, shock?

      That is, you assume two warheads with and without radar. I understand that. Now imagine how different they will be in terms of overall mass characteristics. And how to place them in a single rocket block (of the same R-29) without going beyond its dimensions ... No way. Your option will not work even if you assume that the radar of one warhead will see another in a cloud of plasma (which also does not happen with the current level of technology)
      1. aiw
        aiw April 27 2016 22: 58
        Mdja ...

        1) there is no problem installing two warheads.

        2) the plasma cloud itself is clearly visible on the radar.

        But in terms of size, such a missile defense system is much larger and more expensive than anti-ship missiles (with the same range) - the gain is only in delivery speed (and on-board ship air defense, which is leveled out by mass in a salvo of anti-ship missiles).

        In addition, there are political issues - it will be very difficult to explain to the enemy with whom the war has already begun that this launched ballistic missile does not carry nuclear warheads and that it is too early to exchange nuclear buns.
  4. Zubr
    Zubr April 27 2016 10: 42
    Quote: snc
    It’s interesting, but if you try at the current level of technology? For example, to make the head split into two parts, the first, going along a flatter and higher path, will be using the high-resolution side radar to direct the second, shock?

    If the shock head at a speed of 6-7 km.sec. plasma did not surround, there would be no problems. At that time, this problem was not solved. And plasma, as we all understand together, is not radiolucent. Apparently, if controlled hypersonic blocks have now appeared, ours are again in front of the entire planet.
    1. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I April 27 2016 16: 37
      Quote: Zubr
      . And plasma, as we all understand together, is not radiolucent

      And what about the "recent" reports that Russian designers have found a way to use the "interfering" plasma as a radio antenna? And the idea of ​​"Comrade Mr." SNC is not bad ... maybe the Chinese are implementing it ... in a different "angle" (maybe and the 2nd "radar" "warhead" will not be "useful"! Maybe they will solve the problem with the help of over-the-horizon radar ... satellite radiometry; "radar" satellites and differential rangefinder radio command correction ...; "photon" radar .. .)
  5. Dimon19661
    Dimon19661 April 27 2016 11: 05
    Good article +
  6. Resistance
    Resistance April 27 2016 11: 40
    Ermakov Yu.N. (from "Volna") said that they fired more than 3 dozen rockets. The method of correcting the trajectory (he emphasized) before entering the dense layers of the atmosphere, and not guidance, using the target's communication means. Already during the tests, intelligence information came that the adversary learned about the tests being carried out and began to practice the reception of an instant radio silence mode.
    1. Rus2012
      Rus2012 April 27 2016 11: 59
      Quote: Persistence
      Reception of an instant mode of radio silence.

      ... laughing
      "instant radio silence" - pranksters!
      And now let's say: there are flights, several aircraft take off, several aircraft and UAVs receive a control center in the zone, several shipborne aircraft and UAVs in auto-entry mode are landing on a glide path ... and at this time "instant and general radio silence" !!!
      What will happen? laughing wassat
      That's right, "jerking off-can no longer stop" ... and anti-ship missiles are not needed when an uncontrollable aircraft at full speed will go over a loaded deck ...

      You just need to call the "instant radio silence" at the most inopportune moment! ;)))))))))))))))))))
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I April 28 2016 03: 16
        It is possible to use "ballast" (masking) radio frequencies ... ie. "real radio exchange" is simulated at these frequencies. At the "right moment", the intensity of radio emission at the trap frequencies increases ..... a passive "radio frequency" homing head is aimed at a radiating radio trap device installed on a "drone" (either flying or floating ...)
  7. Taoist
    Taoist April 27 2016 12: 09
    In fact, the problem of anti-ship ballistic missiles is not so much in the technical part (although it is quite complicated but at the modern hardware level it is completely solvable) but in the general expediency of such a solution, primarily economic. To begin with, in principle, there are not many goals for such a tool. In the end, there are a couple of dozen aircraft carriers in the world and just as many quite large surface ships on which it is not a pity to spend such expensive ammunition.
    Second, it is the ease of detecting such ammunition - in any case, it does not strike instantly, but the "ballista" glows on all radars a mile away. Of course, it is extremely difficult to intercept such a target (and even taking into account its active maneuvering), but in the end, no one canceled the nuclear warheads on the air defense system either. Again, due to the high cost and severity of the carriers, a massive launch of such anti-ship missiles to saturate the air defense system is also unlikely.

    IMHO, but I think that at one time we quite reasonably refused to develop this topic, delving into the more promising and universal topic of heavy supersonic (and now hypersonic) anti-ship missiles.
    1. BarakHuseynovich
      BarakHuseynovich April 28 2016 00: 33
      How to be ... all ICBMs will have to be removed from combat duty
  8. iouris
    iouris April 27 2016 13: 06
    I am sure that in the United States no one dares to test in practice the effectiveness of an anti-ballistic missile defense. The very fact of the presence of such weapons in the enemy suggests a certain restraint.
    The sources describe a case when the ability of the Aegis system to reflect a group attack was experimentally tested. For reasonable reasons, only 8 aircraft participated in the experiment. Everything went smoothly and on this basis it was concluded that the above-mentioned system was capable of repelling a massive attack. However, after a while, a somewhat more complicated situation developed at major exercises and the system "got up". Conclusion: the theory is dry, my friend, and the tree of life is magnificently green.
    I hope that a good nuclear war is not considered an option for testing all designs, so the next generation of such missiles will be more effective.
  9. Denimax
    Denimax April 27 2016 14: 35
    Now you can probably guide through satellite navigation, it is already being used on bombs and shells. I think for the adjustment it will be necessary to periodically transmit to the warhead the coordinates of the moving target. And if you put a dozen shells of 152 mm caliber in the warhead, then I think the AUG will not be very comfortable being under such a hail. IMHO
  10. Zigmars
    Zigmars April 27 2016 15: 16
    Plus article.
    By the way, China is actively developing ballistic anti-ship missiles, and, according to preliminary estimates, has achieved considerable success in this direction. At the end of the 2000s, the anti-ship modification of the RSF DF-21 - DF-21D was adopted, the main features of which are a complex combined guidance and target designation system (including satellite), the range of application is relatively high for RCC as a whole (1500-2000 km) , high mobility (based on a wheeled chassis), the ability to install both a conventional warhead and a nuclear one.
    Of course, evaluating the effectiveness of this model is very difficult, but - one way or another - in the Pentagon, this news caused great concern ( = rs
    I think that we should continue to develop in this area. Over time, they may still come in handy oh ...
    1. Mister22408
      Mister22408 April 27 2016 22: 32
      The Chinese have remade the GOS from the Pershing, stolen from the Americans, with the addition of ... Plus the over-the-horizon station of the Central Control Center.
  11. Sigi3mund
    Sigi3mund April 27 2016 16: 49
    Article +!
    This article, by the way, is a stone in the garden of one author, who advocates armored battleships and unsinkability of armored ships. If a warhead hits a ship vertically on the deck, and even with great speed it will flash it through. So if they create warships with thick armor, they will also create means of destruction, possibly of such a plan as anti-ship long-range ballistic missiles
  12. Zubr
    Zubr April 27 2016 20: 38
    Quote: Nikolaevich I
    What about the "recent" reports that Russian designers have found a way to use the "interfering" plasma as a radio antenna

    Well, if so, then take off my hat .. hi For this, and a hundred grams is not shameful ... smile drinks
  13. Old26
    Old26 April 27 2016 20: 53
    Quote: Amurets
    About R-27K missiles in the SSBN reference books there was little information, I read about R-33 for the first time.

    For the first time I read about R-33 in a book about Makeev’s GRZ.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets April 27 2016 23: 45
      Quote: Old26
      For the first time I read about R-33 in a book about Makeev’s GRZ.

      Thanks! I’ll look.
    2. Amurets
      Amurets April 28 2016 06: 20
      Quote: Old26
      For the first time I read about R-33 in a book about Makeev’s GRZ.

      I found only this. Http: //
      But found.http: //