Military Review

A-35 Aldan anti-missile defense complex

By the end of 1962, the Soviet defense industry completed tests of the experimental system of the anti-missile defense system “System A”. This complex was developed to test the main ideas and solutions related to the search and destruction of various types of ballistic targets. Based on the experience that should have been obtained in the framework of Project A, it was proposed to create a full-fledged missile defense system to protect strategic facilities. The new project, intended for the construction of a real working system for the protection of important areas, received the designation A-35.

The draft design of a fully-fledged combat anti-missile defense system A-35 (cipher "Aldan") was developed in the first half of 1961, before the completion of work on system "A". As in the case of the previous project, the work was carried out by SKB-30 (from 1962, OKB-30) and several related enterprises under the general supervision of G.V. Kisunko. In connection with the tests of the complex "A" and the collection of the necessary data, the project A-35 has undergone serious modifications. Design work on the Aldan system continued for quite a long time, which is why it was only possible to protect the project at the end of 1962. By this time, all the main features of the project and differences from the previous development were identified.

After the protection of the conceptual design had to revise some of the main provisions of the development. The newly discovered data obtained during the tests of the system "A", forced the authors to change some of the principles of the complex. Thus, the preservation of the principles of guidance using the simultaneous operation of three radar stations responsible for maintaining anti-missile missiles could lead to unacceptably high expenses for the construction of the complex. The fact is that for the required number of firing complexes with interceptor missiles with the old approach it was necessary to build up to several hundred radars.

Container with rocket A-350ZH on parade. Photo of Wikimedia Commons

For this reason, it was decided to reduce the composition of the electronic facilities of the complexes and redesign the project accordingly. It was suggested to follow the target using only one precision targeting station, another similar system was to be responsible for tracking the anti-missile. This technique to some extent impairs the accuracy of the guidance and increases the deviation of the missile from the target. It was proposed to compensate for the loss of accuracy with the help of a more powerful nuclear warhead. All these factors led to a serious processing of certain means of the А-35 complex in comparison with the basic “System“ A ”.

After processing the overall architecture of the complex, the composition of the funds looked as follows. To track the air and space, it was proposed to use the new detection radar "Danube-3", including various new modifications that were supposed to appear as the project developed. The exact determination of the coordinates of the target was planned to be carried out using the RCC-35 system, and the RCT-35 station was to monitor the interceptor missile. The overall management of the complex was carried out using a command-computing center associated with all means. Shooting systems based on launchers with new type A-350Zh missiles were also proposed.

For use in a new missile defense system since the end of the fifties, a radar station for searching targets “Danube-3” has been developed. With the help of several stations of this type, it was proposed to form a full field of view around the protected area. During the sixties, several new modifications of this radar were developed, differing in the composition of the equipment used and, as a result, in the characteristics. The result of all the work was the emergence of the radar "Danube-3", "Danube-3UP" and "Danube-3". Stations of the family could continuously monitor the surrounding space and at the same time track to 3 thousand targets.

Also for the A-35 system, a radar station for the RCC-35 target channel was developed. The product with a total height of 25 m with a mirror antenna with a diameter of 18 m was to carry out the tracking of a twin target (warhead and the third stage of the rocket), chosen to attack the firing complex. RCC-35 station could find and accompany ballistic targets at distances up to 1500 km.

Scheme rocket A-350ZH. Figure

It was proposed to follow the rocket in flight using the RCT-35 product channel station. On a common basis, two antennas were mounted for various purposes. The device of smaller diameter was supposed to display the antimissile on the calculated trajectory, and a large antenna was used to track it. The RCT-35 equipment made it possible to simultaneously control two interceptor missiles. The target detection range corresponded to the capabilities of the rocket.

To control the entire complex, command-computing centers of two types were developed. It was originally proposed to use a system based on the 5-92-B electronic computer. The computer used discrete semiconductors and magnetic storage devices. Two processors with a performance of 500 thousand and 37 thousand operations per second were used that solved different tasks. Later, using the 5-92-B system, the XNUM-X-X-NUMX control complex was developed.

The defeat of the target was to be carried out with the help of a new type of anti-missile, the development of which was entrusted to the Minaviaprom OKB-2. This product is known under the designations B-1100, A-350Ж and 5В61. It was originally proposed to develop an interceptor missile based on the existing B-1000 product. However, new requirements for such arms and the technological limitations of the basic design led to the appearance of a completely new ammunition, which was similar to that existing only by certain operating principles and general architectural features.

As a result of the new work, a project of a guided missile appeared, capable of delivering a relatively heavy warhead to the required range. It was a two-stage rocket with a solid starting stage and liquid engines on a sustainer. The rocket had a characteristic appearance with a conical marching stage, on the surface of which there were conical protrusions. The starting stage was made in the form of a block of four separate engines assembled in a package and equipped with stabilizers.

Tractor, TPK and rocket. Figure

The A-350Zh missile had a length of 19,8 m with a length of the first stage 7,9 m and a second one - 15 m. The maximum diameter of the case did not exceed 2,6 m, and the span of the stabilizers reached 6 m. -30 t. The missile could carry a warhead weighing up to 33 kg. It was proposed to use high-explosive charge or special ammunition 700 kt. There is also information about the development of other variants of combat equipment with other characteristics.

The characteristics of the two-stage engines allowed the 5B61 product to attack targets at a distance of up to 400 km from the starting point. Reach height was 50-400 km. According to some data, the effective destruction of a ballistic target was ensured at speeds up to 5 km / s.

For the rocket, the transport and launch container 5P81 of steel with textile rubberized covers was developed. With the help of the container, the A-350Zh rocket was to be delivered to the position where the TPC was installed on the launch device. The latter was a turntable with U-shaped racks for fastening the container. Before launching the TPK had to turn in the direction of the target and be displayed on the elevation angle 60 or 78 °. With this position of the container, the rocket was launched.

A-35 Aldan anti-missile defense complex
Loading the rocket into the container. Photo

The outline design of the A-35 complex was completed at the end of 1962. After that, it was decided to start building an experimental system. The test site was supposed to be the Sary-Shagan test site on Fr. Balkhash in the Kazakh SSR. Construction work at the site continued for several years. The construction of the Aldan complex was completed only in 1967 year. Despite the long-term construction, the first tests were started in 1962. For the first checks of the promising missile, a temporary launcher was built with all the necessary facilities. It was used for the first tests, but later several new launch systems were involved in the work.

Interestingly, even before the construction of the pilot complex was completed, a new antimissile was shown to the general public. 7 November 1964 of the year parade participants in the Red Square were a few tractors from the TPK 5P81, which had A-350J missiles. During such a demonstration, the missile containers did not have a back cover located near the nozzles of the launch stage.

The experimental complex "Aldan" was a set of tools for a full-fledged air defense system that allows you to search for a target and then attack it. A radar station “Danube-3” was built at the site. Also, in some tests, the station TsSO-P "Dniester" was used. A launch position was built with four launchers. In addition, one RCC-35 station and two RCT-35 stations were deployed. The conjugation of the facilities of the complex was provided by the Kabel communication system.

The temporary launch pad was brought to trial in the spring of 1962. Until the end of spring of the next year, several A-350Zh missiles were launched in a simplified configuration. In the future, the rocket project was changed to reflect the test results, after which new checks began. Until 1966, inclusive, experts were engaged in checking the updated anti-missile using a temporary launcher.

Launcher and station HRB-35 / Photo

By September 1967, the Aldan experimental complex was ready for the first tests using all available means. After that, all test launches were carried out using various elements of the anti-missile complex. In particular, the central command and computing complex and radar stations for searching for targets and missile guidance were used. In the summer of 1968, tests passed to the stage of paired launches of antimissiles.

The testing of the Aldan missile test system, designed to test new ideas and systems, was completed in the middle of the summer of 1970. After that, it became possible to continue the construction of the A-35 combat complex. At the same time, however, the operation of the experienced "Aldan" did not stop. Over the next two decades, this system was used to test new types of systems. New modifications of radar facilities, interceptor missiles, etc. were proposed and tested. State tests of various new ABM weapons continued until the 1980 year. In the eighties, Aldan was also used for testing purposes. Over the entire period of operation, slightly less than 1962 A-1990Z missiles were launched from 300 to 350 for several modifications.

The new A-35 missile defense system was originally designed to protect Moscow and the nearby region, where a large number of important administrative and military facilities, industrial enterprises, etc. were concentrated. The construction of missile defense facilities in the Moscow region began in 1962, a few years after the start of installation of systems at the Sary-Shagan test site. Interestingly, before the start of construction, the original plans for the number of various means of the complex were changed.

The construction of the A-35 system in the Moscow region was completed in 1967. The operation of the complex was assigned to a specially created missile defense corps, which became part of the air defense forces. By 1971, all necessary tests were carried out, after which the complex was put on alert. The complete introduction of the system took place in 1974 year. By this time, two radar detection "Danube-3U" and "Danube-3М", the main command-computing center, the technical base for the preparation of missiles and four positional areas with firing complexes were built and put into operation. In each area there were two shooting complexes with eight launchers on each: four for the first volley, the rest for the second. The entire missile defense system of Moscow had 64 antimissiles on launch and technical positions. According to calculations, this was enough to repel the attack in the form of eight ballistic missiles.

Rocket launch in the view of a foreign artist. Figure

In 1968, work began on creating an updated A-35M system. Before the modernization of the complex, two options for updating the missile defense were considered. The first implied the improvement of the existing A-35 system, and the second proposal was connected with the development of a completely new complex. The first approach was considered more profitable, which allowed to do without building a large number of new objects.

By the 1970-72 years, it became clear that the А-35 complex can no longer confront the existing threats. When the enemy used missiles with a split head, false targets and interference, the Aldan complex lost its effectiveness. In 1973, the OKB-30 specialists made a proposal for the further modernization of the А-35 system. Subsequently, the Ministry of Radio Industry, which was entrusted with supervising the work on missile defense, took several important decisions. So, in 1974, it was decided to abandon the modernization of the A-35 system. The following year, a new work manager was appointed. In this post, G.V. Kisunko replaced AG Bass players After the change of leadership, the modernization project was resumed. The general approaches to modernization were retained, but the development of individual renewal projects was carried out without the use of earlier developments.

In May 1978 of the year, the A-35M missile defense system took up combat duty. It was adopted in 1990 year. The systems of communication and control of the complex have undergone radical modernization. In addition, various elements of firing systems were refined. The A-35P rocket has become the standard weapon of the A-350М complex. From the base product such a weapon differed control system on a new element base, protected from the effects of electromagnetic pulse. The remaining characteristics of the rocket during the upgrade has not changed.

The A-350P rocket was designed in the late sixties. In 1969, such a rocket first took off from a launcher at the Sary-Shagan test site. After this, several other test runs were performed. In the 1976-77, new missiles were tested in conjunction with other means of the A-35M complex. At the final stage of testing, several types of ballistic missiles were intercepted.

Placement of the shooting range at the position. Photo

According to some reports, the modernization of the A-35 complex under the A-35M project has led to a rather long downtime of anti-ballistic missiles. According to the memoirs of G.V. Kisunko, from 1977 to 1988 for years, the А-35 / 35М system was virtually inactive. It is mentioned that at that time electric weight models of regular interceptor missiles were mounted on the launchers. Such products were a rocket A-350ZH with a load of sand in fuel tanks and with engines filled with concrete. Other equipment was installed in full, which allowed the use of missiles in various procedures.

In 1990, the A-35M modernized anti-missile defense complex was officially adopted. By this time, the systems had been on alert for several years and were monitoring potential threats. In the same year, a decision was made to terminate the operation of the experimental complex “Aldan” at the test site in the Kazakh SSR. Operation of the "combat" missile defense system was continued.

Since the beginning of the seventies, a new version of the missile defense complex has been developed. After analyzing the proposals, it was decided to continue this project and develop it simultaneously with the modernization of the existing А-35 system. By the early eighties, an alternative project, designated A-135, reached the construction of the required facilities at the site and conducting various tests. A decade and a half later, in 1995, the A-135 complex was officially put into service, although its combat duty had been going on for several years.

The launch of a new missile defense system has made it possible to abandon obsolete systems, whose characteristics no longer met the requirements of the time. In 1995, the A-35M complex was decommissioned. Some of its objects were dismantled, others changed their purpose. Thus, some radar stations from the A-35М composition were used for a long time for targeting means of a newer complex.

On the materials of the sites:
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. papik09
    papik09 April 25 2016 07: 49
    The article is interesting. To the author "+" (bold).
    Judging by the appearance of the starting accelerators, the Pavloradsky chemical plant named after the 50th anniversary of the Ukrainian SSR (this is the Dnepropetrovsk region, Ukraine) weighed out solid-fuel checkers for them. One such checker (if I haven’t lost my memory repeat ) weighed 18 tons. hi drinks
    1. Bongo
      Bongo April 25 2016 09: 23
      Quote: papik09
      The article is interesting. To the author "+" (bold).

      The article is chaotic, it has little specifics and mixed up in a bunch of "horses and people". Out of respect for the author, I did not put a minus.
      1. Amurets
        Amurets April 25 2016 14: 43
        Quote: Bongo
        The article is chaotic, it has little specifics and mixed up in a bunch of "horses and people". Out of respect for the author, I did not put a minus.

        Sergei! Hi. From what I found on the Internet, the best thing is a description of the rocket. And on the Military website, which the author refers to more or less, there is something. Here is the link http: //
        And either they keep it secret or just delete the info. At least there is nothing on the Air Defense Bulletin, and the Nevsky Bastiot site shows 404. And the start-ups are impressive !!!
        1. Bongo
          Bongo April 25 2016 14: 55
          Quote: Amurets
          Sergei! Hi. From what I found on the Internet, the best thing is a description of the rocket. And on the Military website, which the author refers to more or less, there is something. Here is the link http: //

          Hi Nikolay! A 100% reliable description is probably not yet found. Another issue is that there is a lot of confusion in the publication. For example, this photo is no longer operational positions of the A-135 missile defense system with "distant" 51T6 missiles, most of which have already been removed from the database.

          I do not understand why this photo is in the publication? In addition, I will say frankly - I personally would not undertake to write such an article. Because here you need a very deep knowledge of the subject, and you don't want to sculpt a "hunchback". No.
          1. Amurets
            Amurets April 25 2016 15: 59
            Quote: Bongo
            Frankly, I don't understand why this photo is in the publication? In addition, I will say frankly - I personally would not undertake the writing of such an article. Because here you need a very deep knowledge of the subject, and you don't want to sculpt a "hunchback".

            Yes! I agree with you. I, too, when I compared the positions here and on Sary-Shagan, noticed a problem. In addition, the increased secrecy to the air defense and missile defense of Moscow makes an unsuccessful attempt to write something more valuable. In the division I had a friend from the Moscow region. They began to disband the S-25s, replacing the Golden Eagle with the Angara, and they were sent for reinforcement to the Far East. So this guy talked more about working as a technician at TsAGI, where he ended up after college, than about serving on S-25.
  2. Engineer
    Engineer April 25 2016 08: 39
    It is worth adding that a missile with a kinematic warhead was initially tested, and after a series of failures, caused primarily by failures of a weak element base, the interception was carried out, but there was already a decision to use nuclear warheads.
  3. kvs207
    kvs207 April 25 2016 08: 58
    He took part in the construction of the starting position for the A-135. I saw a lot of interesting things. Surprising the proximity of residential buildings, and of the summer cottages behind the fence, they also did not go unnoticed.)))
  4. Executer
    Executer April 25 2016 11: 34
    I would venture to add one of the rare photos of the receiving antenna of the A-35 system (Kubinka - "Stroyka").
    Active field size 100x100 m
    Unfortunately, it has long been dismantled.
    In the foreground is a residential closed campus of officers.
    1. FID
      FID 6 May 2016 10: 20
      In the early 90's, they dismantled this object ... Here's what it looks like now ...
  5. iouris
    iouris April 25 2016 11: 39
    The impression is that the work is underway, but the missile defense system is a myth.
    1. vignat21
      vignat21 April 25 2016 23: 12
      The myth is your comments. See below my photos. And it all worked, and something is still in action.
  6. Altor86
    Altor86 April 25 2016 18: 13
    Those who are in the know know what is about at the moment. It is about, not air defense.
    1. iouris
      iouris April 25 2016 18: 31
      The Russian Federation is in such a situation that with a more or less serious threat, the delay with the first nuclear strike of death is similar. The best defense is an attack: drink first, Fedya!
  7. iouris
    iouris April 25 2016 18: 29
    Quote: Engineer
    kinematic warhead

  8. The comment was deleted.
  9. vignat21
    vignat21 April 25 2016 22: 47
    1. Executer
      Executer 5 May 2016 10: 51
      Vitaly, is there any chance of linking to a book?
  10. vignat21
    vignat21 April 25 2016 22: 55
    Radar station to "Danube-3"
  11. vignat21
    vignat21 April 25 2016 22: 56
    Dismantling the antenna.
    1. Altor86
      Altor86 April 26 2016 00: 54
      Is it Cuba? So they stole it.
  12. The comment was deleted.
  13. vignat21
    vignat21 April 25 2016 22: 58
    View from the side of the car.
  14. The comment was deleted.
  15. vignat21
    vignat21 April 25 2016 23: 02
    Computer - 5E92B
    M-500 500 thousand operas / sec.
    M-100 100 thousand operas / sec.
    2014 year.
    1. opus
      opus April 27 2016 00: 26
      Quote: vignat21
      Computer - 5E92B
      M-500 500 thousand operas / sec.
      M-100 100 thousand operas / sec.
      2014 year.

      High performance real-time radar processor
      For 5 sec - calculate 1728 times the matrix dimension 64 x 64
      matrix element is a complex number,
      coefficients of the real and imaginary parts - single floating point numbers

      The value of the matrix depends on a sample of 128 input complex vectors ...

      Calculation in software (based on Intel Core2Duo, 2,66 GHz, 1 GB)> 43 minutes

      and you need 500 times faster! wink
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Executer
      Executer 5 May 2016 10: 52
      Something wardrobes are some small. In my memory, in the 70s they stood twice as high.
  16. The comment was deleted.
  17. vignat21
    vignat21 April 25 2016 23: 05
    And this is an information input / output device on magnetic tape 5M92B
    1. kugelblitz
      kugelblitz April 26 2016 07: 14
      Eh, probably the old personas like Iskra-1256 were preserved in some places, I would love to take such a collection to myself. wassat
  18. The comment was deleted.
  19. vignat21
    vignat21 April 25 2016 23: 09
    And this is how the former A35 of the AXNUMX system near Narofominsk looks like now.
  20. Altor86
    Altor86 April 26 2016 00: 53
    Come to see closer
    1. gizz
      gizz 3 June 2016 00: 44
      There is nothing to watch. It is a sad sight. Five years ago, when I left there, only the concrete "balls" hulls and a fire station remained in place. Everything that could be cut out and handed over to the buy-up (then there was still a part there, her boss was doing this). Even the concrete road slabs were removed from the positions at the end. Everything underground is flooded with water (swamps, after all). There is a dump on the territory now. And the dachas were really almost behind the fence :) This is Nara-10, a former military town Vostok.
  21. vadivm59
    vadivm59 20 October 2019 16: 09
    just finished reading the book by G. Kisunko "ANTI-MISSION SHIELD OVER MOSCOW" by ALGORITHM publishing house. 2017 I thought that I would read a lot of interesting things, the general designer, no matter how wrong, was the first impression that the book was written not about the creation of missile defense, but about the author's struggle with competitors and envious people. like everyone, up to ministers, wanted to cover up the topic of missile defense and remove him from work on a-35. and he heroically defended it. in general, a book about the "undercover" struggle in ministerial offices, and a little bit about work on the A-35 system.