Your lot is the burden of the Whites!
Don't drop it!
Do not dare to talk about freedom
Hide the weakness of their shoulders!
Fatigue is not an excuse
After all, the native people
By what you did
He knows your gods.
(“The burden of whites”, R. Kipling. Translated by V. Toporov)
Trying to somehow help the sailors, Ieyasu ordered to determine each of them a small annual pension, and, in addition, guaranteed a daily rice ration of two pounds.
Fate favored Adams, he was close to Ieyas: the shogun valued them as a very interesting and intelligent conversationalist, and often their conversations continued for a very long time. In addition, Ieyasu had certain plans for Adams.
Will Adams or John Blackthorne had to learn a lot in Japan, where people even sat differently than in Europe.
Once in conversation, Ieyasu wished Adams to build a ship for him in the English style, referring to the Englishman’s stories about his youth and about his studies with the shipmaster. Adams resisted as best he could, denying his carpentry skills, explaining that he was only a navigator.
But Ieyasu was adamant, and returned to this topic at every opportunity. Adams he assured that in case of failure he will not bear any responsibility, and his good name will not suffer because of this.
Agreeing, Adams gets to work. The Japanese craftsmen invited to the rescue were extremely diligent. Work began to boil, and some time later a ship with a displacement of eighty tons was launched. Adams picked up the native Lifde as a sample. The work was done brilliantly, and the shogun was very pleased with the fruits of the shipbuilders labor. Adams acquired more and more trust from Ieyasu, the shogun shared his plans and secrets with him, asked for advice. Soon the Briton acquired the status of not only a friend of the great ruler, but also his adviser.
And still the talented navigator had to act as a teacher of mathematics: Ieyasu became interested in mathematical science and wanted to expand his knowledge. In addition, Adams was appointed as the personal translator of the shogun, thus ousting Jesuit Rodriguez Tsuzu, the former translator to Ieyasu.
She was literally surprised by everything: the clothes of the Japanese, and their terrific ceremonies.
Adams worked tirelessly, managing everywhere, and the reward of the great ruler was not long in coming. Ieyasu was unusually generous: Adams became one of the shogun's vassals, receiving a large estate with a servant of 80 – 90 people in Khemi, near Yokosuka, in the southeast of Honshu Island.
Adams stood firmly on his feet, he had everything he needed for a stable, peaceful life. It was not only possible to return to their homeland. William decides to marry. Adams chose to marry the daughter of Magome Kagei - an official, the head of the post station on one of the main roads in Japan. Magome Kagei, although he held a responsible position, did not belong to the Japanese nobility. Because no one could suspect Adams of self-interest. William Adams married the daughter of Magome Kagei solely for love. Mrs. Adams has become a good mistress, a tender and loving wife and a caring mother. Soon, Adams became the father of the beautiful son of Joseph and daughter of Suzanne. Their marriage was considered very successful. With all this, Adams had another child, illegitimate. But Japanese society did not condemn such a state of affairs; moreover, it was considered to have illegitimate children in the order of things. This woman lived in Hirado, in a small town on the west coast of Kyushu.
Having received from Ieyasu a large estate, Adams acquired the status of a large landowner. But the prospect of living the whole life in the village did not at all please William. Trade was much closer to him, for this reason he bought a house in Nihombashi, one of the Edo districts.
Time passed, and the Englishman Adams gained such weight in society that the Jesuits were worried if they could force the British to leave Japan. Adams was offered assistance in such a difficult task, but he refused the offer, explaining that the emperor would find a lot of reasons why he would not allow him to leave the country.
But nostalgia more and more often led Adams to a bad mood, and homesickness, first wife and child, family, and friends became intolerable. In the 1605 year, being unable to fight more with homesickness, he turns to Ieyasu with the lowest request to let him leave Japan, but the shogun was adamant. He was strongly opposed to the departure of William Adams.
The only thing that Ieyasu went to was permission for Jacob Quakernak and Melchior Van Santworth to leave Japan in order to find their compatriots and to establish contact with them. Ieyasu sent with them a letter to the Dutch inviting them to trade in Japan, and, besides that, Adams letters to his wife and friends in England.
The trip was more than successful, the letters of Adams and Ieyasu were delivered to the addresses, and two Dutch trading ships soon arrived in Japan. Adams accompanied the Dutch delegation, and only thanks to such close cooperation the Dutch received from Ieyasu the go-ahead for trade in all ports, and even in cities far from the sea. Adams was also on top of this, showing once again his organizational skills in negotiations with Ieyasu: permission was received from the shogun to organize a permanent trading port in Hirado.
William's hospitality was limitless. At the time of the negotiations, he invited the Dutch to his house so that they would have a place to rest and gather strength for the successful negotiation. Postponing all his affairs for later, Adams spent all his time exclusively with the guests. Those highly appreciated the courtesy of the Englishman, care, assistance in business negotiations. In gratitude, they presented him several rolls of excellent fabric. Since then, a strong friendship developed between Adams and the Dutch merchants, which continued until his death.
It should be noted that after many years, when the rivalry between Britain and Holland began to dominate the seas of the Far East, and several British ships were captured by the Dutch, Adams remained loyal to that friendship. The Dutch captured the English ships moored in the port of Hirado, and the captured teams, apparently, strongly counted on the help of Adams. They were denied help, which caused a storm of indignation among the British.
By the way, the leadership of the East India Company, under the patronage of Holland, highly valued ties with Adams, and any of his requests were fulfilled instantly, despite the fact that the company was far from Japan, and its leadership had no personal ties with it, they were exclusively business. Adams' services to the company were truly invaluable, and this was the reason why the Dutch tried to keep the fact that the British also started trading in the East Indies for as long as possible from him. It was not profitable for the Dutch to disclose their information about the super-advantageous Japanese market, and they did everything so that information about it would not reach the Englishmen. Under the ban came all correspondence from Japan to Europe and back. Ship crews, under penalty of punishment, were forbidden to send correspondence. The gullible Adams could not even conceive that the letters, which were sent with chance through the Dutch partners, were subject to immediate destruction by the company's officials, again for reasons of preventing competitors.
Toda Mariko (Yoko Shimada). In the film The Shogun, it is love for Mariko that helps Blackthorn comprehend Japan. But in real life, he found his life partner, a Japanese girl, and had children from her. He never returned to his English wife ...
At the same time, the Spaniards also paved the way to Japan. Adams tells Ieyasu that the goal of the Spaniards is not to establish trade links. And their plans were as follows: in the countries that Spain plans to seize in the future, first of all they send Franciscan and Jesuit monks with the task of converting as many people as possible to Catholicism. If the assignment is completed successfully, the king of Spain sends an army there, and the newly minted Catholics give them full support.
According to Adams, in this way the Spaniards were able to conquer huge territories in Europe, America and Asia. The Dutch and the British were extremely unhappy with the methods of the Spaniards to seize the territories, because they decided to unite and fight together against the invaders. William Adams did not like the Spaniards' dubious suggestion regarding the mapping of the coastline of Japan, which the shogun reported on. Adams called insanity a venture with the permission of the Spaniards to do cartography, as it endangers the whole country, makes the borders of Japan open and allows the Spaniards to calmly land the army ashore.
Thanks to Adams ’vigilance and excellent analytical skills, the Spanish army suffered a fiasco and in October 1613 was forced to leave the coast of Japan. Before they set off on a long journey, the Spaniards piled a bunch of accusations on Adams’s head that it was the cause of all their failures, and also set up the shogun against their religious activities in Japan, which prevented them from tilting Ieyasu .
Subsequently, the Portuguese and Spanish historiographers indignantly wrote that Adams put the Pope of Rome and the Spanish king in the eyes of the shogun as the two most dangerous criminals of all who can only be imagined by hanging the label of the “most terrible heretic” on the former navigator. He received this assessment for his categorical rejection of the Catholic faith.
In 1614, in the town of Urag, one small incident happened with a certain young Franciscan monk who had the nerve to take over the obstinate heretic. This monk, in his regular religious conversation with Adams, assured him that sincere faith was capable of a miracle. Adams laughed in the face of the monk. The offended priest inadvertently made a promise that he would actually prove the truth of his words. Adams provoked the response of the clergyman, and he wondered how he was going to do it. To which the monk replied that he would pass by the sea, like a dry land. Adams reacted with irony to the words of the monk, having merry, he specified the number and place of the action, on which he would like to attend as a spectator. The monk, who promised an unforgettable sight, was nowhere to retreat, and therefore a specific time was set for a miracle. News this whirlwind was spread around the district, and by the appointed time on the seashore there was a crowd of onlookers, eager for an extraordinary performance.
The monk turned out to be a man of his word: without being afraid of the assembled crowd of commoners and without departing from his convictions, he went to the seashore with an impressive size wooden cross. With great respect, he kissed the cross and entered the sea under the inquisitive gaze of the spectators. Unfortunately, the priest and the bitter disappointment of the crowd, the miracle did not take place - the monk immediately went to the bottom. The monk would surely have drowned if he had not arrived to the aid of Adams' friend Melchior Van Santworth. Jumping into the boat and violently working with oars, he swam up to the sinking monk and pulled him out of the water. The morning came the next day. Adams decided to visit the unlucky monk and find out what state he was in after bathing. Reception was more than cool. The monk continued to insist on his own, arguing that miracles still exist, if you sincerely believe in God. And on the seashore the miracle did not happen solely through the fault of the unbeliever Adams.
Such religious fanaticism, reaching the point of absurdity, confused Ieyasu, who professed the traditional Japanese religion. His associates also thought the same way, believing that only their religion could keep the society and politicians of the country within a certain framework of order and stability. A new religion will only undermine the power of the shogunate. Well, he also remembered Ieyasu that Adams had told him about the perfidy of the Spanish king, who, with the help of the Jesuits and the Franciscan monks, seized other countries. And no matter how confident the shogun is in the steadfastness of his country, the fear of the future, where the Spaniards and the Portuguese would take too much active influence, seized it. Ieyasu decided to end the arbitrariness of Catholics.
Flexible, like a liana, East and solid, like an oak, West: Mariko and Blackthorn.
In 1614, Tokugawa Ieyasu signs an order saying that all missionaries without exception must leave Japan and the churches are to be closed. The death penalty threatened those Japanese who would dare to disobey their emperor and continue to practice Christianity. The only thing that was allowed was the gradual implementation of the order, which lasted for a considerable period of time. The casket was opened simply: the shogun was afraid that this would alert the Spanish merchants, and they would refuse to trade in Japan. Events began to develop more seriously much later ...
Meanwhile, the head of the East India Company, having learned that Will Adams was residing in Japan, had equipped a British ship, the commander of which was appointed captain Saris. The instructions issued to Saris during his stay in Japan were described in detail and contained a step-by-step course of the captain's actions. Upon arriving in Japan, he had to find a quiet and safe bay in which to trade safely. For sale were offered fabrics, lead, iron and much more, which was produced in England. Saris was required to conduct an analysis of the demand for goods, their merchantability. In addition, the captain was obliged to meet, negotiate and, if necessary, ask advice from representatives of other trading posts.
The meeting with William Adams was obligatory, since it was the only Englishman in Japan who served the emperor and had unlimited possibilities. In addition, the captain is obliged to learn from Adams how to transfer the letters of the English king, which were handed to Adams before sailing. And also, what gifts and to whom it is necessary to present, who will give them and in general, how this action should take place ... In the event that William Adams, who is well acquainted with the way of life of the population, guarantees success in such an important matter and will vouch for the safety of the monarch authorities, and the Company's products will be well sold out and give a considerable profit, then, with the permission of Richard Cox and the rest of the Company's representatives residing there on the ship, they were allowed to form a factory in Japan, sending for this intelligent representatives K Companies to open an enterprise, and, in addition, import the necessary quantity of goods for the development of trade and trading station operations. And most importantly, if William Adams, before sailing a ship from Japan, wishes to go home, in order to visit his family, the captain was obliged to provide him with the best cabin, providing at the same time with everything that only a respected passenger wishes.
Having descended from the British coast of 18 on April 1611 of the year, Captain Saris 24 of October of the same year moored in the East Indies, in Bantam. At the port, spices and other goods were loaded into the holds of the Hector and Thomas, ships assigned to the ports of England. Following the instructions, the captain seconded them back to Britain, while he himself left the port of Bantam on the Klove 15 in January 1613, and went directly to Japan. 12 June of the same year, the ship moored in Hirado. Only now did Adams’s dream become a reality. Finally, the British, along with the rest of the traders of Western Europe, had the opportunity in Japan to establish trade relations and begin trading. And that was Adams’s merit.
The news of the arrival of the British ship reached William not immediately. And only some time later he was able to climb aboard the ship. Adams was greeted on the ship with honors that were relied upon to high-ranking individuals: cannon volleys, ceremonial team building - all this was in honor of the distinguished guest. Captain Saris and the British merchants were looking forward to meeting their fellow countryman. William survived a lot of exciting minutes, when he finally heard his native language. After the ceremony of familiarizing Adams with the ship crew, a series of welcome speeches and greetings on arrival, Captain Saris asked Adams and the merchants to go to a house rented from the Japanese for the duration of their stay in the British delegation. Standing at the main entrance, the British heard another solemn volley of nine guns. It was fired again by the Clown ship cannons. In this way, Captain Saris once again showed his respect to Adams, as well as to all the inhabitants of Hirado, who gazed with curiosity at the solemn procession of a group of Englishmen. The captain entered the dwelling of the British with a sense of accomplishment - everything was done, and even more than was necessary for the honored guests according to the protocol. Adams was also very pleased with the honors accorded to the guests.
As it turned out later, the joy of the meeting was short. Later, Saris made an entry in his diary. The captain complained that Adams, during the conversation, and after her, behaved like a “real Japanese”, and William insulted the arrogance and arrogance of his compatriots.
And the top officials of the East India Company, wanting to emphasize the importance and significance of their mission, trust Saris to hand the letter to the shogun, written by the King of England Jacob I.
The Shogun’s response to King Jacob I was written in a poetic, intricate oriental style and read as follows: “Minamoto-but Ieyasu from Japan responds to His Honor Ruler Iharatyra (England) through a sea envoy who has traveled a long and exhausting journey. We first received a letter from you, from which we learned that the government of your venerable country, as it appears from the letter, follows the true path. I personally received numerous gifts from your country, for which I am extremely grateful. I will follow your advice regarding the development of friendly relations and the establishment of mutual trade contacts between our countries. Despite the fact that we are separated by ten thousand leagues of clouds and waves, our countries, as it turned out, are close to each other. I send you modest samples of what can be produced in our country. All listed in the accompanying sheet. I express my respect. Take care of yourself: everything in this world is changeable. ”
By the way, His Majesty the British King Jacob I, with the characteristic disbelief of all Scots, did not believe what is written in a letter from Japan. Moreover, in addition to this, he frankly was indignant at the content of what was written, calling it from beginning to end false, and he had never seen a greater lack of ceremony in his lifetime.
Actor Toshiro Mifune played in the movie "Shogun" daimyo Yoshi Toranaga. Its prototype was Ieyasu Tokugawa.
As for the relations of Saris and Adams, they remained formal, unable to develop into friendly ones. Adams was not interested in the captain's advice, Saris considered listening to them below his dignity, which in turn greatly offended and outraged Adams. Yes, and 100 pounds sterling, which managed to get from Captain Sarees, seemed a pathetic little thing, because he estimated his services are much more expensive. The situation escalated to the limit. When Ieyasu, after long and persistent requests, finally allowed Adams to return to his homeland, to Britain, he refused. In a letter to his family, written and sent in 1614 by the same ship, he explained that he did not want to return to his homeland for one good reason: the offensive and unfair words in his address were unaccustomed and extremely offensive.
In fact, apart from the real and contrived grievances against Captain Sarees, there was perhaps the most significant circumstance that did not allow him to return to England - a Japanese wife and children, whom he sincerely and dearly loved. This was the main reason that kept him in Japan.
The contract with the British East India Company was signed, and Adams sent a letter to new employers. In it, he assured that he would work honestly and in good faith, tirelessly, promising not to disgrace the good name of the company. Adams guaranteed that as long as he lives in a country that gave him everything, goods and in general all the property of the East India Company will remain safe and sound, moreover, they will be supervised as the home and goods of the head of the East India Company, Sir Thomas Smith, and all the plans of the Company will be implemented, because the shogun made a promise to Adams to provide full support.
Typical shung, and not the most outspoken. One of those that shocked the British public.
Captain Saris, on the contrary, degraded and in every way slandered Adams, but upon returning to England, it turned out that he himself was not a saint. It turned out that Saris shamelessly, bypassing the very tough instructions, acquired a fair amount of goods with his own money, intending to sell all this in Britain. During the search, which was carried out in the most careful manner in Sariis’s private cabin, an incredible amount of pornographic books and shung pictures, also acquired in Japan, were found. The Directorate of the East India Company was so shocked by the contents of the cabin that at a meeting held in a special mode, it demanded "to take all the dirty literature from Saris" and burn it immediately and publicly!
(To be continued)