Shock ships - destroyers, URA cruisers desperately need the North and the Pacific fleets in an amount of at least 20 units - 10 each. And we have such ships, thanks to the Soviet military-industrial complex. The cruisers of projects 1144 and 1164 require only overhaul and re-equipment with modern models of radio engineering and missile weapons.
The news of the refusal of France to supply the Russian Navy "Mistral" was greeted by experts with great enthusiasm. Our fleet ships of this class "and the gift of neither nat, nor the money for not nat", as they said in a popular Soviet cartoon. But for four troughs - that is exactly what was planned to buy - would have to lay out as much as two billion euros. Apparently, someone's sick fantasy painted a picture of the suicide landing of four battalions of the Russian marines on the coast of Alaska, nothing else. Perhaps one such ship would be useful for the Emergency Situations Ministry, but not for the fleet.
Sometimes it is very sorry that the Russian land rarely gives birth to such patriotic intellectuals as Sergei G. Gorshkov. With him in the period from 1956 to 1985, the Russian fleet reached its peak of power. The Navy received a large series of first-class red-deck handsome rocket carriers. The Soviet school of shipbuilding has always stood out against the faded world background. Destroyers have always been a special feature, since the first project, they succeeded better than others. Recently, the fleet has hope. 13 February 2013, the Navy Main Board, approved the conceptual design 23560 (cipher "Leader") of the promising destroyer of the far sea zone, which introduced the Northern PKB. This is an excellent ship with rapid lines and unlimited seaworthiness, the king of the ocean zone. Looks clearly advantageous puffy and overweight "Orly Burke". A worthy heir to the Soviet destroyer of the 1-type project "Leningrad". The main armament is cruise missiles for firing at ground targets, the ammunition load is 100 – 120 units.
At the end of 60's technological gap with the USSR in the field of rocket weapons the sea became apparent to most western military experts. For clarity, let us imagine a hypothetical duel somewhere in the North Atlantic between peers (1961 of release) - the American flagship, the nuclear supercar “Long Beach” and the Soviet rocket destroyer “Grozny” (the 58 project, which, after the entry of the lead ship with a light hand Khrushchev pereklassifitsifirovan in URO cruisers). First, consider the onboard arsenals. On board the "Long Beach" there are missile weapons: RIM-2 Terrier - 120 units, RIM-8 Talos - 52, ASROC-24 PLUR. On board the Grozny: PKR P-35 Progress and Z-V-600 Wave: 16 units. Nuclear weapons on “Long Beach”: Talos had six SAM-N-6bW / RIM-8B nuclear missiles equipped with W-30 0,5 kiloton warheads in the cellars of the long-range Talos long-range SAM system, from other well-known sources of the Navy, NN, according to other well-known sources - XNTX, from other United States Navy Forms, according to other well-known sources — XNNX, from other well-known sources, the Navy 2B, NGX, from other United States sources, XNTN, according to other well-known sources, X.N.X. 5 kt) plus 46 conventional SAM-N-6b / RIM-8A. In the Terrier 10 medium-range SAM systems (from 120), the RIM-2D missiles are equipped with one-kiloton W-45 nuclear warheads. In addition to the anti-aircraft missiles, there were three nuclear ASROC (W-44) from 24 onboard. The Grozny’s nuclear arsenal is not that impressive: only four 3М44 missiles of the anti-ship missile complex P-35 of 16 were equipped with TK-11 nuclear warheads with a 200 kiloton capacity.
The US Navy did not see the special need for specialized anti-ship weapons, considering that the deck aviation with tactical nuclear bombs B43 and B58 more effective. The tasks of self-defense of the ships were supposed to be solved with the help of anti-aircraft missiles adapted for firing at surface targets. Until the advent of Harpoon in 1977, the U.S. Navy did not have specialized anti-ship missiles. Of the many types of air defense systems that the Navy of the NATO countries possess, the most adapted for firing at surface targets is precisely Talos. In it, at the initial and middle sections of the flight path, the principle of guidance by a radar beam or the three-point method is applied, in the Western technical literature - a saddled beam. Its main drawback was that the width of the radar beam increased with distance, so guidance was possible as long as it did not exceed the radius of the missile’s warhead. To correct errors on the final section of the trajectory, semi-active radar guidance is used. The missile could be launched at a surface target located within the radio horizon of the ship. Since the reflection of the rotating radar beam from the surface of the water at small angles of inclination could create problems for the autopilot, Talos SAM went up to a great height and then dive almost vertically onto the target illuminated by the SPG-59 radar beam. Experienced firing from the Oklahoma City cruiser against an obsolete destroyer, carried out in 1968, showed that a massive missile with half-empty tanks without a starting accelerator weighing 3300 pounds even with an inert warhead flying at Mach 2,5 (1800 miles in hour), has sufficient kinetic energy to sink the ship. SAM went almost vertically, striking the stern, pierced the deck, rammed the engine room, blowing the nozzle of the boiler, and the bottom, roaring into the depths. The ship broke into two parts and sank. The damage would be even greater if the warhead carried explosives. The only condition limiting the possibility of firing Talos SAM on surface targets is that at least part of the metal mast should stick out from under the radio horizon. Experienced firing determined the maximum range of 25 miles (40 km) for the destroyer. That is, in this conditional battle, a situation develops when one ship attacks, and the enemy has the ability to only defend. Why are Talos guidance principles described in such detail? The fact is that the nuclear RIM-8B does not have semi-active radar guidance, it is controlled only in the radio beam throughout the flight, so you can forget about shooting at surface and low-flying targets. It even differs externally from the usual RIM-8A by the absence of “horns” - four interferometer antennas on the outer surface of the air intake ring. The missile is designed to fire at a group of air targets flying at high or medium altitudes. The radius of the nuclear warhead is up to 1000 feet (300 meters). If she shoots at a train of four P-35 missiles, stretching for eight kilometers, it will hit at best one.
“Grozny” is capable, with an external target designation from a Tu-16РЦ, Tu-95РЦ or Ka-25РЦ helicopters, to strike at Long Beach from a distance of 200 – 250 kilometers by two volleys of four missiles. They are two echelons with an interval of two kilometers, nuclear - closing in the ranks will overcome this distance in eight to nine minutes. The first missiles with conventional warheads go to the “slaughter”, in other words, they are designed to glut single-channel Talos and Terrier SAMs and, of course, will be shot down, and the nuclear ones will get to the super cruiser with a 15 tonnes X displacement and send the charred skeleton to the bottom.
It is clear that Long Beach is an escort ship, it does not go alone, only as part of the AUG. But this is an example of how a “lone wolf” - a small Soviet destroyer with a displacement of 4500 tons can tear apart a whole herd of expensive American buffaloes.
From January 24 on 2014, works on the modernization of Admiral Nakhimov on the 11442 project have been going on at Sevmash. Technical project developed by Northern PKB. Modernization of the cruiser began with the dismantling of large equipment and systems that need to be replaced and repaired. This made it possible to reduce the weight of the structure, which facilitated the transfer from the mooring wall to the liquid pool of the enterprise. In one of the shops of Sevmash, pontoons were made to transfer the “Admiral Nakhimov” across the threshold of a floating hydraulic gate in the bulk basin. October 16 2014-th head of the Northern PKB said that after the repair, "Admiral Nakhimov" will serve another 30 – 40 years: “It will be a fundamentally updated ship, almost new. He has a good body. And everything else, except the body and part of the power plant, will be new. "
Sevmash and design bureaus of special machinery made a deal for 10 XYUM XC-3 UVP kits for installation on the missile cruiser during modernization. The contract is estimated at 14 billion rubles. Thus, the 2,559 PU SM-20 Granit 255K3 complex will be replaced with ten 45С-3 vertical launch installation modules under the 14М3 КРібр and КCR 14М3. Total ammunition will be 54 missiles.
3M14 "Caliber" showed extremely high efficiency during a combat operation in Syria. The first baptism of Russian-Soviet strategic KR took place on the night of October 7 2015. The grouping of the Caspian Flotilla in the composition of the rocket ship Dagestan of the 11661 project (code Gepard) and three MRKs of the 21631 project Buyan-M launched 26 3М14 Caliber missiles on the objects of the Islamic State banned in Russia. November 20 the same composition on targets in the territory captured by terrorists in Syria, was hit by eighteen "Calibers". 8 December The Rostov-on-Don submarine of the 636 project, while in the Mediterranean, fired a volley of four such missiles from a submerged position at its IG facilities. Immediately after the second rocket attack, all the central TV channels showed footage of the report of the Minister of Defense to the President on the results of the military operation. Vladimir Putin noted the high efficiency of the new Russian KR air X-101 and sea-based 3М14. For the first time declassified and announced personally by the president of the performance of new missiles. In particular, the world public has become aware of the operating range of the KR X-101 - 4500 kilometers and 3М14 - 1500 kilometers. If the first number did not surprise the leading Western experts, the second one caused a shock. Previously it was believed that the 3М14Э export version has a range of 275 kilometers, and the Russian version is no more than 500. Although it is worth recalling: high-ranking naval officers in the official Russian press unambiguously hinted at the range of 2000 kilometers and even 2600. The President emphasized: "If necessary, missiles can be equipped with nuclear warheads." Let's dwell on this in more detail.
There are no technological problems here, given that the "Caliber" is the direct heir of the Soviet sea-based KR 3М10 "Granat". More precisely - a deep modernization. Soviet nuclear warheads can be easily removed from warehouses, depreciated and mounted on new missiles. The range is rich. First of all, these are almost “native” 66-02 TCs with a 200 kilo ton capacity. They were installed not only on the “Grenades”, but also on the X-55 and KNS 3М12 “Relief” air-jackets, better known as the RK-55. The advanced model of the 66-05 TC increased to 250 kilotons of power was installed only on X-55CM missiles. Both warheads have the same weight - 140 kilograms. Another “candidate” is a lighter 90-kilogram low-power TC-60 (10 CT), specially developed for the Onyx RCC 3М55. The original version of the "Caliber" has a high-explosive fragmentation warhead weighing 500 kilograms. With the replacement of a conventional warhead with a nuclear warhead with the rational use of the released internal volumes of the rocket, you can place up to 400 kilograms of additional fuel, which will increase the range to a thousand kilometers. Let me remind you: KR is a medium-range sea-based not related to the INF Treaty.
The other premiere remained unnoticed - the first in stories Combat use of TFRs, equipped with fundamentally new HSS ARGS-14 - active radar, capable of working on land stationary and limitedly moving targets in a complex natural and artificially created jamming environment. That is, the GOS ARGS-14 is capable of highlighting targets against the background of a complex terrain and in conditions of active radio resistance of the enemy. In 2014, Raytheon, catching up with the lag in the guidance systems of Russian technologies for TFR, began test flights of an improved modification of Block IV for attacking surface and restrictedly mobile ground targets. The new active radar IMS-280 radar with AFAR X-band (2) band 10-12 GHz (wavelength - 2,5 cm) is able to determine autonomously by the reflected electromagnetic signal, comparing it with the archive of signatures of potential targets stored on the on-board computer hard drive. "Your" - "alien" ship or a civilian ship. Depending on the answer, the rocket independently decides which target to attack. Gradually, the ARL of the GOS is squeezing the OE of the GOS from missiles of different classes from anti-tank guided missiles to missiles. However, the trend. With the same, one might say, identical characteristics, the American GOS is heavier than the Russian by 25 percent and occupies a larger volume in the rocket. The designers warned the military: in spite of the fact that the new GOS will be installed instead of the AN / DXQ-1 DSMAC opto-electronic module, it will be necessary to remove part of the fuel tanks of sections 1, 2, 3, the total amount of fuel will be reduced to 360 kilograms. This will reduce the operating range of the missile from 1600 to 1200 kilometers. The military creaked, but agreed. Instead, they get a universal long-range KR for strikes against ground targets and full-fledged anti-ship missiles in one rocket, which they never had. The previous, outdated model of the anti-ship "Tomahawk" TASM, retired more than a decade ago, was equipped with a primitive active radar seeker AN / DSQ-28 of Harpoon missiles, and there was serious concern about the very limited ability to clearly highlight targets from a long distance. The rocket could not find the target or take the first available to the AU, including its ships. Even the installation of GPS satellite navigation receivers on all rockets in the middle of the 90-s did not really improve the situation. The BGM-109B TASM RCC had an unprecedented maximum aerodynamic range of 500 miles (800 km), but the submarine and NK commanders were prohibited from using its internal instructions for more than 200 miles. Raytheon is clearly winning the competition for the long-range advanced RCC from its rival, Lockheed Martin, with its LRASM project. The company proposes not to produce new missiles, but to upgrade the entire arsenal of four thousand existing Tomahawks. The repair kit, which costs 250 thousands of dollars apiece, includes an overhaul with an extension of the resource for 15 years and the installation of a new GPS. Completion of works is planned for 2021 year.
All last year at Raytheon, research and development on the supersonic 3 Flywheel version of Tomahawk was in full swing. With its predecessor, it will have nothing in common except the name. Instead of a TDRD, the rocket will receive a fundamentally new ramjet, which accelerates it to the cruising speed of 3 M, maintained throughout the flight to the target. The factor seriously limiting the missile technology performance characteristics is the size of the ship launch tubes (cups) of the Mk-41 ATC. The container with the missile must not exceed 21 inch (533 mm) in diameter and 266 inches length (6756 mm). The launch accelerator rocket weight is limited to 4000 pounds (1800 kg). It is appropriate to recall the DARPA Arc light program, which at one time did not descend from the pages of the media. The impression was that extremely naive people with knowledge of physics at the level of the 6 grade of secondary school gathered in the agency. The very first reports of Arc light were very similar to science fiction. In the dimensions of the Mk-41 PU, it is impossible to make an aero-ballistic rocket with a hypersonic upper stage, which has an astounding launch range - 3700 kilometers, even with a microscopic warhead in 100 pounds. The rocket was created on the concept of fast global strike. To achieve such results with the available initial data, you need solid fuel ten times better than the best modern grades in specific impulse and caloric content. In the end, the Ministry of Defense realized that DARPA was holding its nose, since 2012, they have stopped funding this program and now, in general, they distrust all the agency's developments.
Peter the Great TARKR is scheduled to be docked for major repairs in the third or fourth quarter of 2019 and completed at the end of 2022. Unlike the Admiral Nakhimov, the ship will have a mixed ammunition package from subsonic CU 3М14 Caliber, supersonic 3М55 Onyx, and is also equipped with a fundamentally new hypersonic rocket complex 3KKNNXX Zircon (Div). MIC ", No. 22, 12). The product is on the test trials, which are scheduled to be completed by 2016 year. All the missiles of Peter the Great will be placed in the same 2020 universal UVP 10С-3 modules. Unlike the American Mk-14, the Russian UVP will allow placing weapons with large weight and size characteristics: diameter up to 41 millimeters, length up to 750 millimeters, starting mass up to 9000 kilograms for rockets on liquid fuel and up to 4000 kilograms for solid propellants. This gives significant advantages in range (up to 4500 km), speed and combat load.
Younger brothers "Kirov"
As part of the Soviet Navy, by the middle of 1989, there were approximately 1000 surface ships and 377 submarines (including atomic 189). Of these, 276 and 338, respectively, were capable of carrying nuclear weapons. Surface forces consisted of seven aircraft-carrying cruisers, 34 cruisers, 52 destroyers, 119 large and small anti-submarine ships and 65 rocket corvettes. The main strategic strike force was the 64 SSBN, which had onboard 980 ballistic missiles capable of delivering nuclear weapons to the 2956 intercontinental range. The Soviet Navy at that time was able to wage armed struggle on the sea and ocean expanses with any enemy, successfully resisting the most powerful fleet - the American and the dwarf fleets of NATO countries at the same time.
The modern Russian fleet is the pale shadow of the mighty Soviet Navy. The project of the last Soviet missile cruiser 1144 began to be developed in the middle of the 60-s. The first ship from the series of five units was laid on the Baltic GCC in Leningrad 26 in March 1974 of the year and became operational in the 1980. He received the name "Kirov". Cruisers of this type are the world's largest combat surface ships, laid down after World War II, except for aircraft carriers. Displacement - 24 500 tons, length - 251 meter. The power plant is nuclear, has the full power of thousands of horsepower 140. Travel speed - 31 node. Crew - 728 officers and sailors. The cruiser carries three Ka-27 (Helix) helicopters. The main armament of the ship - 20 supersonic anti-ship missiles 3М45 "Granit" with a range of 600 kilometers. The second cruiser, the Frunze (renamed Admiral Ushakov from 1992), was put into service on 1984. Both ships were in the fleet reserve for some time. Currently, "Kirov" dismantled metal. "Admiral Ushakov" - in a sludge in the Abrek Bay in the Far East. The other two ships, the Admiral Nakhimov and Peter the Great, which were laid out as Kalinin and Yuri Andropov in 1983 and 1986, entered service in 1988 and 1998 respectively. Construction of the fifth ship in 1989-m was canceled.