Military Review

Shadow over the Balkans. Siege of Constantinople by the Turks in April-May 1453

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Shadow over the Balkans. Siege of Constantinople by the Turks in April-May 1453

Fragment of the panorama dedicated to the fall of Constantinople



By the middle of the 15th century, the Byzantine Empire (or rather, what was left of it) looked like a relic of a long time sunk in the ancient world. A small shred of coasts on the coast of the Bosphorus, several small enclaves in the south of Greece in the Peloponnese - that's all that remained of the once huge state, whose possessions extended in three parts of the world. On the north coast of Asia Minor there was another state entity that formally related to Byzantium - the Trapezund Empire, formed after the seizure of Constantinople by the Crusaders in 1204. .

A new force has come from mountainous Asia Minor. At first, its presence was felt by the inhabitants of the Balkans, but soon an unpleasant chill swept across Europe. The state of the Seljuks under the leadership of Osman I, formed on the ruins of the Seljuk Sultanate, quickly began to absorb friends and enemies and, thanks to the gentle attitude towards the vanquished and religious tolerance, was spread out over most of Asia Minor. In 1352, the Ottomans first landed on the European coast of the Dardanelles. At first, the threat was not taken seriously - and in vain. Already in 1389, the Turks defeated a united Serb army on the Kosovo field. While Serbia was bleeding in Europe, people were arguing about eternal questions: “What to do?” And “Who will lead?”. The belated outcome of the debate was the battle of Nikopol 1396, in fact, the last major crusade. The “national team” of Europe (and many in general preferred the role of spectators) was utterly defeated. The Balkans simply fell into the hands of the Ottomans - Byzantium was reduced to a tiny size, the Bulgarian kingdom was fragmented. The closest neighbor, the Kingdom of Hungary, was only gathering strength to counter aggression.

Tarnished gold

The capture of Constantinople worried the rulers of the Muslim East since the period of the Arab conquests, that is, from the VIII century. The Turks called the capital of the Christian Empire “Kizil-elma”, “Red Apple”, referring to the value of this still substantial tidbit. Nineteen-year-old Sultan Mehmed II, a poet and a dreamer (in between military affairs), having established himself on the throne in 1451, decided to finally get rid of such an annoying neighbor as the Byzantine Empire in the person of its tiny fragments. The situation of the young Sultan, who recently took the helm of the state after the death of his father Murad, was very precarious, and to raise, as they say now, his political rating and his own prestige, a convincing victory was necessary. There was no better candidate than Constantinople, which was actually in the middle of the Ottoman possessions. In addition, the Turks were seriously worried that Venice or Genoa might use the convenient harbor as a parking lot or naval base for their fleet. Initially, the neighbors, and the Byzantine emperor, too, regarded Mehmed II as an inexperienced young man - this was their mistake. The “inexperienced” young man, who, incidentally (probably due to inexperience) ordered his younger brother Akhmet to be drowned in the pool, had very competent and warlike advisers - Zaganos Pasha and Shihab al-Din Pasha.


The last emperor of Byzantium, Constantine XI, a monument in Athens


Emperor Constantine XI took rather rash diplomatic steps and began to seek concessions for Byzantium, hinting at the possibility of unleashing a civil war within the Ottoman state. The fact is that one of the claimants to the throne, the grandson of Sultan Bayazid I Orhan, lived in Constantinople as a political emigrant. Such maneuvers of tiny Byzantium infuriated the Turks and further strengthened Mehmed in his desire to seize the ancient city. The young sultan took into account the mistakes of his predecessors - the Turks did not besiege Constantinople for the first time. Last time, this attempt was carried out by his father Murad II in the summer of 1422. At that time, the Turkish army did not have enough fleet or powerful artillery. After an unsuccessful bloody assault, the siege was lifted. Now, the future campaign was taken seriously and thoroughly.

By order of Mehmed II, on the European coast of the Bosphorus, Ruseli-Hisar fortress was forcedly erected, which means “a knife at the throat”. To build this fortification, several thousand workers were driven. To speed up the process was widely used stone from nearby dismantled Greek monasteries. The construction of Rumeli-Hisar was completed in record time (no more than five months) by the spring of 1452. A garrison of 400 men under the command of Firuz Bey was stationed in a fortress armed with impressive bombards. His duties included the collection of duties from passing ships. Not all were ready for such changes - a large Venetian ship passing by the fortress refused to stop for inspection, after which it was immediately sunk by a large stone core. The team was beheaded, and the dull captain was impaled. Since then, unwilling to pay for the passage markedly diminished.

In addition to the newly built fortress, the newly appeared Turkish fleet appeared in the Bosphorus - initially in a small amount: 6 galleys, 18 haliots and 16 transports. But its increase, given the resources of the Ottomans, was only a matter of time. The emperor, quite clearly aware of the threat that Turkish preparations pose and which they are directed against, sent a delegation to Mehmed II with the appropriate gifts - to find out the intentions. Sultan did not accept them. The insistent Emperor sent ambassadors twice for “dialogue,” but in the end, angry either with Constantin’s obsession or his dullness, Mehmed ordered to simply decapitate the Byzantine “crisis management commission”. This was the actual declaration of war.

It cannot be said that in Constantinople they were idle. At the very beginning of the Turkish preparations, embassies were sent to the West with requests for help. By signing the Union of Florence in 1439 with the Catholic Church and acknowledging the dominance of the latter, Byzantium counted on the support of the Pope of Rome and other heads of state of Europe. This union itself, in fact subordinating Orthodoxy to the Holy See, was perceived by a part of the clergy and the public far from unequivocally. This alliance was adopted in the face of the ever increasing threat from the East in the hope that in the case of direct aggression against Byzantium "the West will help us." And such a moment has come. The Byzantine ambassadors poured doorsteps at the Pope’s residence, hoping to get some guarantees. Indeed, Pope Nicholas V appealed to the European monarchs to organize another crusade. But enthusiastic appeals were met without enthusiasm. Large and small kingdoms were absorbed in their own problems - no one showed a desire to fight because of "some Greeks." In addition, for a long time Orthodoxy was presented by the Roman Catholic ideology as a dangerous heresy, which also played a role. As a result, Konstantin XI, waiting in vain for help from the “Western partners,” found himself face to face with a large Ottoman state, which in military power exceeded tiny Byzantium by an order.

Sultan is preparing

All autumn 1452, the city of Mehmed held in continuous military preparations. To the then Turkish capital Edirne, troops were arrested throughout the country; weapons. While the practical component of the war was being created under the sound of blacksmith's hammers, the sultan paid tribute to the theory: he carefully studied various treatises on military art, manuscripts and drawings. The great Italian scientist and traveler Kyriaco Pizzicoli, or Kyriaco from Ancona, rendered him a great help in comprehending the difficult science. Another "military expert" who had rendered the Turks considerable assistance in the future siege of Constantinople was the Hungarian cannon master Urban. At first, he offered his services to Constantinople, but the reward that they promised there did not suit him. According to one version, the Emperor was stingy, but rather, the extremely impoverished Empire simply did not have the means. Mehmed inquired whether the master could make an instrument capable of piercing the walls of Constantinople, and received an affirmative answer. The first cannons produced by Urban were tested near the Sultan's palace and after successful tests they were sent into service with the Rumeli-Hisar fortress.

Preparations were made in Byzantium. Constantinople, although it was considered by inertia a Great City, but it was very outdated and lost its former gloss. On the eve of the imminent siege of the capital of Byzantium began the exodus of the population, and to its beginning in the once almost million city no more than 50 thousand inhabitants remained. By order of Constantine began the creation of food supplies, residents of nearby villages were resettled in the city. A special fund was created, where funds and donations flowed not only from the state, but also from private individuals and, of course, the church. Many churches and monasteries donated expensive jewelery for coin minting.


Condottiere Giovanni Giustiniani Longo


From a military point of view, everything was unfavorable. First, the walls of Constantinople, although they had an impressive appearance, but decayed and demanded repairs. The required number of soldiers was not there either - it remained to rely on mercenaries. Concerned about the sinking of their ship by the Turks, and most importantly, the threat of losing trade with the whole Black Sea, the Venetians sent small contingents of troops and equipment to Constantinople, and in the meantime began to prepare a military expedition to help the Greeks. Unfortunately, the Venetian squadron arrived in the Aegean Sea too late - the city had already fallen. Genoa, the eternal trade rival of the Republic of Venice, also took part in military preparations. In January, 1453, in the Golden Horn, arrived then condotier Giovanni Giustiniani Longo with a hired detachment of 700 people and large stocks of military property. Professionalism and knowledge of Longo were so high that Constantine appointed him commander of the land defense of the city. In the current situation, the Vatican also decided to take advantage of it. Taking advantage of the plight of the Greeks, Cardinal Isidore was sent to Byzantium with a proposal to go beyond the framework of the Union of Florence and merge the two churches into one. The squad archers brought with him from 200 were regarded as the vanguard of a huge army, and 12 December 1452 was served in the Hagia Sophia joint service with the Catholics. The population and part of the clergy reacted with doubt to such an idea, given the Vatican’s long-standing "benevolent" attitude to Orthodoxy and its apparent self-interest in a difficult situation. Unrest occurred in Constantinople. The promised help was not followed. As a result, to protect the walls with a total length of 26 km, at the disposal of Konstantin XI there were no more than 10 thousand people, of whom 3 thousand were foreign mercenaries. The naval forces besieged did not exceed the 26 ships, of which only the 10 were Greek. Once a huge Byzantine fleet became historyas the mighty empire itself.

By the beginning of 1453, Turkish preparations were proceeding at a high rate. Mehmed II himself planned to seize Constantinople in a short time, until in Europe they came to their senses and moved from “letters of support” to something more substantial. For this purpose, there was not only a large and rapidly forming land army, but also a fleet. In addition, great hopes were pinned on the activities of the "field design bureau" under the leadership of Urbana. True, the sultan wanted to seize the city in a relatively solid state and with a more or less preserved living population as future subjects. The plans of the defending side were reduced to a maximum tightening of the siege in the hope that the Turks did not have enough resources and patience, but most importantly, great hopes were pinned on the help of Europe. As it turned out, these were vain hopes - only Venice set up a fleet with an airborne detachment that came too late. Genoa, despite the Longo initiative, formally remained neutral. The nearest ground force in the face of the Kingdom of Hungary and the regent Janos Hunyadi demanded that the Greeks make territorial concessions and was in no hurry to fight. The vassal of the Turks, the ruler of Serbia, George, in general, deployed auxiliary contingents for the Turkish army. Back in the fall of 1452, the Turks invaded the Peloponnese and took control of the local Byzantine enclaves, ruled by the brothers Emperor Thomas and Demetrios. Constantinople was actually isolated - there was only the sea for communication with it.

At the end of winter, 1453, Mehmed II, arrived from Greece in Edirne, where the formation of the army was completed. According to various estimates, it numbered from 100 to 120 to thousands of people, including the Janissary Corps, regular and irregular units, as well as contingents from vassal states. Great attention was paid to the transportation of artillery, first of all, the products of the master Urban. To prepare for the transportation of the huge bombarders, a special engineering team was created from 50 carpenters and 200 excavators who were engaged in the arrangement of the road. The main bombardment of Urbana was dragged by a team of 60 oxen, who were assisted by 400 people.

Already in February 1453, the advanced Turkish troops began to occupy one after the other Greek cities on the coast of the Marmara and Black Seas. Those who surrendered without resistance were saved lives and even property. By such methods, the Turks stimulated the local population to change citizenship. Resisting blocked and left for later. The Turkish fleet, totaling more than 100 ships, mainly rowing, concentrated in Gallipoli, and in March moved to the nearest approaches to Constantinople, electing the Bay of Two Columns north of Galata as the forward base. The Greeks did not yet fear the Turkish ships, since the entrance to the Golden Horn Bay was securely closed by a massive metal chain. In March, in the area of ​​the Rumeli-Hisar fortress, the ferry of the main forces of the Turkish army began: first, cavalry and Janissaries, followed by infantry and carts. Everything that was possible for the defense of the city was already done. During the winter, the old fortifications were repaired, and they created detailed lists of those capable of holding weapons; however, when this information was brought to the emperor, he ordered them to be kept in strict confidence, because the numbers were depressingly small. The forces of the defenders were distributed in the most threatening areas, primarily in the areas of the gate. The less dangerous were limited to pickets and sentries. The smallest protection put up from the Golden Horn, so far completely controlled by the Greeks and allies. The central area of ​​defense with a detachment of 2 thousand mercenaries and Greeks headed Giustiniani Longo. There was an operational reserve of a thousand warriors. Constantinople had a large number of cold arms, but there were few guns.

On the walls!


The Siege of Constantinople


23 March Mehmed II arrived with the main forces under the walls of Constantinople and camped about 4 km from the city. Artillery was concentrated in 14 batteries along the city wall. In the afternoon of April 2, the Greeks finally blocked the Golden Horn chain, and on April X, Turkish troops began direct siege work no more than 6 km from Constantinople. The Rumelian (that is, the troops recruited in the Balkans) constituted the left flank of the line, the Anatolian - the right. In the center, on the hill Maltepe, located the rate of the Sultan. Part of the elite units was in reserve in the camp. Christian sources, clearly exaggerating, claimed that no less than 1,5 thousand had gathered under the walls of Constantinople at the walls of Constantinople, although more realistic figures point to 200 thousand soldiers and a large number of workers who were besieged were obviously perceived as soldiers.

According to one version, before the start of a full-scale siege, parliamentarians were sent to Konstantin XI with a proposal to surrender in exchange for preserving the lives and property of citizens. The head of state himself had to leave his capital, and in this he would not be obstructed. Konstantin said that he agreed to the indemnity and the loss of any of his few territories, but he refused to surrender the city. April 6 Turkish batteries opened fire on the positions of the Greeks. On April 7, the Turks launched an attack on the advanced fortifications of the Byzantines, using mostly auxiliary infantry. The attackers captured several forts brought forward. Captured prisoners there were demonstratively executed in front of the besieged. The insufficient number of guns in the Greeks did not allow them to conduct an effective counter-battery struggle and concentrate on the destruction of the infantry. With this task, the serf artillery, headed by the Bocciardi brothers, successfully coped throughout the siege. In the early days of the siege, the defenders made several fairly successful attacks, but soon Giustiniani Longo, finding that the losses in these actions exceeded the result, ordered that all efforts be focused on protecting the outer perimeter.

There was a pause in the siege - the Turks were shuffling their artillery batteries, transferring some of them to the most appropriate positions. April 11 Ottoman artillery resumed shelling, which now almost did not stop. At this time, the Hungarian ambassador arrived in the Turkish camp as an observer - “to sort out the situation”. According to the historians of the time, the Hungarian even helped the Turks with advice on how to arrange the instruments correctly. On average, guns made from 100 to 150 shots per day, consuming up to half a ton of gunpowder. On April 12, the Turkish fleet attempted to break into the Golden Horn, but was beaten off by an allied squadron. Higher-boring ships of the Greeks and Venetians allowed more effective fire. On the night of 17 on 18 on April, the Ottomans launched a local night attack in the Mesotheichon area, but after a four-hour battle, the besieged held their positions. The failed fleet Mehmed II sent to the capture of the Byzantine Prince Islands in the Sea of ​​Marmara. All of them, one by one, came under the authority of the Sultan, only the largest of the archipelago, Prinkipos, resisted the invaders.

Meanwhile, Pope Nicholas V, whose admonitions did not bring significant results, rendered all possible assistance to Constantinople by sending out three chartered Genoese galleys loaded with weapons and various supplies. All the beginning of April, this detachment was waiting for a fair wind near the island of Chios. Finally, on April 15 he blew out, and the ships freely entered the Sea of ​​Marmara. On the way they were joined by a Greek ship sailing from Sicily, loaded with grain. The 20 of April flotilla was already in sight of Constantinople. Mehemed II immediately ordered the fleet commander Admiral Baltoglu to go to sea and intercept the enemy. Because of the strong southern wind, the Turks had the opportunity to use only rowing ships, whose crews were reinforced by janissaries. To the sounds of pipes and drums, the Turks went on the attack, with an overwhelming numerical superiority. However, a sharp and long braid hit a sturdy stone. At long range, the Genoese and Greeks inflicted heavy damage to the enemy from the sides of their high ships, and then Baltoglu ordered to take galleys aboard. The main attack was aimed at a weakly armed Greek grain carrier. His crew, commanded by Captain Flatanelos, bravely beat off attack after attack, and, according to eyewitnesses, he used the famous "Greek fire". In the end, the four ships moored against each other, forming a monolithic floating fortification. By evening, the hushed wind blew again, and at dusk, to the exultant cries of the defenders of Constantinople, the flotilla entered the Golden Horn. Sultan was in a rage - Baltoglu was removed from all his posts and bits and whips. Execute an experienced military leader Mehmed did not dare.

While battles were boiling on the sea, and the whips unmercifully whipped back Baltoglu, the Turks decided to carry out a bold vision, which brought them an important tactical advantage and influenced the course of the company. It is not known for certain who prompted Mehmed to equip portage between the Bosphorus and the Golden Horn Bay: was the idea born among the Turkish command itself, or was it suggested by the numerous European “business people” around the Sultan's headquarters. In any case, the transportation of ships by portage was known in the East - in XII Salah ad-Din in this way transferred ships from the Nile to the Red Sea. On April 22, under the cover of shelling, the Turks began dragging their rowing boats along dragging into the Golden Horn. Around noon, an entire flotilla of Galiots was located next to the besieged city.

A secret meeting was immediately convened on a set of measures to prevent the threat. The only correct decision for the Venetians was the attack of enemy ships under the cover of darkness. They decided to hide the plan from the formally neutrality of the Genoese ships and postponed the attack until April 24, since the Venetians had to prepare their ships by protecting them with bales of cotton and wool. However, the Genoese were known to the 24 number about the idea and were offended by the fact that they want to deprive them of their fame. The attack was postponed until April 28, already involving the Genoese, but by that time only the deaf and dumb did not know about it in the city. When the flotilla of the allies finally attacked the Turks, who greatly added in quantity, because they did not experience a shortage of manpower, she was met by heavy gunfire from the Galiotov and coastal batteries. Part of the ships besieged was sunk, part was forced to go back. The next day, the Turks publicly executed all captured sailors. In response, the Greeks beheaded the Turks who were in their captivity. But now the Turkish fleet firmly entrenched in the Golden Horn. Part of it was located in the Bosphorus, and the besieged constantly had to keep their forces at the chain. 3 May a small Venetian brigantine with a crew of volunteers left Constantinople and went in search of the Venetian fleet, which allegedly should have been nearby. The news of the preparations of Venice brought with them burst ships.

In the meantime, the situation of the besieged was getting worse. Turkish engineers built a pontoon bridge across the Golden Horn, which allowed unimpeded transfer of troops and artillery from one bank to another. The bombardment continued - the refurbished giant bombardment, the “Basilica” of Urban, was again pushed into position. This product had tremendous penetrating power at that time and was capable of sending cores weighing half a ton over a distance of almost 2 km. In the area of ​​the gates of St. Roman 7 in May, the Turks, with the help of the Basilica, made a gap and even carried out a tactical breakthrough, which they managed to neutralize with a decisive counterattack.

Widely using specially sent Serbian miners, the Ottomans began to dig undermines. Those besieged successfully opposed them. On May 16, one of the mines was blown up along with the sappers in it. 21 May another mine was flooded with water. 23 May in the underground battle was captured prisoners who indicated the whereabouts of all the other mine-digs, soon destroyed. They used the Turks and large siege towers lined with camel and buffalo skins. 18 and 19 may, during successful raids, some of these towers were blown up and burned. Nevertheless, Constantinople was in a critical situation. There was nothing to replace the loss of personnel - while repelling attacks in the second half of May, sailors had to be removed from ships. The destruction of the walls and towers under continuous Turkish fire was widening - the townspeople so far repaired the damage, but it was becoming more and more difficult to do so. To top it all, natural phenomena had an impact on the fighting spirit of the defenders of the city. On the night of May 24, a lunar eclipse occurred, and the next day the brigantine returned, sent in search of the Venetian fleet, which she naturally did not find. The procession, which took place soon, was forcedly stopped due to heavy rain and hail. Having information that the spirit of the defenders of Constantinople is falling, Mehmed II sent parliamentarians to the city with the last offer of surrender. Konstantin XI responded with a resolute refusal and a statement that he would die with his city. The Turks began to prepare for the general assault.

Assault

26 May Mehmed convened a military council for the final disposition. The army was solemnly announced that an assault was soon to come, and the city would be given to plunder for three days. It was greeted with ordinary enthusiasm. Inspired by the promise of rich booty, the soldiers began to prepare for the assault. 28 May was officially declared a day of rest and repentance. Sultan toured his troops, encouraging them and talking with the soldiers. All basic preparations were completed by one in the morning on May 29. Prepared and besieged, doing what was within their limited forces. The gaps in the walls were somehow repaired, scarce reserves were redistributed. The most combat-ready part of the defenders in the amount of about 3 thousand. were in the area already heavily destroyed the gates of St. Romana. Immediately, most of the firearms in the city were concentrated.

Approximately three hours before dawn, the Turkish line lit up with artillery shots - the assault began. Irregular parts rushed to the walls first - bashi-bazouks and volunteers. They suffered huge losses, and in two hours Sultan ordered them to retreat. In the predawn twilight, the Anatolian infantry was thrown into the case, protected, unlike bashi-bazouks, with armor and much more disciplined. And this time the attacks were repelled. The attempt to land troops from ships in the Golden Horn on the fortress walls was also unsuccessful. Then Sultan threw his last but impressive argument - a fresh Janissary corps. The Janissaries attacked calmly, without musical accompaniment, clearly observing the line. Their onslaught was incredibly strong, but the defenders were not inferior to them in valor. Finally, in the midst of the attack, one of the Janissaries noticed that the door of the Cerkoport, a small gate used for organizing attacks, remained open and unattended in the wall. Around 50 warriors snuck through it and raised the battle flag on the fortress walls. Around the same time, another fatal accident played into the hands of the Turks. Reflecting the attacks of the Turks at the gates of St. Roman, Longo was seriously wounded: a bullet fired from above punched his shoulder, injuring his lung. Condottier asked to carry him to the rear of the dressing. The nearby emperor Constantine implored the Italian to remain in positions, but apparently the spirit of Longo was undermined by injury. He was carried to the port. The soldiers of Giustiniani, seeing that their leader was not with them, succumbed to panic and flinch. At the same time, the Turkish flag was seen on the wall. The Sultan and his commanders threw into the breakthrough all that was. The line of defenders hesitated - the panic began to develop rapidly. A rumor spread that the Turks across the Golden Horn broke into the city.

The exact place of death of the last emperor of Byzantium has not been established, but there is an assumption that he fell with a weapon in his hands in the area of ​​the gates of St. Roman. Giustiniani Longo was in the dressing when he was informed of a breakthrough — he immediately ordered his people to call off the pipe signal. Ottoman troops flowed into the city. The Italians managed to disconnect the chain, blocking the exit from the Golden Horn, and give way to the Venetian and Genoese ships, which were joined by several Byzantine. Foci of organized resistance were extinguished one by one. Bashibuzuki, the sailors from the ships immediately rushed to rob everything that came to hand. They broke into Hagia Sophia and began to take hostages among notable citizens.


J.-J. Benjamin-Constant “Entry of Mehmed II to Constantinople”


In the afternoon of May 29, Mehmed II drove solemnly into the downed city. After the allotted time, all the robberies were stopped, and the disobeyed orders were executed. It is believed that much less civilians died during the assault on Constantinople than during the seizure by French knights in 1204. A new civil administration was appointed from among the Greeks. Sultan also said that he would not interfere in the affairs of the Orthodox Church. Mehmed II officially took the title of Sultan and Lord of the Romans, clearly hinting at the continuity of the Roman Empire. The Byzantine Empire, which existed for a thousand years, ceased to exist. Instead of a tiny archaic state, a new powerful force appeared on the world stage, the Ottoman Empire, which forced the European rulers to shudder for more than one hundred years.
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik April 18 2016 07: 20
    +8
    A powerful new force appeared on the world stage, the Ottoman Empire, which made the rulers of Europe shudder for hundreds of years... Judging by the latest events and now makes Europe shudder .. Thank you, Denis .. healthy ..
    1. Hagakure
      Hagakure April 18 2016 09: 14
      +3
      I would advise you to see a gorgeous dock. film - The death of an empire. Archimandrite Tikhon (Shevkunov)
    2. Spnsr
      Spnsr April 18 2016 11: 18
      +2
      This alliance was adopted in the face of an ever-growing threat from the East in the hope that in the event of direct aggression against Byzantium, "the West will help us."
      as if the author makes a predestination for the course of events! laughing
      and the plot
      under the cover of shelling, the Turks began to drag their rowing vessels dragging them into the Golden Horn. Around noon, a whole flotilla of galliots was near at the besieged garden.
      painfully reminiscent of another story ...
  2. Cartalon
    Cartalon April 18 2016 07: 29
    +9
    Worse only to read about 1917
  3. Korsar4
    Korsar4 April 18 2016 07: 55
    +14
    If the period of withering of the state has come, a fall is inevitable. And no Genoese will help. And the Catholic Church, as usual, only pursues its own interests.
  4. V.ic
    V.ic April 18 2016 08: 12
    0
    Of the Greeks, a new civil administration was appointed. Author Denis Brig

    These "collaborators" who settled mainly in the Phanar area were nicknamed "Phanariots". In the 19th century, during the next revolt of the Janissaries, the ranks of the "Phanariots" were greatly thinned out.
    1. Mikhail Matyugin
      Mikhail Matyugin April 18 2016 13: 23
      +5
      Quote: V.ic
      These "collaborators" who settled mainly in the Phanar area were nicknamed "Phanariots". In the 19th century, during the next revolt of the Janissaries, the ranks of the "Phanariots" were greatly thinned out.

      In vain you are so about the Greeks - it was the only opportunity to survive. So the entire population of Vladimir-Suzdal (and what’s the whole of Kiev) Russia can be written down as Mongolian collaborators.

      And the Turks and their allies - they very much loved to slaughter the unarmed population.
  5. Jarilo
    Jarilo April 18 2016 08: 26
    +2
    The petty conspiracies and intrigues of leaders can lead to the decline of even an entire empire.
  6. Aleksander
    Aleksander April 18 2016 08: 28
    +7
    Byzantium, an amazing, unusual, interesting country, is infinitely sorry that it died as a result of the betrayal of the West and the invasion of animals. Although, on the other hand, it survived the Western Empire for a thousand years.
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon April 18 2016 08: 43
      +17
      No empire fell as a result of external forces. The reason is always inside.
      1. Stirbjorn
        Stirbjorn April 18 2016 09: 27
        0
        Well, yes, the moral decay of the elites ultimately destroyed her
      2. Aleksander
        Aleksander April 18 2016 09: 34
        +4
        Quote: Cartalon
        No empire fell as a result of external forces. The reason is always inside.

        And who would Byzantium have fallen before if there were no Sejdjuk Turks? Yes, and the empire was no longer there, it was a small state, but with a developed economy, trade, crafts, education, Byzantium had every chance of life, if not for the brute force of the conquerors.
        1. Cartalon
          Cartalon April 18 2016 09: 49
          +3
          And it’s nothing that the battle of Manzinkert was lost due to betrayal, and then the Seljuks occupied Asia Minor without resistance, as the Romans were biting among themselves.
    2. Atash
      Atash April 20 2016 21: 50
      -2
      Why do you feel sorry for them? What good did the Russians see from Byzantium? Its policy has always been typically imperial: no allies - there are interests. The guile of the Greeks was common knowledge. What a betrayal of the West, have they always been enemies? The West is Rome and Byzantium was the East. And the West destroyed Byzantium, where did the crusaders come from? The Ottomans just picked up the wreckage. Judging by this article, the Ottomans did not have any special military merits or advantages. Constantinople in decline could well have fought back with a little Western help. The Ottoman Caliphate flourished not through military power but through domestic politics. Christians always migrated in droves to the Caliphate, it was better and easier to live there. The most famous grand vizier, you know, was Greek and most grand viziers were not "ethnic" Ottomans). Even long before Constantinople, when Tamerlane was crushing the Ottomans, the Serbs showed themselves braver than anyone in the ranks of the Ottomans. "Listen, who is the beast? Am I the beast?")
  7. EvilLion
    EvilLion April 18 2016 09: 15
    0
    moreover, according to eyewitnesses, they used the famous "Greek fire".


    Peaceful Greek trawler ...
  8. kon125
    kon125 April 18 2016 09: 17
    +10
    The fate of Byzantium is a lesson to us. There is a legend that Mehmed the Second, accepting the rich Byzantines with gifts, ordered to collect all their offerings, which they asked to spare. A large mountain of jewels was formed. He said that having such wealth, they could hire any army. And calmly To fight back. Having said that such people are not worthy of freedom, he ordered them to be killed. All. Such is greed.
  9. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin April 18 2016 09: 30
    +2
    Of course the position of Byzantium was sad in the 15th century. However, everything could have turned out differently - as an example, the "Byzantine Renaissance" or the Byzantine Reconquista "of the 1260s - when from a country torn by feudal confrontation into 5 states, during the occupation of the state center by Western troops - suddenly, literally by wave of a magic wand, a single empire.
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon April 18 2016 11: 25
      -2
      Far from suddenly it was formed and the empire was by name and not by essence
  10. qwert
    qwert April 18 2016 10: 45
    +1
    Quote: Korsar4
    If the period of withering of the state has come, a fall is inevitable. And no Genoese will help. And the Catholic Church, as usual, only pursues its own interests.


    And Russia should not forget about it and go with the flow.

    Quote: kon125
    There is a legend that Mehmed the Second, accepting the rich Byzantines with gifts, ordered to collect all their offerings, which they brought with a request to spare. A large mountain of jewels was formed. He said that having such wealth, they could hire any army. And calmly fight back. Having said that such people are not worthy of freedom, he ordered them to be killed. All. Such is greed.

    But this is to learn all the oligarchs and deputies !!!
  11. Nekarmadlen
    Nekarmadlen April 18 2016 11: 07
    +2
    The article is interesting, but it would be possible to place a map of the Byzantine Empire at the beginning !!!
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon April 18 2016 11: 24
      +1
      And what was left there to be left by that time, or anything from the empire
  12. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin April 18 2016 12: 06
    +4
    Quote: kon125
    There is a legend that Mehmed II, taking the wealthy Byzantines with gifts, ordered to collect all their offerings, which they brought with a request to spare. A large mountain of jewels was formed.

    You are clearly mistaken in repeating someone else's mistake. There is a historical fact - and this happened 200 years before the fall of Constantinople, when the Mongols in the 13 century took Baghdad, the sacred capital of the caliphate.

    Then the khan, amazed at the incredible size of the caliph’s treasury, said precisely these words, and of course the Mongols traditionally slaughtered the entire aristocracy and ruling class. With the capture of Constantinople, this was not the case - the Byzantines no longer had banal gigantic treasures.

    And the main mistake of the Byzantines was the poor use of artillery (unlike the Turks). In general, of course, the walls of Constantinople were not designed to protect against artillery fire, but the Byzantines were clearly lagging behind in technical development, practically without using counter-battery fire against Turkish battery batteries.
  13. pigkiller
    pigkiller April 18 2016 13: 35
    0
    15th century Europe did not come to the aid of Orthodox Constantinople, and as a result received Istanbul and three hundred years of defensive wars against the Ottoman Empire in its south.
  14. BAI
    BAI April 18 2016 13: 49
    +1
    2-3 years ago, on the channel "Culture" there was a program dedicated to the Byzantine Empire. The situation in Byzantium at the time of her death and in Russia was absolutely the same. But that was before the Crimea.
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon April 18 2016 13: 58
      0
      That the situation was the same it is necessary that the enemy was already in the suburbs
      1. Spnsr
        Spnsr April 18 2016 14: 50
        0
        Quote: BAI
        2-3 years ago, on the channel "Culture" there was a program dedicated to the Byzantine Empire. The situation in Byzantium at the time of her death and in Russia was absolutely the same. But that was before the Crimea.

        Quote: Cartalon
        That the situation was the same it is necessary that the enemy was already in the suburbs

        and Byzantium of those times Ukraine 2-3 years ago? the only "asmans" no laughing
  15. Trinity
    Trinity April 18 2016 17: 19
    0
    All Empires end their existence both in distant and in close history. the mattresses feel the sunset of their empire, and they are creating chaos on the planet. Ganged up (EU) and robbed with impunity.
  16. Foofighter
    Foofighter April 18 2016 18: 01
    +2
    The Greeks would be able to restrain the expansion of the Turks if the crusaders treacherously did not plunder Constantinople in 1204, while destroying a huge number of citizens.
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon April 18 2016 18: 13
      +1
      Yeah, it was just not necessary to make every idiot from the dynasty of Angels a Vasileus and try to overthrow the Komnins with the help of barbarians.
      1. Foofighter
        Foofighter April 19 2016 02: 48
        0
        it was not necessary to trust someone unknown and buy ecumenism
    2. Spnsr
      Spnsr April 18 2016 22: 05
      +1
      Quote: FooFighter
      The Greeks would be able to restrain the expansion of the Turks if the crusaders treacherously did not plunder Constantinople in 1204, while destroying a huge number of citizens.

      Pavel Shlykov: Yes, the Turkish Republic, proclaimed in 1923, was deliberately built as the antithesis of the Ottoman Empire, which collapsed after the defeat in the First World War. According to the plan of Mustafa Kemal, she was to reveal a fundamentally new type of state, including the political system with its legislative base, socio-political and state institutions. The reason is not only that the republic was created in the fire and whirlwind of revolutionary change. The main thing here, in my opinion, is the coexistence and confrontation in the 1920s of two political elites close in potential: the “new” (Kemalist) and the “old” (Ottoman). (Http://topwar.ru/93984-ankara- smeetsya-posledney.html)
  17. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin April 18 2016 19: 17
    +3
    By the way - a little known fact - even the Turks were on the walls of Constantinople in the last battle: firstly, the squad of one of the Turkish sultans, brother of Mehmed II, and secondly, the Turks who had migrated from Ottoman Turkey and adopted Orthodox Christianity by conviction.

    And stood in the forefront to the end, because forgiveness did not shine for them (the first as supporters of the pretender to the throne, and the second as apostates from Islam, who are subject to death by Sharia law).


    By order of Mehmed II, on the European shore of the Bosphorus, the Rumeli-Hisar fortress began to be erected forcibly, which means “knife at the throat”.
    Not entirely correct - literally this term is "Rumelian shoal" or "Byzantine spit", but in terms of meaning - the first option is absolutely correct.

    Here is a possible reconstruction of the last counterattack of the Christian garrison against the "wicked Hagarians".

    I will say one more thing: according to eyewitnesses, even the brave Christian defenders of Shipka - both Russians, and especially the Bulgarians - recalled the valiant defense of Constantinople 400 years after it. But unlike Constantinople in 1453, then a huge and invincible RUSSIAN ARMY rushed to their aid, which wasn’t even mentioned by Konstantin Paleolog, and which itself would soon besiege Istanbul.

    It is worth recalling that only a few years after the fall of Constantinople somewhere in a distant northern country, a Byzantine princess Sofia Paleolog, the daughter of the brother of the last Byzantine king, married velikogo kinyaza Iohanna, the ruler of the country, the only Orthodox country that retained their independence. Yes, in history all accidents are not accidental ...
    1. Spnsr
      Spnsr April 18 2016 21: 03
      0
      Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
      By the way - a little known fact - even the Turks were on the walls of Constantinople in the last battle: firstly, the squad of one of the Turkish sultans, brother of Mehmed II, and secondly, the Turks who had migrated from Ottoman Turkey and adopted Orthodox Christianity by conviction.
      Sorry, I do not want to argue with you, but reading my comment I got a replica: Turkey is a work of the 20th century, and Turkey for the Ottoman Empire is somewhat distant, but like Ukraine for Russia in the present tense! and from here a quote like
      Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
      even the Turks stood on the walls of Constantinople in the last battle
      just not at the time of the battle itself!
  18. Plombirator
    April 18 2016 19: 46
    +2
    Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
    By the way - a little known fact - even the Turks were on the walls of Constantinople in the last battle: firstly, the squad of one of the Turkish sultans, brother of Mehmed II, and secondly, the Turks who had migrated from Ottoman Turkey and adopted Orthodox Christianity by conviction.

    Thanks for the comment! Just the volume of the article did not allow to dwell on the role in the defense of Constantinople, the heir of Orhan and his soldiers in the amount of about 600 people - from among the Turks who lived in the capital of Byzantium. Orhan tried to hide, disguised, but was identified, captured and executed. Gustiniani Longo, seriously wounded, died from wounds on the island of Chios - for him it was the last battle.
  19. Litsvin
    Litsvin April 18 2016 21: 05
    +1
    Speaking about the "greatness of Byzantium", many for some reason forget or simply do not know the reason for its fall. Byzantium perished because of its sins - because of the very ones for which Rome perished. The corrupt rotten political elite, mired in corruption, bribery of officials, the collapse of the "state apparatus and law enforcement agencies", a large external debt to the European monarchies, the lack of modern technologies needed primarily in the military industry, a morally decayed society, mired in human vices, an ineffective collection system taxes, motley army, recruited "hell knows who and who knows where." By the middle of the 15th century, Byzantium as a state, as such, no longer existed - in Constantinople there was a "clan of Palaeologus", who thought that they would sit out behind high walls from any external enemy - "the instinct of an ostrich." The lower strata of society lived their own lives. That's all. When the last ruler of Constantinople came to Rome and even agreed to conclude a church union (union) with the Catholic world of Europe, none of the real rulers of Europe, from the Pope to many kings, simply "washed their hands" - none of them wanted to get involved with a person who did not have any real power in his homeland. "If the Palaeologus had a strong historical personality," Europe would have provided him with military assistance. Combined knightly army "boldly would be trampled in the mud of the crowd would niggers headed Mukhmed 2". The Ottomans would roll away from the walls of Constantinople, like waves roll back from granite rocks. But this did not happen due to the reasons described above.
    Nevertheless - Tsaregrad is ours, Slavic, Orthodox. This was publicly stated by the ruling circles of France and England in 1914 after the outbreak of the Great War. The right of Russia to Tsaregrad remains with us. It will be necessary to complete what the great people of Russia did not have time to do - Admiral Kolchak and General Alekseev in 1916-1917. The Orthodox Cross must be affirmed over Hagia Sophia. Enough for the Turks to sit on the straits, they took advantage of 5 centuries - it’s time and honor to take - in things to exit from Europe - to where they came from - to deep Asia. Our Slavic shield will be nailed to the gates of Tsaregrad, otherwise it cannot be !!!
    1. Turkir
      Turkir April 23 2016 17: 41
      0
      Byzantium perished because of its sins - because of the very ones that caused Rome to perish.

      A bold statement, however, not supported by anything. You probably have your own vision of the story.
      Let us turn to the facts. Very briefly.
      Byzantium constantly waged defensive wars with Arabs and Iran.
      The article, unfortunately, briefly states: "On the northern coast of Asia Minor there was another state formation, formally related to Byzantium, the Trebizond Empire, which was formed after the capture of Constantinople by the crusaders in 1204".
      But this is a key moment in the history of Byzantium! Probably these guardians of morality and Christian morality make you in awe. Apparently, this poor rabble of robbers, called "knights", using Byzantium as a staging post for the crusades to Palestine, decided to "punish" them, that is, the Byzantines, for the sins you forgot to list. Oh, these Catholic knights, of course, were sinless. This can be seen in Hollywood movies.
      Although there is not a Hollywood version of the events of 1204 - the wealth of Byzantium caused the envy of the entire "European Union". Why die at the hands of the Saracens in impoverished Palestine, when you can rob Christians, because they are Orthodox, not Catholics!
      Where did the Seljuk Turks come from? They were invited by Byzantium itself to defend its eastern borders. These are the same Turkmens whom, translators who do not understand the intricacies of the Russian language, but who "perfectly" know English, are called "Turkomans". Don't do good you won't get evil.
      The first blow that undermined the power of Byzantium was dealt precisely Catholics in 1204 year.
      What do you think Alexander Yaroslavovich did not know about this event in 1242?
      Probably did not know, because he did not study the history of Russia from Hollywood films.
  20. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin April 18 2016 21: 24
    +3
    Quote: Litsvin
    Byzantium perished because of its sins - because of the very ones that caused Rome to perish.

    Here another, very complex theological problem arises, due to which, in particular, the apostasy of the Templars occurred - is it really for the Christian God that Christian statehood, albeit sinful, is worse than the "yoke of the godless Hagarians"?

    Quote: Litsvin
    By the middle of the 15th century, Byzantium as a state, as such, no longer existed - in Constantinople there was a "clan of Paleologues", who thought that they would sit out behind high walls from any external enemy - "the instinct of an ostrich."
    Sorry, but you are absolutely wrong - read about the battles of Nikopol and Varna. European Christians always tried to help the Byzantines, but they did not "sit in the ostrich position" at all. Or have you forgotten about 1422, when the Bosphorus was filled with Turkish turbans from the corpses thrown there?
    1. Spnsr
      Spnsr April 18 2016 23: 17
      0
      Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
      Sorry, but you are absolutely wrong - read about the battles of Nikopol and Varna. European Christians always tried to help the Byzantines, but they did not "sit in the ostrich position" at all. Or have you forgotten about 1422, when the Bosphorus was filled with Turkish turbans from the corpses thrown there?

      the west, with its values, has always been cruel! and paid.
      one is regrettable that the change of dynasty in the Ataman empire and the western tunes led first to the Battle of Molodi, the collapse of the Ataman Empire and the Islamization of almost the entire territory east of Muscovy, and then to the war with the Russian Romanov Empire, which led to the collapse of the Ottoman Empire and eventually to the advent of Turkey!
      to clarify, it is regrettable that the new rulers, at that time already the Ottoman Empire, mixed up the direction of the conquest of the promised land, in which the West originally stood ...
  21. andrew42
    andrew42 April 19 2016 15: 47
    0
    Another proof that any fortress is strong not by walls, but by the courage of its defenders. The Ottomans had not yet ceased to be a warrior people - too many were ready to fight and die. Moreover, the mobilization of all these under the banner of Islam. Plus the Janissary corps. The Byzantine relic didn't stand a chance. Pay attention: on the one hand, the NATIONAL ARMY with the Janissary "special forces", on the other hand - no, not the army of some European state, but detachments of mercenaries from the trading city-republics! And between them - a half-empty Constantinople - with a POPULATION, which can hardly be called a nation, or a people or even a tribe. It is clear that "the big battalions are winning," having a fairly unified and monolithic ethnos as a basis.
  22. Schultz
    Schultz April 19 2016 17: 30
    0
    I just want to say - "Well, what did your Poles help you son?" The story of a deviation from the true faith in the hope of getting a "westernized cookie", as a result of the fall of the state and the story of 400 years of slavery. An interesting fact, which is not indicated by the author, is about the complete non-participation of the 100 thousand monasticism of the Byzantine Empire in the defense of Tsar Grad. And the St. Andrew's banner over Hagia Sophia will develop and God forbid even during our lifetime - read the brothers of the Holy Fathers !!!
  23. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin April 19 2016 22: 23
    +2
    Quote: andrew42
    The Byzantine relic had no chance.

    Your opinion was brilliantly refuted by a "Byzantine relic" in 1422. Study the facts. The Turks really do not like to talk about that siege.


    Quote: andrew42
    Pay attention: on the one hand, the NATIONAL ARMY with the Janissary "special forces", on the other hand - no, not the army of some European state, but detachments of mercenaries from the trading city-republics!
    I’ll tell you a secret - the Byzantines were considered MUCH BIG EUROPEAN in Early Medieval Europe, as they were carriers of Hellenistic culture.

    And the Turks have a national army? laughing wassat Well, laugh, by God! It’s just that I’m even at a loss to list all those nations that served in it ... By the way, they also serve. And the Janissary was then sent into battle in the most extreme case (they took Constantinople without them).


    Quote: Schultz
    I just want to say - "well, what did your Poles help you son?"
    Oddly enough, at the end of the 11 century, Byzantium was really saved. And even with the unsuccessful campaigns of the end of the 14-beginning of the 15 century near Nikopol and Varna, they also rendered great help, seriously weakening the troops of the Sultans.

    Quote: Schultz
    And, the St. Andrew’s banner over Hagia Sophia will develop and God grant, even during our lifetime - read the brothers of the Holy Fathers !!!
    Of course I will join, No one knows the Ways of the Lord. But while the surest case was in 1878 year. Then the chances were almost nonexistent.
  24. Atash
    Atash April 20 2016 19: 44
    0
    Quote: SpnSr
    Pavel Shlykov: Yes, the Turkish Republic, proclaimed in 1923, was deliberately built as the antithesis of the Ottoman Empire, which collapsed after the defeat in the First World War. According to the plan of Mustafa Kemal, she was to reveal a fundamentally new type of state, including the political system with its legislative base, socio-political and state institutions. The reason is not only that the republic was created in the fire and whirlwind of revolutionary change. The main thing here, in my opinion, is the coexistence and confrontation in the 1920s of two political elites close in potential: the “new” (Kemalist) and the “old” (Ottoman). (Http://topwar.ru/93984-ankara- smeetsya-posledney.html)

    The main thing was the destruction of the caliphate. After all, it was precisely the caliphate, which is stubbornly called the Ottoman Empire. Kemal was, it turns out, a traitor. Abolished the caliphate despite the decisions of two convocations of the legislature, which refused to accept the ultimatum of the British victors. Something like the dissolution of the USSR in spite of the referendum. As an ideology, instead of Islam, they slipped Pan-Turkism to the people and called them Turks. There was no revolution there. And the Russian revolution also began with the British ideological and terrorist sabotage in the form of "People's Will". And the confrontation is not between the elites, but the secular military power and Islam, professed by the population of the country. The confrontation, which, of course, is relevant to this day. The sultans ceased to be caliphs.
  25. Atash
    Atash April 20 2016 21: 59
    0
    Quote: Aleksander
    Byzantium, an amazing, unusual, interesting country, is infinitely sorry that it died as a result of the betrayal of the West and the invasion of animals.

    Why do you feel sorry for them? What good did the Russians see from Byzantium? Its policy has always been typically imperial: no allies - there are interests. The guile of the Greeks was common knowledge. What a betrayal of the West, have they always been enemies? The West is Rome and Byzantium was the East. And the West destroyed Byzantium, where did the crusaders come from? The Ottomans just picked up the wreckage. Judging by this article, the Ottomans did not have any special military merits or advantages. Constantinople in decline could well have fought back with a little Western help. The Ottoman Caliphate flourished not through military power but through domestic politics. Christians always migrated in droves to the Caliphate, it was better and easier to live there. The most famous grand vizier, you know, was Greek and most grand viziers were not "ethnic" Ottomans). Even long before Constantinople, when Tamerlane was crushing the Ottomans, the Serbs showed themselves braver than anyone in the ranks of the Ottomans. "Listen, who is the beast? Am I the beast?")
  26. Atash
    Atash April 20 2016 22: 16
    0
    Quote: Litsvin
    Tsaregrad is ours, Slavic, Orthodox. This was publicly stated by the ruling circles of France and England in 1914 after the outbreak of the Great War.

    Well, of course. Barely dragged Russia into its own catastrophe, it was necessary to encourage it to self-destruction, and for one and the destruction of the caliphate.
    Quote: Litsvin
    Slavic shield will be nailed on the gates of Tsaregrad

    Maybe first Kiev should be returned to the "Slavic" fold, so to speak, otherwise it seems to be leaving the European Union? Enchanting in Syria, and in Kiev they spit in our face.
  27. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin April 21 2016 17: 13
    0
    Quote: SpnSr
    the west, with its values, has always been cruel!

    Unfortunately, the East was no better, but often much more cruel and treacherous.

    Quote: Atash
    Instead of Islam, Pan-Turkism was slipped into the people as an ideology; they were called Turks. There was no revolution there.

    In principle, for Russia, Turkey - as a fragment of the Caliphate - is a much better neighbor, because a less powerful and less aggressive power has become.

    Quote: Atash
    What good did the Russians see from Byzantium? Her policy was always typically imperial:
    Even one simple fact - getting Orthodox Christianity - this is quite enough.

    And so, by the way, it was the ancient Russes who began to fight with Byzantium - remember the campaigns of the Varangians on the Greek colonies along the Black Sea coast began from the 8 century - and reached attempts to capture Constantinople in the 10 century. So Byzantium in our case was basically just defending itself.

    Quote: Atash
    Christians always migrated in droves to the caliphate; living there was better and easier.
    A highly controversial statement. Do you seriously believe that a Christian in a Christian state will be worse than in an Islamic state, where he will be under religious yoke and will be cut off in his rights?
  28. Atash
    Atash April 22 2016 17: 34
    0
    Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
    Unfortunately, the East was no better, but often much more cruel and treacherous.

    You are in vain. Here on the portal was an article about European cruelty. Asian cruelty is more a myth against this background. Hitler is not at all something incomprehensibly-suddenly-uncharacteristic for Europe, on the contrary, in reality he is completely in European traditions. By Yasa Genghis Khan, torture was prohibited, executions were to be swift, only torture was applied to the murderers of ambassadors, etc. It was the Europeanized Peter 1 who issued detailed instructions on the use of torture, it was under him that this case reached its greatest development.

    Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
    Even one simple fact - getting Orthodox Christianity - this is quite enough.

    And so, by the way, it was the ancient Russes who began to fight with Byzantium - remember the campaigns of the Varangians on the Greek colonies along the Black Sea coast began from the 8 century - and reached attempts to capture Constantinople in the 10 century. So Byzantium in our case was basically just defending itself.

    It was Rome and Byzantium that received their religion from the Russian land. The practical part of Christianity is Tengrianism. The real followers of the prophet Isa, peace be upon him, (Jesus) existed in the form of sects, in Russia they were called Jews. It was these real "Christians" who were poisoned in the arenas with wild animals in Rome. People were crucified on T-shaped structures; it makes no sense to build a cross for this. Cross is a Tengrian symbol. Jesus' birthday is actually unknown, and the date of Christmas coincides with the date of the Tengrian holiday, which had all the trappings of a Christian Christmas, the same with Easter.
    Ancient Rus, Varangians, by the way, are the Vikings who fought with everyone - the Slavs, the Khazars, the Bulgarians, the Kipchaks, and the British.

    Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
    a Christian in a Christian state will be worse than in an Islamic state, where he will be under religious yoke and will be curtailed

    Religious oppression against Christians and Jews according to Sharia crime. Trimmed them in duties. In the caliphate with Sharia, it was strict, you understand. The remaining rights of the people were then simple, there was nothing special to cut back.
  29. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin April 22 2016 17: 50
    +1
    Quote: Atash
    This Rome and Byzantium received religion from the Russian land.
    Are you seriously ? can you go to the nobel prize? fellow

    Quote: Atash
    The practical part of Christianity is Tengrianism. The true followers of the prophet Isa, peace be upon him, (Jesus) existed in the form of sects, in Russia they were called Judaizers.
    After these words, I don’t even know what to advise - for starters, stop smoking grass. wassat

    Quote: Atash
    Religious oppression against Christians and Jews according to Sharia crime. Trimmed them in duties.
    You know, in general, I know a little about various Sharia laws and I can quickly convince you that oppression, being in a humiliated position of the Christian population, is fundamental for any Islamic state. Zimmi category - you know that?
    1. Atash
      Atash April 24 2016 06: 59
      -1
      So what do you say about the cross, about Christmas? Who are the Judaizers? Have you heard about the Apostle Jacob, Isa's brother, peace be upon him? There is a BBC film, at the end of which the host says: "I am a Christian, I believe that Jesus is God, but the fact that there was some kind of conspiracy at the very beginning is beyond doubt." Read more. Where did Tengrianism go? I don't even drink beer for a long time.
  30. Atash
    Atash April 24 2016 07: 14
    0
    Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
    Zimmi category - you know that?

    Well, we read Wikipedia: "Some of these restrictions (for example, jizya, the prohibition to marry Muslim women) have existed everywhere and constantly since the days of early Islam in all countries whose laws were based on Sharia law. Others (in particular, the prohibition on the possession of weapons or having houses above one floors, the obligation to wear a certain type of clothing) were introduced and canceled by different Islamic rulers at different times and in different countries. " It is clear that they did not strictly follow the Sharia law everywhere, Muslim rulers, like all Muslims and other people, who are also sinners, go astray by temptations. Ibid: dhimmis "... were exempted from paying zakat," that is, a tax obligatory for Muslims. The main ubiquitous restrictions are only inevitable, for example, on marriage. Whatever it was, the immigration of the non-Muslim population was, it was due to at least the large size of the caliphate. After all, the fact of the grand viziers of non-Muslim descent is undeniable. And having migrated to the Ottomans, it was always possible to convert to Islam.
  31. Atash
    Atash April 24 2016 07: 20
    0
    The Ottoman caliphate was the last center of Islam, where Sharia was strictly observed, not like in modern fragments. Saudi Arabia has been controlled by Britain since the 19th century, inherited by the States. Since the abolition of the caliphate, part of the Muslims under the West, another part under Russia. In general, everything is under kafir, in full accordance with the prophecies.
  32. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin April 24 2016 12: 18
    0
    Quote: Atash
    So what do you say about the cross, about Christmas? Who are the Judaizers? You heard about the Apostle Jacob, the brother of Isa, peace be upon him

    I just heard that. I can tell a lot about the cross, mysticism of symbols and heraldry - but not in this topic. According to the Judaic sect, do not believe it, even read the original documents of the era. In general, you are clearly lucky with your opponent! laughing

    So what do you want to tell?

    Quote: Atash
    Well read Wikipedia
    I will disappoint you a little - it is not an adequate source. I’m more like Sharia regulations and I’m guided, and there oh how much is interesting. But I won’t speak, I’m afraid they will be banned or worse - they will attract me for inciting them. wink

    It's just that I am familiar with various schools of interpretation of tafsirs, if that tells you anything.

    Quote: Atash
    . In the end, the fact of the great viziers of non-Muslim origin is undeniable.
    But doesn’t it matter in Islam what origin and kind of person the main thing is that he is Muslim, eh? And why are you talking about genealogy and origin! Are you bad muslim? laughing

    Quote: Atash
    Yes, and having migrated to the Ottomans, one could always accept Islam.
    HERE! This is the main thing !!! For Christians only, this is not acceptable.

    Quote: Atash
    The Ottoman caliphate was the last center of Islam, where Sharia was strictly observed, not like in modern fragments.
    Yah ? strictly right? and wine was not sold, and hashish was not smoked, and did not play games, and women did not go with open faces? fellow

    And in my opinion, the degree of observance and severity of Sharia law in modern Saudi, in Qatar, in Yemen, and even in a number of countries, directly reaches the highest heights.
  33. Molot1979
    Molot1979 25 October 2016 10: 57
    +1
    I didn’t understand something ... at first the author says that the Greeks had nothing left except Constantinople, excluding the two enclaves and Trebizond, and then he writes that Hunyadi demanded territorial concessions. Concession of what? Constantinople itself? Maybe enclaves blocked in the same way by the Turks? Trabzund, to which the Hungarians could not get around? The Byzantines did not have territories that could be ceded. This time
    Two - to tell why Europe has fulfilled the call of the pope? Yes, because a few years before the siege, namely in 1444, there was already a crusade. In the battle of Varna, the Turks multiplied the Catholic army by zero, the Polish king, the initiator of the campaign, lost there not only the army, but also his head. There was no one to help the Greeks. The Angles are far away, the Franks are fighting with those Angles, at the same time kneading each other, in Germany there is such a tryndeck that you won’t understand without a pint, in Russia there is a feudal war, and princely troops couldn’t come in time geographically. Well, and who is there to go save the empire? The Venetians are rather at the same time with the Turks (because the fleet came too late). Three thousand mercenaries remained, and that’s all the Catholics really could throw to the Greeks to help. There is nothing to blame on the Serbs - they have long known the Turkish yoke and they had no strength to resist. In general, out of all the possibilities, there remained a tiny ghostly chance that he could sit outside the walls. Did not come true. On the other hand, how many states and sovereigns are given the chance to leave like this, beautifully, albeit hopelessly? Not pathetic vile intrigues, not cowardice of the rulers, but only the overwhelming power of enemies to be destroyed? To fall with arms in hand, and not on the block, humiliated captive? Constantinople and its last emperor used their chance to the end and left with glory. Funny coincidence: the country that began with Constantine, Constantine and ended. Like the first Rome, which began with Romulus and, like an empire, Octavian Augustus, went into oblivion under the emperor Romulus Augustulus. History sometimes likes to joke like that.
  34. Kenneth
    Kenneth 25 November 2016 12: 26
    0
    There is a gorgeous Turkish film for this event. Judging by it, the Turks almost lost. But in general, the Hungarians are to blame.