Military Review

The human factor conflicts in aviation with technology

110
The human factor conflicts in aviation with technology



According to experimental data, in the conditions of monotonous passive observation, the level of concentration of attention decreases, the thresholds for detection of signals increase, the reaction time increases, the level of readiness for emergency actions and overall performance decreases. An unexpected, sudden signal in these conditions can cause stress.

The principle of an active operator implies that a person continuously receives information both on the basic parameters of the system and on the environment (on the course of solving the problem). That part of the functions of automatic devices is to maintain the operator, in order to ensure its activities and the possibility of operating its reserves. And that, finally, part of the management operations he performs himself.

DESIGNING HUMAN ACTIVITIES

The design of human activity is the end product of professional analysis. The embodiment of the principle of the active operator in the distribution of functions between man and machine is the main essence and specific content of the design activities of the operator.

As a result, due to human activity, the accident rate, fatigue, preserved professional health, improved quality and production efficiency were reduced. The principle of an active operator has allowed to introduce a system of combined control of automation and man, to develop psychological justifications for reserving failures by man.

From my position, the overall result of the participation of psychologists, physiologists, ergonomists, together with engineers, programmers, designers, operators expressed in the fact that:

- innovative technologies have been developed to optimize the conjugation of a person with technical devices, and now with computing equipment;

- science psychology, ergonomics enriched with methods of injury and death prevention. The quality of products has grown, environmental conditions have improved, resistance to extreme situations, a general cultural level, the beauty of life being;

- expert security control entered the system, taking into account the human factor;

- parity development with foreign countries in the field of military equipment has come together. The ergonomic culture of Being has returned to Russia the piety of the return of good.

TECHNOLOGY PROBLEMS

Our psychologists have helped a lot, qualifiedly, after terrorist attacks, floods, earthquakes, man-made and natural disasters, and psychological support systems have been created. Psychologist as a person who carries a good, becomes a nominal name.

I will dwell on one example - the human factor in aviation, which is attributed to 80% of flight accidents. I will not upset the statistics and death. I will touch upon only one causal trouble: the return of technocracy to the throne, and even coupled with the complete unprofessionalism of managers in the field of knowledge about a flying person. But aerospace psychology has a reserve of knowledge for the implementation of measures with the leadership of airlines on the effective prevention of accidents.

The problem of technocratization has always been painful and controversial for any level of civilization. Technique is a means of adaptation to the environment. Actually, the concept of "civilization" means the ability of educated people to use technical advances to maintain and increase the well-being and health of people.

The development of aviation as one of the components of technical progress since its inception has had a special meaning: to create conditions for the knowledge of the non-manmade world, to reveal in humans the need to expand their knowledge and enrich themselves in a cultural, spiritual, moral attitude to themselves and to those under the wing. Aviation should be attributed to the technique that philosopher Martin Heidegger understood astutely, stating: “Technique is a means to an end, everyone wants to establish the power of the spirit over technology, and technology is increasingly threatening to break free from the power of man.”

The religious philosopher and scientist Pavel Florensky expressed his judgment no less interestingly and predictably: “When the main role in the life of a person is taken by adaptive functions, he actually rushes back. The technique, in itself neutral, becomes a Trojan horse that hides the source of death. ”

M. Heidegger noticed this remarkably subtly: “Technique (and especially aviation. - V.P.) is a type of disclosure of secret. The essence of technology is located in the area where the discovery takes place and its incontinence. The mission of uncovering secret as such in all its forms, and therefore necessity, is a risk. ”

Our famous compatriot Mikhail Gromov expressed his opinion about this, but in his own way, who stated that “no one of the designers fully knows how the plane they made will behave. Only the pilot can establish all the whims of the aircraft, all the dangers, his strength and his weakness. ” Therefore, aviation is born as a product not only to reveal the secret world, but also as a product of the creative potential of its creators and flight crews.

And the pilot is not guilty

The designer is obliged to create the basic safety of the aircraft, relying not only on his intellect, but also on morality. And it should be invested in the plane.

For 18 years, I had to participate in experiments in flight, being the performer and then the head of scientific programs to study the causes of the unreliability of actions, especially in extreme situations of the highest degree of danger.

I will report only what is related to this article:

- 35 – 40% of errors associated with ergonomic deficiencies of equipment, alarm systems, the type and form of information presentation, excessive atomization of functions performed by automata;

- the viewing angle, as a rule, was with violations not only of recommendations, but also of ergonomic standards. The same applies to non-compliance with the principles of the body circuit, the threshold characteristics of all types of analyzers. The result - hundreds of cases of entanglement of toggle switches, buttons, levers, followed by: non-release of the chassis, cleaning the chassis instead of flaps, cleaning the chassis instead of releasing the headlight, stopping the engines, changing the direction of fuel supply to the supply tank, turning on the opposite systems at high speed, etc. etc.;

- The immoral accusation of flight personnel errors, which have arisen as a regular phenomenon, which has lasted for many years, because this is how the body and its psyche are constructed, which require taking into account their regularities when controlling the aircraft. That is why, when forming goals and tasks, at the initial stage, the designer should have information from ergonomists and engineering psychologists, characteristics of a person’s capabilities and limitations. This was especially true of those restrictions that will not be lifted by will. For example, gray and black veil in front of the eyes on large overloads. Comfort for the pilot is the controllability and stability of the aircraft, the ease of perception of information, its clarity and the security of hazard diagnostics. It follows from this, under whom we make an aircraft, what is the resource and potential, what is the structure of the personality, starting with worldview and motives. Figuratively speaking, a contribution is needed in the sense of safety, embedded in the flight performance for any apparatus, rushing in the sky.

An example of "technocratic" morality. During the fighting in Afghanistan, the crews did not die from missiles ("Stingers") in the engine. The fact is that the pilot is able to land the helicopter in an autorotif mode. However, on the Mi-8, in particular, there was neither armor nor depreciation during the impact on landing. The pilots died from injuries, not from the rocket. But the Mi-38 is equipped with a unique survival system for the crew and passengers. Its chassis and seats are made with energy suppressors. This allows you to survive in an emergency at a speed of landing 12 m / s. These developments were made in the Institute of Aerospace Medicine.

SPIRITUAL COMPONENT

I would especially like to raise the issue of the spiritual component, which was developed by the flight personnel due to aircraft engineering and a certain part of the appropriation of human morality invested by designers in the aircraft.

When making a film about the spirituality of the flight profession, I asked the director to show the face of the cadet coming out of the cockpit after the first independent departure on the MiG-29. Naturally, I spoke with him there. When asked to name the most important thing, he would highlight amid all feelings of joy, he replied with a special intonation: “Freedom, responsibility. Can!"

How not to remember Hegel: “Morality is the idea of ​​freedom, as a living good, which in its self-consciousness has its knowledge, excitement, and through its action its reality ... Real freedom is achieved by the spirit, not through revelation from objects, but through knowing them their truth. "

And so that it does not seem to the reader that all this is too far from aviation, I will cite the words of pilots who have 20 – 30 years of flight experience, including test ones. I would very much like you to feel not the service, but the inner world of a person, which determines not his mask, but his being.

Question to the pilots:

- Was the flight inspired work for you?

Answers:

- Any flight is filled with inspiration. How will the inspiration, fly must stop (Colonel-General VI Andreev).

- Piloting, you feel a sense of liberation, dissolving in space (AM Markush).

- Physical pleasure from the freedom of movement in space (M.L. Gallay).

- Flying is open inspiration. My spirituality was filled with heaven. In recent years, he began to feel a connection with Cosmos (General AK Sulyanov).

- Flying has never been a problem for me, since I was striving to comprehend new levels of perfection (drill pilot, divisional commander M. Voronin).

Question to the pilots:

- What did aviation give you?

Answers:

- Aviation exacerbates the possibility of self-expression and self-affirmation, disgraces conceit. Constantly creates an impetus to dissatisfaction with oneself and increases the desire for creativity through the assimilation of a good attitude towards you from more experienced comrades. You have given birth to the process of comprehending the unknown, the very sharpness of this comprehension, the joy that you can be yourself in contact with the Universe (Honored Pilot Tester E.N. Knyazev).

- The sky gives new sensations, understanding, meanings that cannot be obtained on earth (the chief pilot of the company, AS Yakovlev, Hero of the Soviet Union, AA Sinitsyn).

- I wanted to fly, to overcome myself, I wanted to become a real person (A. Tereshchenko, a pilot of Civil Aviation).

- The ability to live in another dimension (Hero of Russia V. Gorbunov).

I have brought only the touches of that spiritual world, the second “I”, which characterizes the personality of a man flying.

In this small piece about spirituality I allow myself to summarize: flight, especially in extreme conditions, sharpens the information connection with the Universe, more precisely, with the noosphere. This is a separate topic. I will only quote Vernadsky: “The biosphere is a special shell of the earth, passing into a new state - the noosphere. That is, in such a state, in which the mind and the human work directed by it, as a new unprecedented human force on the planet, should manifest themselves.

RISK OF PROFESSIONAL UNRELIABILITY


When creating a combat airline, you should consider the spiritual component of the flight. Photos from www.mos.ru

Today it is a national task, extremely important. That is why it is so important to create conditions for a safe flight. However, today's foreign technology created comfort outwardly, and in fact, by computerizing it, deprived the pilot of his natural connection with Heaven, weakened the first thread — the mind and the second — deprived the sensual connection of the subconscious with danger. The pilot gradually turns into an operator devoid of spirituality. Having deprived a person of natural properties that determine flight ability, reliability, humanity, corporate honor and the honor of his name, technocrats have increased the risk of the unreliability of professionals.

Today, in aviation, the computer language is not generated by the living mind of the gods. Aviation computerization has generated an electronic pilot with artificial intelligence.

Due to deep automation of aircraft control, digital equipment of radio-electronic equipment, communication systems, navigation software, foreign-made airplanes have achieved higher competitiveness, having increased the level of flight safety during flights in adverse weather conditions of the third meteorological category. This fact of technical progress concerns mainly aircraft. But there is still a person as a system-forming factor. And here a number of problems arise. I will note beforehand that the transition to a two-member crew was dictated not by the comfort of the conditions, but by economic gain. This innovation was compensated by the creation of artificial intelligence in computer programs of deep automation.

The pilots of Russia flying on this technique are mostly satisfied and very much, although this satisfaction on 80% is connected with the economic improvement of their lives.

What makes me express a number of unpopular thoughts about the ideology of constructing mathematical programs embedded in specific computers, for example, on the "Airbus". I do not act as a deceiver and justify only one position. Its meaning: the chosen ideology of artificial intelligence domination over the pilot's self-sufficiency, over flight experience, laws of psychophysiological regulation of activity, over the pilot's role as a hot reserve will inevitably lead to a state of so-called potential insecurity, that is, a hidden threat to flight safety. Naturally, this requires proof.

I will begin to defend my postulate with engineering and psychological requirements, approaches to any level of automation of aircraft control. What I’ll talk about below is the result of flight tests of all types of automated control systems (ACS) on domestic technology. As a result, both in the USA and in our country we agreed on the ideological principle of interfacing automation and man. I use the psychological theory of the active operator (Lomov, Zavalova, Ponomarenko). Ultimately, together with the designers, we managed to create joint control systems for military aircraft and a steering system for civil aviation. Of course, at that time we had not yet reached the level provided by digital software. At the same time, to ensure successful backup of automatic control systems, that is, to increase flight safety from a technological standpoint, the following principles should be followed, worked out by life and death:

- abandon the false installation that a person is an unreliable element in the system, and it is better to use it as a control;

- automation is used to assist the pilot in the process of carrying out his professional activities. It is capable of preventing pilot errors, unloading the negative impact of time pressure. Moreover, it should signal to the pilot about the need for his assistance, that is, the transition to active management;

- “Pilots should have professional skills in operating their aircraft, regardless of their level of automation. They should be knowledgeable in choosing the right level of automation and should be able to move from one level of automation to another ”(Delta).

I want to emphasize that the formation of the information environment, motor and visual fields are significantly complemented by knowledge of perceptual threshold values, linear and angular accelerations, and tactile. The design must take into account the laws of mental activity. I will give a few examples.

The detection process is provided by unconditional reflexes in the form of an approximate reaction. But if the signal is 5 – 6 times the thresholds of the corresponding receptors, the person focuses on the signal much more time, not taking into account the movement in the space of the aircraft. This is how natural errors are generated. If the pilot during the active work uses RAM, if necessary, switches to the use of long-term memory, the process of perception of the current information is interrupted (“I look, but I do not see”). If the rhythm of breathing is disturbed in a state of stress, this affects the prediction of precise motor coordination. If the pilot is in the state of the so-called dominant, that is, superconcentration of consciousness on any task, then the brain does not perceive other information. Moreover, a person may not see or even hear an alarm. If angular rotations are more than 12 – 15 rev./s, a motor reaction reflex occurs after sudden braking. The pilot in 100% of cases will receive the result at the output: the illusion of spatial movement of the aircraft. And the reflex will work to take the helm instead of cleaning the roll. This error is due to the laws of physiology. Speech informer is suitable for situations that have 5 – 10 seconds. safe movement of the aircraft, for speech is heard and the brain suppresses the subcortex along with unconditioned reflexes. And until the speech is over, time and space will already change, in which the danger will increase and requires other actions.

I brought in a simplified form those really working laws of mental activity that are not embedded in the software product of the Airbus computer.

SEVERAL WORDS ABOUT COMPUTER


The art of compiling computer programs serves a state of reliability, but can also provoke a direct security threat. Let us recall the Irkutsk disaster, when the crew on the run could not slow down due to the release of one of the engines to take-off mode. The computer turned off all the brake devices on the run and proudly announced that the crew was not ready for takeoff. But the asymmetry of the traction is a dangerous refusal, but this is not the case in the program, because the creators in general “meant” the person.

In contrast to a computer, the intellect of a pilot assesses sensual experience and imaginative thinking in his own way, evaluates the behavior of the aircraft and the environment using feelings. Well-known academician Boris Rauschenbakh called for knowledge of a rational image of the world: "In human practice, rational knowledge and moral values ​​always complement each other." For the flight business, this means that when designing computer programs, specialists must be admitted who know the basics of flight work and the characteristics of the pilots' personality. It is necessary to dilute the technical ideology of spiritual outlook.

A small experience of foreign technology, more precisely, the experience of using computers, shows how a flying person changes. It is alienated from its nature, from the plane, and therefore, from the passengers. He gradually robotized, transformed into the operator of mortal life. There are new personality traits, loss of a sense of readiness to solve abnormal situations, selfishness prevails in behavior, corporatism leaves, being replaced by individualism. Gradually, the spiritual person, overwhelmed by economic well-being, is filled with indifference. Professionalism is one thing: the jaggedness of English texts, the algorithmization of stereotypical actions. Against this background, even the biological reserves of the brain fade.

I conclude my article with a flight opinion, with the words of an 1-class pilot-instructor Vasily Yershov: “The whole misfortune of a mismatch of the Russian mentality with Western philosophy of flight is that the Russian cannot learn to be a soulless function. Despite the strict implementation of the governing documents, the approach of the Russian pilot has always been creative. Now he has to be taught to think in English. ”

I think that the aggregate Russian, engineering, flight, psychological intelligence is able to optimize the domestic intellectual computer for a person. To do this, aviation will need one thing: to put the honor of humanitarian culture and science that protects the life and health of passengers ahead of naked economic benefits.
Author:
Originator:
http://nvo.ng.ru/realty/2016-04-15/1_factor.html
110 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. novobranets
    novobranets April 16 2016 15: 35
    +27
    “The whole trouble with the inconsistency of the Russian mentality with the Western philosophy of flight is that a Russian cannot learn how to be a soulless function. Despite the strict implementation of the guidelines, the approach of the Russian pilot has always been creative. Now he must be taught to think in English. ”
    Maybe I'm wrong, but you do not need to teach a Russian pilot to think in English. It is necessary to make domestic planes with the usual controls, and Russian pilots have always been the best, there are many examples.
    1. The black
      The black April 16 2016 15: 38
      +16
      The human factor, as the cause of the disaster, has a place to be. BUT!!! Sometimes, it is the human factor that PREVENTS THEM.
      1. cniza
        cniza April 16 2016 15: 54
        +8
        A very complicated article, for professionals, probably interesting and useful.
        1. Cat man null
          Cat man null April 16 2016 16: 13
          +4
          Quote: cniza
          A very complicated article, for professionals, probably interesting and useful

          Mdya .. it is interesting only for what specific professionals. From what I understood: the article is mixed:

          - Psychology (in places with a bias in mysticism)
          - claims to aircraft designers
          - claims to .. the press, be surprised
          - computers .. well, where without computers ..
          - and many many others

          - The viewing angle, as a rule, was with violations of not only recommendations, but also ergonomic standards. The same was true for non-compliance. body outline principlesthreshold characteristics of all types of analyzers. As a result, there are hundreds of cases of entanglement of toggle switches, buttons, levers with the following: non-release of the chassis, cleaning of the chassis instead of flaps, cleaning of the chassis instead of releasing the headlights, engine shutdown, change of direction of fuel supply to the supply tank, the inclusion of opposing systems at high speed, etc. etc.

          - it would be interesting to hear the comment of a professional pilot on this paragraph .. IMHO - Gridasov is resting ..

          And finally:

          - the immoral accusation lasting for many years for the errors of the flight personnel that arose as a natural phenomenon, because the body and its psyche are arranged in such a way that they need to be taken into account and their laws when controlling the aircraft (LA)

          - did anyone understand what the author wanted to say with this .. passage? I just do not understand ..

          And so, in general .. well, scientifically, what already there what
          1. Throw
            Throw April 16 2016 16: 52
            +9
            In fact, the questions raised in the article are very interesting, but the trouble is that the article is not "difficult", but simply not written in Russian. Not in the sense of grammar, but in the sense of coherence and transparency of presentation.
            Comrade I would not compare Gridasov, he has his own turbulences in the meanders wassat , but the author “to convey the idea with a pen with clarity” needs to learn very hard ..

            PS. The term "technocratization" used through the word has nothing to do with technology, oddly enough.
            But the term "tongue-tied" refers to this article 100%! wink
          2. Severok
            Severok April 17 2016 10: 56
            0
            Regarding your "Finally", the author in this paragraph makes it clear that in no way can you operate with the concept of "human factor" exclusively and only in relation to the flight crew. This refers to the design and organizational work in the development and operation of aircraft and aircraft.
        2. lelikas
          lelikas April 16 2016 17: 33
          +5
          Quote: cniza
          The ergonomic culture of Being returned to Russia the piety of bestowal of good.

          I, if I do not understand, re-read, sometimes three times - but this one - The ergonomic culture of Being returned to Russia the piety of bestowal of good. - I haven’t mastered even five times - what did the author want to convey to us ????
          1. Throw
            Throw April 16 2016 17: 41
            +3
            We have already dealt with this, this is the spell of calling Gridasov laughing
            And he is already here belay
        3. Wheel
          Wheel April 16 2016 21: 04
          +1
          Quote: cniza
          A very complicated article, for professionals, probably interesting and useful.

          The article is about nothing.
          A set of science-like delirium.
        4. Mikhail3
          Mikhail3 April 16 2016 21: 16
          +2
          It is not for professionals, it is for everyone, just the author does not know how to convey a thought. The poor fellow in his own article showed well that one should not consider a person, but help him to be a HUMAN. That is, the author expressed the most important idea in a professional jargon, carefully watching that his article is not called, God forbid, unscientific. And he completely sacrificed the main idea, didn’t convey it, confused him in verbiage.
          What do you need to improve first, a weapon or a fighter? Who is a pilot - flying in the sky or a secondary control circuit? That is the question. I don’t drive a car with an ABS and an automatic transmission. Why? Because both the one and the other mechanism just give a command and hope that they will somehow manage. And in a simpler car, braking and maneuver depend on me.
          I can do better, learn, speed up. But robots are not. This is what the author is trying to explain. Are we humans giving way to the conquerors of the sky to computers? How do we act - we relax, we become stupider and more useless (after all, neither intelligence nor skills are "needed" anymore) and we give the steering wheel to the car, while we ourselves sit, controlling the type? Or do we go forward, learn and train, and use the car to expand our (precisely our) capabilities?
          Who will fight on the battlefield - the fighter himself, or will his case be extinguished on the screen, giving permission to fire the "smart" complexes? By the way, they will quickly stop asking this very permission ... Personally, I am deeply convinced that a person always wins. But only when it grows all the time. Learns, trains, moves forward. But the moment here is ... if there are no cars made "for a soldier", then ... but in general, think for yourself. Grow if you can.
        5. Blondy
          Blondy April 17 2016 04: 30
          0
          Guys, and analysts also need to spread something on bread.
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. dmi.pris
        dmi.pris April 16 2016 16: 37
        0
        An interesting photo at the beginning of the article .. In place of the second female pilot. Maybe this is the way out of the damned human factor ..
      4. Andrey Yuryevich
        Andrey Yuryevich April 16 2016 17: 20
        +2
        Quote: Black
        The human factor, as the cause of the disaster, has a place to be. BUT!!! Sometimes, it is the human factor that PREVENTS THEM.

        I agree, the human factor is a thing about "two ends", had the honor of serving in the Air Force, as an operator of the RSP (landing system), but in reality, escorting aircraft in the area of ​​responsibility, that is, within a radius of about 350-400 km. The responsibility of the officers is prohibitive, when almost a regiment hangs in the air. Chess is childish. Try to control each number, out of about 10-15 planes moving constantly and at high speed, and on the radar screen there is a lot of "marks" and "flares" (wet shirts, after flights), and you need to remember where which board is located, what task it performs, at what height, track "outsiders", request an "altimeter", track the "glide path", notify the pilots-hells of work. - dispatcher ... they all need to be paid as ministers. "VAF" would - confirm. the human factor ... of course, a great thing, not everyone is able to carry such a burden of responsibility ... soldier
      5. grandson of the hero
        grandson of the hero April 16 2016 18: 54
        0
        And to a greater extent prevents both causes and catastrophes !!!
      6. The comment was deleted.
    2. Pvi1206
      Pvi1206 April 16 2016 16: 22
      +1
      The crew of the plane crashed in Rostov-on-Don was foreign.
      1. iouris
        iouris April 16 2016 21: 27
        +2
        Quote: Pvi1206
        The crew of the plane crashed in Rostov-on-Don was foreign

        And the crew, which "crashed" in Kazan under similar circumstances, was "domestic": the commander was a former Russian navigator, the second pilot was a former Russian flight engineer. So why did the plane crash? Due to the "human factor": the principle of "active operator", developed by a team of authors with the participation of VA Ponomarenko, is an explanation of the catastrophe - the crew "did not get involved in controlling the aircraft" during the go-around. This situation happens quite rarely, but the consequences are, with a high probability, corpses. The main thing is to understand that these corpses have already been calculated.
    3. Vita vko
      Vita vko April 16 2016 18: 04
      0
      According to experimental data, in the conditions of monotonous passive observation, the level of concentration of attention decreases, the detection thresholds of signals increase ....

      During combat duty, especially in air defense and missile defense control systems, we have long learned how to deal with this through periodic training exercises for combat crews. At a real stop, educational goals are superimposed on which the actions of the calculations are worked out. As a result, even after daily duty, the attention of operators does not wane. Modern aircraft are 100% automated. So why during a long flight on autopilot, pilots should not use part of the computer equipment of the aircraft in simulator mode to handle emergency situations?
      1. roman_pilot
        roman_pilot April 16 2016 23: 19
        +4
        Passengers will be delighted!
        1. Cat man null
          Cat man null April 17 2016 03: 05
          +2
          Quote: Vita VKO
          why during a long flight on autopilot the pilots should not use part of the computer equipment of the aircraft in simulator mode for emergency situations?

          Quote: roman_pilot
          Passengers will be delighted!

          + one hundred .. thousand laughing
      2. Starover_Z
        Starover_Z April 17 2016 08: 45
        0
        Quote: Vita VKO
        Modern aircraft are 100% automated. So why during a long flight on autopilot, pilots should not use part of the computer equipment of the aircraft in simulator mode to handle emergency situations?

        Vitaliy? Do you agree to fly on such flights where pilots work out emergency situations?
        The first to disagree the pilots! Still, they have at least 50 passengers on flights behind their backs!
        And the equipment, although many times duplicated, still has critical components, the output of which can be critical if the control system is overloaded!
    4. Felix
      Felix April 16 2016 19: 54
      +1
      Quote: novobranets
      Maybe I'm wrong, but you do not need to teach a Russian pilot to think in English. It is necessary to make domestic planes with the usual controls, and Russian pilots have always been the best, there are many examples.

      There is no doubt about military pilots, but nobody teaches them how to think in English, we have our own school, and it is worthy of all praise. Civilians ... They must understand that we are talking not only about his life, but also about the lives of passengers. And therefore, various tricks at the helm are not acceptable in principle, otherwise - a disaster. Examples of such - a lot. When our military pilots laid out the Superjet in Indonesia - the wines are the human factor, the Poles with carcass No. 1 (though not Russians, but Slavs with all our bells and whistles!) Are also the pilots' faults, and also the military at the helm ...
    5. iouris
      iouris April 16 2016 21: 10
      0
      From the point of view of the world's leading manufacturers of civil aircraft, which are implementing an industrial approach to air transportation, to reduce the ticket price to the maximum possible it is necessary to bring the regularity of flights to the limit. For this, all flight control and flight management processes are automated. At the same time, the requirements for the quality of human material are inevitably reduced. The risks arising from this are considered acceptable. This approach is in antagonism with the mentality of the author, who is the largest specialist in the field of psychology of flight labor. However, the campaigns that developed in Soviet aviation in the 1960s ... 1980s, from the point of view of world aviation lawmakers, are economically unacceptable, and plane crashes are considered an inevitable evil. In the future, you will have to drive unmanned vehicles and fly on unmanned aircraft.
  2. Pvi1206
    Pvi1206 April 16 2016 15: 36
    +3
    In modern aviation, the level of automation of the aircraft control process is high.
    Why is "fool-proof" still not installed?
    The system should not allow the aircraft to enter a mode leading to disaster.
    Which is characteristic.
    Both Rostov-on-Don and Kazan, Western-made aircraft crashed while trying to leave for a second landing attempt ...
    1. gridasov
      gridasov April 16 2016 15: 56
      +4
      You see, but the computer does not analyze all the aggregate information. And a person relies on him. This leads to the fact that, on the one hand, the value of the computer and its functions are reevaluated, and on the other hand, the human brain is degrading, as it relies on iron.
    2. PKK
      PKK April 16 2016 16: 18
      -7
      Aircraft in Rostov and Kazan underwent external control. Pilots were powerless.
  3. Cat man null
    Cat man null April 16 2016 15: 40
    +3
    This is not Gridasov wrote, by chance? Pearl on pearl, with a general lack of intelligible meaning .. especially pleased:

    The ergonomic culture of Being returned to Russia the piety of bestowal of good

    Mdja ...
    1. zart_arn
      zart_arn April 16 2016 15: 51
      +2
      I agree completely, the meaning is about 0. Such a huge opus is about nothing, the article is a fat minus.
    2. gridasov
      gridasov April 16 2016 15: 53
      +2
      In my opinion, normally said, the main meaning, not letters.
      1. Cat man null
        Cat man null April 16 2016 16: 22
        +4
        Quote: gridasov
        In my opinion, normally said, the main meaning, not letters.

        Wonderful .. just like that .. so what is this article about, in your opinion? And what conclusions follow from it?
        1. gridasov
          gridasov April 16 2016 17: 00
          +2
          Hello! I have already said many times that it is necessary to master new methods of mathematical analysis. We all push water in a mortar. and there are no ideas, much less intelligible.
          1. Throw
            Throw April 16 2016 17: 11
            +5
            Eureka!
            I realized what a mysterious set of words in the article!

            This is the call spell of Gridasov !!
            laughing wassat laughing
          2. AleksPol
            AleksPol April 16 2016 22: 37
            0
            Hello Gridasov. We have a little discussion on microelectronics. Now you got into the analysis. Do you have too much versatile knowledge. Who are you ? Professor ?
            1. gridasov
              gridasov April 16 2016 22: 51
              0
              My respect to you too! Only I do not damp, but take the opportunity.
              And if closer to the topic, then the work of the human brain should first of all be substantiated on mathematical principles. This may not surprise you, but there are no questions that could not be subjected to some method of analysis. Only terms and definitions change, and the essence of the processes is the same everywhere and in everything. Therefore, it is not at all difficult to speak on precisely the advanced issues of our time.
              1. AleksPol
                AleksPol April 16 2016 23: 00
                0
                Is it too simple. If the work of the brain was represented in binary terms, then artificial intelligence would not be fiction but reality.
                1. gridasov
                  gridasov April 16 2016 23: 06
                  0
                  It’s just that I’m talking about a system that is based not on binary numbers, but on natural numbers. On the basis of binary logic, in the basis, it is impossible to build a system of the analytical principle of operation. Therefore, modern computers will never possess the ability to work with respect to internally embedded mathematical landmarks, like a human being.
                  1. AleksPol
                    AleksPol April 16 2016 23: 13
                    0
                    Wait, but can you imagine what the bit depth of logic and CPU should be for representation in natural numbers and by what algorithms to write software
                    1. AleksPol
                      AleksPol April 16 2016 23: 21
                      0
                      it is impossible to build a system of analytical principle. Why not ? A simple example of a temperature sensor in the finger of a robot, remove the finger over 50 degrees. The program is simple. Analytical analysis is evident. But this is not artificial intelligence.
                      1. AleksPol
                        AleksPol April 16 2016 23: 32
                        0
                        Well, Gridasov escaped. It's a pity crying
                      2. gridasov
                        gridasov April 16 2016 23: 54
                        0
                        Alas, this is not analytics. This is a functional relationship. Just a response to the parametric property of the sensor material. Artificial intelligence combines all of these possibilities that you speak of as particular decisions in each case. But the main function of artificial intelligence is to formulate the collection and processing of data as a system process with different levels of perspectives and based on a combination of various processes that occur in the associated space and to varying degrees of their development dynamics. And the analysis should be carried out with respect to landmarks, as part of the mathematical system itself, which also has the dynamics of development and its own algorithms
                    2. gridasov
                      gridasov April 16 2016 23: 43
                      0
                      This apparently you can not imagine the capacity. It is such that it is simply not subordinate to the logic of human understanding, and this is only in the numbers nat. row. I am not talking about natural numbers with a large number. Therefore, we can talk generally about computers that do not work on processors and generally the process of increasing both the number of processors and the speed of data processing, but about machines with one processor or a multipolar transistor, which will take on the entire function of all processors, because it also works on principles inherent in the properties of numbers nat. row. It is worth mentioning from here, it is obvious that you have not read many of my comments, that there is a function of a constant value of the number. On it the mathematical method is built, which allows you to build a mathematical space as interconnected through algorithms of interactions of nat numbers. row and in the radial vector of construction. So, on the principles of an unimaginably greater capacity for variations in combinations of numbers. In general, as in the Bible, everything and everything in this world has its own place and significance. So each code corresponds to a number and place in the system. Therefore, this technique allows us to define dynamics in the function of the interaction of numbers. I am sure that everything sounds slurred, but in reality everything is completely simple and clear. But if it’s completely simple, then any mathematical sequence can be turned into an algorithm of numbers having in this sequence symmetry with respect to any chosen finite number, and if this sequence is written as a spatial radial system, then there are other types of patterns.
                      Remember how Rudzhep Boschkovic said that if you spell Virgil’s poem and put it in a basket, you can always put this poem back in these letters in an exact form. So the world in which we live has the same principles of construction. But I think the last sentence was superfluous. Few will understand this.
                      1. AleksPol
                        AleksPol April 16 2016 23: 54
                        0
                        or multipolar transistor
                        Explain to me as an electronic engineer, what is it?
                        Remember how Rudzhep Boschkovic said that if you spell Virgil’s poem and put it in a basket, you can always put this poem back in these letters in the exact form
                        I also know if you put a monkey behind a typewriter and give it a million years, it will print a poem by Virgil
                      2. AleksPol
                        AleksPol April 17 2016 00: 01
                        0
                        But if it’s completely simple, then any mathematical sequence can be turned into an algorithm of numbers having in this sequence symmetry with respect to any chosen finite number, and if this sequence is written as a spatial radial system, then there are other types of patterns.
                        Here, in general, the brain broke. Apparently Ren.Tv should be watched for general education
                      3. gridasov
                        gridasov April 17 2016 00: 06
                        0
                        Obviously, you are not stupid, but do not understand simple words .. Therefore, develop your imagination. It was nice to talk. Goodbye to all
                      4. AleksPol
                        AleksPol April 17 2016 00: 17
                        0
                        The minus is not mine, I am also interested
                  2. gridasov
                    gridasov April 17 2016 00: 02
                    0
                    Magnetic force processes have a very similar property to what properties numbers in a series have. Therefore, based on the fact that the number of nat. can be written as a spatial system with the same properties, then through these properties you can build a transistor. This means that when applying a pulse to one of the inputs of this device at all the other eight inputs-outputs, we will get the potential corresponding to these properties of the relationship of numbers. The question is that it becomes possible to express a number through momentum. And no matter what dimension this impulse is, always at the other ends we get an impulse of such a level that in the system it can be interpreted as corresponding to one of the nat numbers. row.
                    Your joke is not funny.
                  3. AleksPol
                    AleksPol April 17 2016 00: 14
                    0
                    Do you understand the principle of pnp or npn junction, what 8 outputs are you talking about, what magnetic power processes in a pulse can be applied to a transistor? How to measure the potential at the output of your device? What dimension do you mean Frequency, voltage, duty cycle, duration, etc.? How to link it all with numbers
                  4. gridasov
                    gridasov April 17 2016 00: 26
                    -1
                    Your question is simply not correct.
                  5. AleksPol
                    AleksPol April 17 2016 00: 30
                    +1
                    Why belay Justify, if not difficult
                  6. gridasov
                    gridasov April 17 2016 00: 42
                    0
                    The question about transitions is incorrect. All the parameters you are talking about will not have such a significant place as now. You just need to understand that the main function of such a device is that it neutralizes the proportional dependence of the increase in productivity or system efficiency on the number of processors. And most importantly, it generally levels the process of energy consumption to ensure the operation of the system. In fact, and this must be understood, we are talking about a process in which the code does not "move" or move in its sequential "recording" in a line, etc., but is distributed in the radial system not through movement, but through the processes of its compaction in the system - through rotation in the very architecture of constructing a mathematical system. Therefore, through these functions, we also endow the mathematical system with energetic properties, which are expressed mathematically, which means that in the analysis we can always focus on the potential. Therefore, nothing supernatural can happen in the world, since the balance of energy interactions is at the core, and therefore the analysis itself must have these functions.
                  7. AleksPol
                    AleksPol April 17 2016 00: 57
                    0
                    How can one focus on potential in matanalysis?
                    Fourier series, integrals, how is it?
                    What are the processes of compaction? Brain boils
                  8. gridasov
                    gridasov April 17 2016 12: 20
                    0
                    Hello. I will note. that I already mentioned that any mathematical sequence, and therefore any series, including Fourier, can be turned into an algorithm of numbers that have systemic laws. Moreover, they are completely obvious to perception. And when we begin to consider these numerical structures, it becomes completely obvious that numerical flows have properties of this level. which can be compared with density and polarization (given the essence of the numbers themselves). I repeat to you all the time that I cannot be considered crazy, because numbers do not have a double definition in their perception. I'm not talking about fantasies. but about the completely obvious laws and properties. Worse is another. Here on the forum, one person very subtly noticed the problem of those people who discovered something important. These people, including myself, hardly perceive that other people do not know this. Therefore, I make some efforts to explain, or rather make people discover for themselves at my prompts.
  • Bort radist
    Bort radist April 17 2016 05: 02
    +1
    Quote: gridasov
    Therefore, modern computers will never possess the ability to work with respect to internally embedded mathematical landmarks, like a human being.

    On the 11th, Tatyana Chernigovskaya on Channel I visiting Posner. In short, every neuron has more connections than stars, how a person works does not know and is unlikely to be able to find out. The brain makes its own decision. The problem is who controls whom. The program is worth a look in the archives.
    1. gridasov
      gridasov April 17 2016 11: 52
      0
      I would not be so affirmative. It is I who say how this mechanism can work in conjunction with the fact that work is still going on with information in incredibly large flows and volumes and dynamics. In addition, we are talking about the mathematical principles of the distribution and movement of this information.
  • Cat man null
    Cat man null April 16 2016 23: 13
    0
    Quote: gridasov
    Mechanical flywheels have limits to their potential. The same blade of a helicopter or aircraft is essentially the same flywheel, therefore, at certain levels of rotation speed, it comes field emission. Simple it collapses

    http://topwar.ru/65684-cena-topliva.html
    laughing good
    1. gridasov
      gridasov April 16 2016 23: 47
      0
      I forgive you for your unreasonableness. You see, but the hydro-gas-dynamic flow can be twisted in the same way and by the same principles into the flywheel process. Only this can be done as a process with the expenditure of external energy, but can it be created as mutually reversible and self-sustaining. But I think it will be difficult for you to understand.
      1. Cat man null
        Cat man null April 17 2016 00: 17
        +1
        Quote: gridasov
        hydro-gas-dynamic flow in exactly the same way and by the same principles can be twisted into a flywheel process

        - Yes, I saw you there and that too ..

        Quote: gridasov
        it can be created as mutually reversible and self-sustaining

        - not a perpetual motion machine, by chance?

        Quote: gridasov
        I think it will be difficult for you to understand

        - not that word. "Almost impossible" - it will be more accurate laughing
        1. AleksPol
          AleksPol April 17 2016 00: 26
          +1
          I was also interested, I learned a lot. Live and learn laughing
  • activator
    activator April 16 2016 15: 56
    +3
    Quote: Cat Man Null
    This is not Gridasov wrote, by chance? Pearl on pearl, with a general lack of intelligible meaning .. especially pleased:

    The ergonomic culture of Being returned to Russia the piety of bestowal of good

    Mdja ...

    It’s good that I started reading from comments I don’t even know why ... I came across your post if you need to read Gridasov in a helmet, otherwise the shard will burst laughing
    1. vovanpain
      vovanpain April 16 2016 16: 05
      +16
      Quote: activator
      if Gridasov it is necessary to read in a helmet, otherwise the shard will burst

      The colleague is not Gridasov, the article is certainly not for VO, but most likely it is more suitable for a dissertation, well, the author is generally a distinguished person: Vladimir Aleksandrovich Ponomarenko
      Place of Birth:
      Melitopol
      Scientific field:
      Medicine, Psychology
      Place of work:
      Research and Testing Center of Aerospace Medicine and Military Ergonomics as part of the State Research Institute of Military Medicine of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation;
      Department of Restorative Medicine, First Sechenov Moscow State Medical University
      Academic degree:
      Doctor of Medical Sciences
      Academic title:
      Academician of RAO
      Professor
      Alma Mater:
      Saratov State Medical Institute
      Awards and Prizes:
      Order of the Red Star
      Order "For Service to the Homeland in the Armed Forces of the USSR" II degree
      Order "For Service to the Homeland in the Armed Forces of the USSR" III degree
      Medal “In memory of the 850th anniversary of Moscow”
      Medal "40 years of the Armed Forces of the USSR"
      Medal "50 years of the Armed Forces of the USSR"
      Anniversary medal "For Valiant Labor (For Military Valor). To commemorate the 100 anniversary of the birth of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin "
      Medal "Veteran of the Armed Forces of the USSR"
      Medal "60 years of the Armed Forces of the USSR"
      For perfect service of 1 degree
      For perfect service of 2 degree
      For perfect service of 3 degree
      20 years of victory rib.png
      Anniversary medal "70 years of the Armed Forces of the USSR"
      Prize of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, Prize of the Government of the Russian Federation in the field of science and technology, medal "90 years of naval aviation", S. L. Rubinstein medal of the Russian Academy of Sciences, medal of the Russian Federation of Cosmonautics "K. E. Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935)" hi
      1. vovanpain
        vovanpain April 16 2016 16: 17
        +9
        Quote: vovanpain
        Vladimir Alexandrovich Ponomarenko

        I’ll add a little more: The scientific interests of V. A. Ponomarenko from the very beginning have been focused on protecting, improving reliability and extending the professional longevity of a person in a dangerous environment. This is an environment of high speeds and great accelerations, unusual spatial orientation, numerous adverse effects on the body and psyche; An environment in which errors lead to accidents and disasters.

        Experiments in this area were extremely complex in scientific and organizational-technical terms. However, difficulties were overcome, thanks to the ability of V. A. Ponomarenko to rally around him an effective group of like-minded people. For the first time in the world, he applied the method of sudden introduction of aircraft equipment failures in real flight, including during approach. At the same time, V. A. Ponomarenko personally, in the seat of the co-pilot, participated in flights in which experimental emergency situations were created.

        An innovative approach made it possible to formulate fundamentally new provisions on the activities of the pilot. It was proved that his mistakes were the result of limited human capabilities, imperfect flight training, technical equipment and interruptions in the interaction of man and technology. The new data was used to improve the flight cabin, means of displaying information on screen indicators (for example, on MiG-29, Su-27 aircraft.

        Under his leadership, methods for diagnosing psychophysiological reserves, a catalog of health threats, methods and equipment of restorative medicine for special hospitals were developed. In 1965 he defended his thesis "The role of the personal factor in emergency situations with a successful outcome." In 1974 he defended his doctoral dissertation "Theoretical and experimental study of human reliability in a dangerous profession."

        Since 1986, the center of scientific research of V. A. Ponomarenko has shifted to the field of psychology. Together with ND Zavalova, he developed the concept of a mental image of flight using reference points. The concept has been widely recognized by pilots and instructors and has now become a normative means of pilot training.

        Under his leadership, an integrated system of training and education of pilots for the entire period of training in flight schools of the Russian Federation was created. At the same time, new approaches to the development of professionally important personal, intellectual, psychophysiological and physical qualities were used. Human psychology constituted the core of this system.

        He also substantiated a set of measures for career guidance and increasing the motivation for studying in aviation boarding schools.

        His work allowed the restructuring of vocational training so that it provided the maximum actualization and disclosure of the psychological reserves of a person. Under the guidance of V. A. Ponomarenko, training complexes have been created that have been introduced into the practice of vocational training.

        He wrote and achieved the introduction into the educational process of educational institutions of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation more than 30 textbooks and the film course “Psychology of Flight Labor” (10 films), prepared under his guidance and with his active participation.
        1. vovanpain
          vovanpain April 16 2016 16: 21
          +9
          Ponomarenko investigated the problem of the reliability of the “man” link in extreme situations. He formulated the concept of an active operator in automated systems "man-machine", it is used in the design of aircraft for special purposes. Real civic courage was demanded by his harsh actions against leadership plans, in which the pilot was assigned the role of a passive element in these systems.

          The concepts and recommendations developed by V. A. Ponomarenko, first of all, for pilots and astronauts, are quite applicable in any situations where the health and life of professionals are at risk and the lives of other people and the preservation of huge material values ​​depend on decisions made. In fact, he laid the foundations of the general theory of dangerous professions.

          He is the author of the theory of professional spirituality and the hypothesis about the role of outer space in the origin of the psychic, in the moral development of the human personality, its spiritual enrichment and perfection.

          Another area of ​​scientific activity of V. A. Ponomarenko is the creation of the concept of professional health. It has become an integral part of the national concept “Health Protection of Healthy, approved by the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation in 2003.

          He also became an adviser to the director of the Russian Scientific Center for Restorative Medicine and Balneology Roszdrav. V. Ponomarenko actively participated in the creation of the Department of Restorative Medicine MMA named after I.M.Sechenov, where he now works as a professor.

          V. A. Ponomarenko is the author (or co-author) of several hundred publications, including about three dozen monographs. Under his leadership, defended more than 20 master's theses. The results of scientific and social activities of the scientist are marked by three orders and 17 medals. He is a laureate of the State Prize of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1990) and the Prize of the Government of the Russian Federation in the field of science and technology (2004). I will repeat dear colleagues, Not an article for VO, but the author is a distinguished person. hi
          1. Throw
            Throw April 16 2016 17: 14
            +7
            Authr may well deserved from all sides in medals, but human writing is necessary!
            1. gavrosh.ru
              gavrosh.ru April 16 2016 21: 40
              0
              In my opinion it is written more than humanly. Such ability to state the most difficult problem, and intuitively understandable if you force yourself to move a thought) is rare.))).
      2. Cat man null
        Cat man null April 16 2016 16: 20
        +6
        Quote: vovanpain
        The colleague is not Gridasov, the article is certainly not for VO, but most likely it is more suitable for a dissertation, well, the author is generally a distinguished person: Vladimir Aleksandrovich Ponomarenko

        To man - my respect hi but:

        - I evaluated the article, not a person
        - the article, IMHO, is simply unreadable
        - in the article are some excerpts from fragments .. and the thought in them is simply lost in places - the beginning of the sentence is about one thing, and the end is about the other already .. belay

        Something like that..
        1. vovanpain
          vovanpain April 16 2016 16: 40
          +7
          Quote: Cat Man Null
          - I evaluated the article, not a person
          - the article, IMHO, is simply unreadable
          - in the article are some excerpts from fragments .. and the thought in them is simply lost in places - the beginning of the sentence is about one thing, and the end is about the other already ..

          Roman welcome! hiAlso, when I read the article all the same, not for my mind, the gentlemen of the editors should not have spread it, which I wrote about, well, knowing your style of communication on the forum, I know that you also wanted to say the same. hi Colleagues which smog corrected.
          1. Wheel
            Wheel April 16 2016 21: 16
            +1
            Quote: vovanpain
            actually a distinguished person: Vladimir Alexandrovich Ponomarenko

            A well-deserved man, no one argues, but in this case he is bulging out, excuse me, senility.
        2. faridg7
          faridg7 April 17 2016 02: 54
          0
          I liked the article, it is understandable and simple. There are things that cannot be read in passing and distracted.
          During my studies, I had the honor of communicating with a pundit from mathematics, I was a smart friend, gave lectures to us, but the trouble was in one thing - he did not take into account that we still did not understand anything in mathematics. Rescued by teachers from the department, who conducted practical classes, we chewed them in a simple, understandable language. I still remember with warmth Mrs Chemodanova. I drank so much blood while I brought it to the exam, I didn’t have so many corrected twos in any subject.
          I generally mean that not every individual is able to formulate a bright thought into a phrase that everyone understands, regardless of the way of thinking. A plus article
      3. activator
        activator April 16 2016 16: 20
        +3
        Quote: vovanpain
        A colleague is not Gridasov, the article is certainly not

        Thanks reassured hi Although I will tell you honestly, I want to understand what Gridasov is talking about. Now I turn to Gridasov, here is each word separately when you speak, I understand, but when they are together then everything collapses ..
    2. gridasov
      gridasov April 16 2016 17: 55
      0
      It is hardly useful to read idle talk - the same thing is repeated. Ignorance is generally noted by the limited diversity of views and reasoning. Here is the Chinese wisdom that (maybe you will understand) "One of the happiness of a person is the opportunity to use what he has learned."
  • hartlend
    hartlend April 16 2016 15: 44
    +5
    Informative article. In my opinion, it is more suitable for a report among those who are "in the subject" or for a dissertation. I believe that an additional introduction could be added for VO to make it clearer for readers.
    1. zart_arn
      zart_arn April 16 2016 15: 54
      +1
      Well, yes, something like that "in the subject", "in terms of". belay
  • Krsk
    Krsk April 16 2016 15: 44
    +2
    I stand on the pavement in skis shod ...
  • Thirteenth
    Thirteenth April 16 2016 15: 52
    +3
    The human factor is omnipresent - in both good and bad ways.
  • pts-m
    pts-m April 16 2016 15: 57
    +1
    In my reasoning, I am inclined to conclude that ... the electronics blunt the brain ... the head becomes dull. When you turn your head 360 degrees, you get a neck massage and you see something that the electronics do not see.
  • Bort radist
    Bort radist April 16 2016 15: 58
    +2
    "Mikhail Gromov, who argued that" none of the designers fully knows how the aircraft they have made will behave. Only the pilot is given to establish all the whims of the aircraft, all the dangers, its strength and its weakness. "From the conversations of the pilots - aircraft of the same type have their own characteristics, especially when landing (pulls to the left, crouches, .....) everyone gets used to the peculiarities of their side and only deputy. Major Yakovlev put any comasco solely. Experience and reaction. Once they nearly turned over already sowing. The right engine was feathery (exercise) turned off the left began to roll. Yakovlev sat left, managed to compensate and ornately comment. You will not drive all factors into the program.
  • krops777
    krops777 April 16 2016 16: 18
    +2
    Automation in an airplane is good on the one hand, it does a lot of routine work, and on the other hand, wears pilots away from thinking what to do with it.
    A sad example of this is the plane crash in Rostov-on-Don.
  • Blackmokona
    Blackmokona April 16 2016 16: 44
    0
    Given that back in 1947, the aircraft successfully autopilot made a trans-Atlantic flight including takeoff and landing. It’s time for a long time to do, full automation, and generally remove the person and the human factor from the plane.
    1. gavrosh.ru
      gavrosh.ru April 16 2016 21: 44
      0
      ...... and from production with those services, and still with the weather decide well, and tickets are cheaper bully
  • Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter April 16 2016 16: 46
    +1
    The author is a plus, of course. He raises a serious question about the interaction of man and "control machine". The disasters in Kazan and Rostov-on-Don occurred when the crews, "seizing manual control" after a long automatic flight, began to act in a situation of a sudden transition from a "pre-sleep state" to a "pre-emergency state. And people did not cope. The author writes that it is required to treat the crew operating the aircraft as the main element on board, and take this into account in programming, leaving the crew more functions - keeping him in good shape during the flight.
  • cedar
    cedar April 16 2016 16: 46
    +3
    "... This fact of technical progress concerns mainly the aircraft. But there is still man as a backbone factor. And here a number of problems arise. As a preliminary, I will note that the transition to a two-member crew was dictated not by the comfort of the conditions, but by economic benefits. This innovation was offset by the creation of artificial intelligence in deep automation computer programs. "

    Man is universally replaced by robots and robotic systems based on artificial intelligence. There are more unmanned aerial vehicles, tomorrow we will have not only unmanned fighters, but also passenger airliners and this is economically profitable. That is, the market economy is inhumane in principle, and this principle is implemented everywhere under various pretexts, the first of which is BENEFIT!
    In front of a man in this case a pilot, a dilemma is posed or become an element of the machine, i.e. go through the digitization of consciousness, transferring your creative spirit to machine intelligence, or remain a creator and ... start flying without a car. In the first case, degradation, in the second, a higher stage of spiritual development.

    - The sky gives new sensations, understanding, meanings that cannot be obtained on earth (the chief pilot of the company, AS Yakovlev, Hero of the Soviet Union, AA Sinitsyn).

    - I wanted to fly, to overcome myself, I wanted to become a real person (A. Tereshchenko, a pilot of Civil Aviation).

    - The ability to live in another dimension (Hero of Russia V. Gorbunov).
  • Gardener91
    Gardener91 April 16 2016 16: 54
    0
    The human factor with regard to aviation has many components of the psychophysiological state of the pilot, his level of training, the complexity of the situation and weather conditions, the pilot found himself in, and much more. That is why the man-to-plane link, the man is weaker, be it the technical staff of the servants or the pilot. technology in flight accidents and incidents to them is manifested to a lesser extent than human errors, the human factor.
  • ALABAY45
    ALABAY45 April 16 2016 17: 03
    +4
    Well, here, I flew in my life, as a passenger, of course!
    Li-2 (yes, yes, yes!), An-2, An-12, An-72 ("binoculars"), An-
    24, Tu-134, Tu-154, Il-18, Il-86, Il-76, then Boeing, Airbus, Bombardier and articles of a similar psychological orientation came to replace ... Or, I became old, or problems in civil aviation have accumulated! Maybe ordinary passengers shouldn't know about this ?! recoursePersonally, after reading it, it's easier to drive to the "south" by car ...
    1. Gardener91
      Gardener91 April 16 2016 17: 07
      0
      The master is the master.
      1. ALABAY45
        ALABAY45 April 16 2016 17: 22
        0
        With my heap of grandchildren, I want to live, but not bother analyzing the professional suitability of the so-called "pilots"! Effective state managers - already "by-eye" ... angry
    2. Barakuda
      Barakuda April 16 2016 17: 27
      +1
      Damn..And I was not lucky, there is nothing to compare with, just something on the Tu-154 three dozen times Kiev (Boryspil) -Tyumen and back .. Well, the An-2 with a parachute a couple of times.
      But I began to worry about my daughter after reading it. She often has to fly America-Britain-Europe. formerly Libya, Tunisia, Egypt..brrrr
      1. ALABAY45
        ALABAY45 April 16 2016 17: 37
        +3
        During the Soviet era, they jumped three times in DOSAAF, when recording in the draft "-VDV" ... soldier During the third jump to the a / p "Logovushka" (Kurgan region), my felt boot fell off my foot! Song! Until now, from the experience, my legs do not sweat ...
        1. Barakuda
          Barakuda April 16 2016 18: 10
          +2
          In times of time .. And I hopped for money, I will not mention, about 30 bucks cost. I wanted to be longer, lingering, my wife did not give - enough to spend grandmas. smile I also wanted to join the Airborne Forces, and I wanted to join the border troops ... Well, then I did not know who they were taking there, and my father did not tell in time. Same to me "the head of the operational department of the city military enlistment office of Kramatorsk".
    3. Bort radist
      Bort radist April 16 2016 20: 17
      +1
      Quote: ALABAY45
      Li-2 (yes, yes, yes!)

      The first jump from him jumped. And for the first time I got on a plane. On the earth of emotions there was no longer even the first gray hair at the age of 18.
  • Aleksandr1959
    Aleksandr1959 April 16 2016 17: 27
    +2
    The human factor in aviation is very multifaceted. One example. Head of the Bomber Flight Test Service of the 1st Directorate of 929 GLITS MO (Akhtubinsk), Honored Test Pilot of the USSR was transferred to Chkalovskaya. The order was signed, it was already excluded from the lists of the unit. But ... the verification time is out. In order not to pass the check on Chkalovskaya I decided to fly to Akhtubinsk. At the last moment, the instructor was changed. The Head of the Airfield Flight Service flew. The flight was performed on the Su-24M. Both the one and the other knew the plane perfectly. But ... personal incompatibility. And due to an incorrect assessment of the situation, the withdrawal of the aircraft from a difficult position (standard check), for some reason, the person being checked decided to perform a coup. The plane entered the ground at a speed of over 1000 km / h. According to the commission of inquiry, the ejection crew had no more than 1,5 seconds after entering the coup. Naturally, both died. The first question of the unit commander, who was on a foreign business trip at that time, was "Who replaced the instructor and why?"
  • alisarow
    alisarow April 16 2016 18: 52
    -9
    Maxim magazine issued instructions on how to become a male and satisfy any girl, I was shocked by the result and it really works! here is that article --- bit.do/macsho
  • midshipman
    midshipman April 16 2016 19: 25
    +3
    Questions that V.A. Ponomarenko, are constantly in the attention of professionals. In order to reduce the influence of the human factor in the work of various operators (pilots, combat control officers, controllers, captains, engine drivers, drivers) on incidents and disasters, we began to study the assessment of the level of change in the characteristics of kinesics and physiognomy on human fatigue, its inadequate and erroneous actions . We were led to conduct these studies by the fact that in the USA more than 3 billion dollars have already been spent on this area of ​​science. The first results are already available. I have the honor.
  • NKVD
    NKVD April 16 2016 20: 38
    0
    There is such a concept as "Professional deformation" Who served in the authorities everyone knows. The person believes that he has completely mastered the technique, but the world is not fair and you never know when the bolt connecting the responsible part will crack. You can do everything according to the rules and be in the priest, but you can do not according to rules and be on horseback.
  • gridasov
    gridasov April 16 2016 21: 35
    +1
    A magnificent article and everything in it is precisely and clearly indicated. It’s just that every balabol thinks that they will chew him and lay them out on a silver platter. Kindly work hard and understand the essence of the problem. I would say more that there is a question of adapting a person’s consciousness to those processes that occur not only with the technology created by him, but also with nature. Therefore, to harmonize all these relations, it is necessary to find common binding principles. To do this, you just need to be either completely non-human, but at the same time live in a world of human feelings, concepts and life in general. And at the same time be in perception completely different from the future.
  • rubin6286
    rubin6286 April 16 2016 23: 04
    +1
    A person controlling an aircraft, due to the specifics of the operations carried out in flight, can never be a passive observer. The pilot is initially active because he “continuously receives information both about the main parameters of the system and about the environment (about the course of solving the problem)”. The process of training the pilot (operator of a complex system) involves working out the algorithm of actions in flight to automatism, at all stages - from take-off to landing in various conditions. This is aimed at studying various kinds of instructions, instructions, training on simulators, conducting instructor-methodical classes (training flights), etc. etc. Reducing accident rate, fatigue, maintaining professional health, and increasing the skill level of pilots became possible as a result of the principle of combined control of the aircraft using various kinds of automation systems (flap release, landing gear retraction, autopilot, etc., etc.).

    Pilots' admission to the flight involves a strictly regulated procedure and it’s stupid to say anything about the “complete lack of professionalism of managers in the field of knowledge about a man flying” today.

    A modern aircraft is not only the product of the work of the design team, but the result of the work of a number of high-tech industries. The acceptance of the machine into operation and its certification means that the requirements for its basic safety are met, however, it is also known from the course of logic and probability theory that the more complex the system, the higher the probability of failure of units and systems included in its composition, and any structural unit of the aircraft there is the result of a compromise between the desired and the possible, therefore ergonomic equipment flaws are quite possible. The pilot is always taken as the basis for certain weight-geometric and medical characteristics (height, weight, state of the organs of vision, hearing, etc., etc.), but there are no identical people anyway and what is convenient for one may not like the other.

    The development of a particular machine includes an element of familiarization with the equipment of the cabin, a kind of getting used to it and it does not occur to anyone to talk about some kind of “morality” of the designer.
    At the stage of receiving technical specifications, the design team has in full all the necessary information about the technical characteristics of the aircraft, installed equipment, weapons, devices, materials used, etc. etc., crew working conditions. Probably it always has been, or at least the last hundred years. You can “desolate” as much as you like about the personality structure of the pilot, his worldview and behavior motives (this is fashionable among humanities), but any personality can have both positive qualities and shortcomings. The reasons for the death of crews in battle may be different, but it is hardly appropriate to blame the designers that the machine created in the 70s of the last century does not have what is on other machines now. People flying up to the sky will always be at risk of death, because, as Louis Bleriot said: "Everything that flies will someday fall."

    Science does not stand still. and aviation especially. It’s becoming more and more difficult to fly an airplane, be it a Boeing or an Airbus, or a supersonic fighter. Cars are becoming more energy-saturated, and the design of some of them generally does not allow flight without the use of an on-board computer. I met with pilots in several European countries, the United States, both military and civilian. These are not at all passive operators, deprived of the mind and sensory connection of the subconscious with danger, natural properties that determine flying abilities, reliability, humanity, corporate honor and honor of their own name, but their living conditions, morality are completely different and this affects behavior in extreme situations .
    1. iouris
      iouris April 17 2016 00: 21
      0
      There is a distance of known size between "Should" and "Is there to be". Once again, an aviation disaster remains extremely rare. In any case, the catastrophic nature of motor transport cannot be compared at all with the catastrophic nature of air transport. However, the level of reflection of the problem of a human operator in the training of car drivers is incomparable. At the same time, everywhere from 70 to 90 percent of disasters is the “human factor”.
      The accidents were not committed by those about whom you wrote so pathetically, but ordinary line pilots, "average statistical", in very similar modes of activity, which probably indicates the recurrence and typicality of the problem.
      As aviation develops, the multifaceted problem of the “human factor” each time sharply turns with another facet.
      1. gridasov
        gridasov April 17 2016 00: 53
        +2
        Excuse me, but it’s blasphemy to talk about the extreme rarity of disasters. Moreover, they should not be at all. And this should be the goal and condition for those who take the responsibility to create airplanes and put people in them. Therefore, the development of aircraft and all related aspects should be given the most serious attention. Of course, this is an illusion of hoping that catastrophes cannot and should not be, but a series of many tragedies is connected with reasons that are simply shocking.
        1. iouris
          iouris April 17 2016 01: 51
          +1
          Disasters have been, are and will be. The passengers are afraid, but they fly. Statistics confirm the "rarity" of accidents and the increased level of flight safety.
          For comparison.
          In Russia, about 30 thousand die on the roads per year
          In Afghanistan, about 10 thousand were killed.
          In Vietnam, only about 40 thousand Americans died, while the same perished per year on the roads.
          BUT. In the Russian Federation, about 100 people per 30 thousand of the population. In the states of the "golden billion", 100 ... 3 people die per 8 thousand.
    2. iouris
      iouris April 17 2016 01: 58
      +1
      Quote: rubin6286
      The pilot is initially active.

      These unfortunates flew five hours to Rostov on autopilot, and then circled over Rostov for another two hours. This is monotony. After that, they "automatically" approached the landing to an altitude of 50..100 m. They decided to go around, did not have time to "turn on", made a fatal mistake. In civil aviation, almost everything is automated.
      In the military, on the contrary, a rare fighter pilot is ready to land "in a machine": only manually.
  • TOR2
    TOR2 April 17 2016 00: 28
    +1
    The article traces the resentment of automation systems. There is only one way out. It is necessary to build aircraft themselves and develop automation systems. The main task of such systems is to perform routine operations, and this is necessary first of all so that a person can concentrate not on the fact that the machine cannot yet control and analyze.
    The development team must constantly communicate with people who operate their systems. This is the only way to create what the crew really needs. An emergency happened - the developers should be aware of all the little things. How the systems reacted, what information needs to be displayed for the pilots and in what form.
    You can take offense at the "piece of iron" as much as you like, only except for us no one will make it "smarter" and you should not hope to the west.
    The computer turned off all the braking devices on the run and proudly announced that the crew was not ready for take-off. But the asymmetry of traction is a dangerous failure, but this is not in the program, because the creators of the whole person "had in mind".
  • Cat
    Cat April 17 2016 07: 17
    0
    Difficult, but interesting enough. Everything said in the article can be attributed to road transport. And to the fleet, and to life.
    Divers who decide that they have completely conquered an alien environment usually drown in puddles. And the underwater swimmers, who were well taught in DOSAAF schools, continue to enjoy the feeling of flying and weightlessness in the waters of rivers and seas.
  • then
    then April 17 2016 08: 04
    0
    Theological babble both in style and content. To even dig a well of religion alone is not enough, specific knowledge and skills are needed. And having specific knowledge and skills, it does not matter which religion to profess.
  • Hope1960
    Hope1960 April 17 2016 09: 51
    0
    The article is indistinct, but the problem needs to be discussed, because our people are dying! When we start to follow the West where we were just "ahead of the rest", then we lose all the best, for which we paid a high price! Proved Shoigu that our aerospace forces are the best in the world, and the pilots have no equal! So why do we blindly follow the Western method in civil aviation ?! It's time to teach them all to fly in Russian !!!!
  • JD1979
    JD1979 April 17 2016 10: 33
    +1
    Quote: Talker
    This can only be said by an electronic translator !!!!


    The interpreter and all the other victims of the exam, it is not so difficult to do a simple thing to answer the elementary question: who is the author - follow the link to the source. And there, about the MIRACLE, the author and even his profession will be indicated. I immediately had a suspicion of who he was by profession, and why for many it is "mysticism and incomprehensible babbling and clumsy translation from a foreign language" - open, for example, a textbook on neurophysiology and see how many words from the page you can understand. The article is sensible, just from this side few people looked at the problem in civil aviation. In the military sphere, thank God, such issues are being worked out very closely by military medicine.
  • Aleksandr1959
    Aleksandr1959 April 17 2016 12: 04
    0
    In the military sphere, thank God such questions are very densely practiced by military medicine.

    Moreover, starting with the TTZ, and especially at the stage of flight tests. Previously, this support was conducted by the Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine of the Moscow Region. Plus, the ergonomics of the cabin and its equipment were evaluated. And all the comments on this topic were included in the lists of deficiencies in the Acts on State tests.
    The article is sensible, just from this side few people looked at the problem in civil aviation

    I absolutely agree with you. Here. just to understand it, a certain degree of competence in aviation is needed.
    1. gridasov
      gridasov April 17 2016 12: 29
      +1
      It's just that in aviation, the degree of information processes, so to speak, is very high. Therefore, there are a lot of such causes and consequences that, in a short period of time, greatly influence the subsequent development of events. Again and again we run into the ability to work with large amounts of information, as well as the human factor, which depends on the ability to adequately analyze all these events. Without mathematics and new methods of analysis, there will be no progress towards progress. Again, we will rely more and more on professionalism, and therefore on people. factor. But!!! Man has always had and will have a limited potential of his capabilities. Especially in the ability to analyze "big input data".
      1. Aleksandr1959
        Aleksandr1959 April 17 2016 13: 51
        0
        Man has always had and will have a limited potential of his capabilities. Especially in the ability to analyze "big input data".

        So we need techniques that develop this ability. Naturally, there is a limit, but in my opinion it is still oh how far away. Plus the development of psychological resistance to stress factors.
        Even in Soviet times, during a test flight on a MiG-29 with suspensions (if I’m not mistaken, then two "five hundred") military test pilot Colonel Alexander Grigorievich Bondarenko, the car did not come out of a spin. Bondarenko outlined the line of ejection and tried all known methods of getting out of the spin ... but the car did not leave this mode. But .... he nevertheless brought it out with a ratchet engine. Here is an example of analyzing a situation in an extremely tense situation and working out a solution at the level of intuition. The time reserve was extremely limited. Until the height of the ejection, according to Alexander Grigorievich, there were a few seconds left when he felt that the car began to come out of a spin. For this flight, Alexander Grigorievich Bondarenko was the first and only in the 8th State Research Institute of the Air Force (now 929GLITs) was awarded the Order For Personal Courage.
        1. gridasov
          gridasov April 17 2016 14: 25
          +1
          There are no doubt people with unique potentialities and the very conditions of dynamically developing events form a new way of thinking. Moreover, Russia and the Slavic world have always been the cradle of innovators and discoverers of a fundamentally new and progressive.
          1. Aleksandr1959
            Aleksandr1959 April 17 2016 18: 28
            0
            There are no doubt people with unique potentialities and the very conditions of dynamically developing events form a new way of thinking

            Sometimes these opportunities wake up in critical situations. And it is stress that is the catalyst for the manifestation of these opportunities. When I described the situation With A.G. Bondarenko, then if we consider it from the point of view of making various decisions, then multi-vector thinking is seen here. Those. simultaneous solution of a number of tasks. Moreover, Alexander Grigorievich had such situations more than once, and he always came out of them, in fact, in an optimal way. For example, at a mountain range in Nalchik during a flight on a Su-25T during a dive, a spontaneous discharge of the hinged part of the flashlight occurred. Bondarenko successfully planted the car ... and then surpassed it without the hinged part of the lamp in Akhtubinsk.
  • iouris
    iouris April 17 2016 12: 38
    +2
    The publication of the article revealed that many people are not ready to perceive any complex problem as a problem of their own incompetence.
  • Bayun
    Bayun April 17 2016 16: 02
    0
    If the "human factor" conflicts with technology, then it is necessary to change - TECHNOLOGY!

    One acquaintance has an interesting form of intracorporate communication at the firm. They write by hand on paper, sign, and send pictures (photos or scans). Time for business, especially for "old shots" who are not a master on the buttons to beat and "poke a finger on the screen" - is saved. "Effective managers" are cut off at once. And also, if anything, it is clear who wrote. Interestingly, the staff evaluate this procedure very positively.

    About the complexity: "everything ingenious is simple; complex is NOT NECESSARY." Today, everywhere: in the program code ("no time"), in the industry ("the priority of commerce"), in everyday life - REDUNDANCY is realized. Even in industrial systems it is sometimes IMPOSSIBLE to mechanically "close the tap" or "turn off the switch". At the same time, the maintainability of components and assemblies is being eliminated. On you, the Great Automatic - we hope;)