Military Review

Tu-154: business card of the Soviet "Aeroflot"

85
Tu-154: business card of the Soviet "Aeroflot"



The first domestic passenger aircraft with turbojet engines (TRD), Tu-104 and Tu-114, were created on the basis of military vehicles Tu-16 and Tu-95. The second generation Tu-124 and Tu-134 were originally designed as reduced models of the Tu-104, with a number of changes. In contrast, the creation of a third-generation mid-range passenger aircraft, called Tu-154, was for designers of the OKB Design Bureau. Tupolev first passenger car that did not have a military prototype.

Soviet specialists were faced with the task of creating an aircraft that would not be inferior in design to the Boeing-727, the American aircraft of the same class. An experienced "Boeing 727-100" first flew into the air in February 1963-th and was certified in December. The B-727 (with a cargo door and manual loading system) took off in December of the 1964. Three years later, in July, B-727-200 appeared, which entered service five months later. Production of the B-727 was discontinued in the 1984 edition of the 1831 machine, including the 1249 B-727-200.

At the beginning of the sixties, Aeroflot lines with a length of up to 3500 km were actively exploited by the Tu-104, Il-18 and An-10. Thus, the domestic GVF had in its fleet three different passenger aircraft of the same class. This hampered the work of ensuring the regularity of traffic, led to unnecessary difficulties in the operation of aircraft of various designs.

It was at this time that the question was raised about replacing them with one machine. A condition was made: the new airliner had to take all the best from its predecessors, naturally, taking into account the new requirements for passenger aircraft. The work in the OKB to determine the most optimal appearance of the aircraft to be built, which took almost two years, was headed by the head of the technical projects department S. Eger. The medium-haul passenger aircraft was designed to transport the 16-18 tonnes of payload from the range 2850 to 4000 km at a cruising speed of at least 900 km / h and 5800 kg - at a range to 7000 km / h. There was also a requirement for the ability to be exploited from the strips of airfields of the II class.

It should be noted that a competition was announced for this project. In addition to the Tupolev Design Bureau, Ilyushin Design Bureau participated in the development of such a machine, proposing the development of the Il-72 with three D-30 turbojet engines with take-off thrust of 6800 kgf. The customer ultimately chose the Tu-154 as the machine that most fully took into account the latest achievements at that time aviation science and technology. It was planned to launch the aircraft in series at the Moscow plant number 30 ("Banner of Labor", now MAPO), but production was launched at plant number 18 in Kuibyshev. In November 1965, the flight specifications of the MGA were approved for the future Tu-154.



There is no doubt that from the point of view of profitability, a scheme with two turbojet engines was more profitable, and the safest was with four engines. For the Tu-154, an intermediate original three-engine scheme was chosen: two engine designers placed the pylons on the sides and one turbojet inside the rear fuselage (HCHF), with an air intake in the forquille with an S-shaped channel.

Tu-154 has a very high for its class thrust-to-weight ratio equal to 0,36. For most other machines, this figure ranges from 0,22 to 0,27. In Boeing B-727-200, for example, 0,2 — 0,26. Such a choice for the Tu-154 is not accidental; on the one hand, this may have a negative impact on efficiency, on the other hand, an excess of thrust ensures the operation of cars at airports with a length of 1500 m, from high-altitude airfields and in regions with hot climates.

If the overseas Boeing-727 was intended for flights at altitudes from 7600 to 9150 m, then Tu-154 was optimized for large cruising altitudes from 11000 to 12000 m. With this purpose, the wing area was adopted to 180 square. m (for B-727 - 145 sq. m). As a result, the specific load on the wing was reduced. With normal take-off weight, it turned out to be equal to 472 kg / sq. m (for В-727-200 - 602 kg / sq. m). The combination of these two parameters allowed us to minimize cruising fuel consumption.

In 1968, in the pilot production, two first machines were manufactured: one for flight tests, the second for static ones. The first aircraft transferred to the flight test and development base - ASTC them. A.N. Tupolev.

An experienced Tu-154 took to the air in October 1968. The car was driven by a crew consisting of the commander of the ship Y. Sukhov, the co-pilot N. Kharitonov, and the flight engineer V. Evdokimov. On board the aircraft were also a leading test engineer - L. Yumashev, the experimenter Yu. Efimov and the board electrician Y. Kuzmenko. After completing the development stage and the first flights, the car was sent to joint tests, which took place in two stages.

From December 1968-th to January 1971-th at the aerodrome of LII held the first factory stage, the second was completed in December of 1971-th. At the same time, they began preparations for serial production in Kuibyshev. The creation and fine-tuning of the machine on the first was under the direction of the chief designer D. Markov, and then it was headed by S. Eger. It was they who assumed the main problems that were associated with the testing and development of a new airliner in the series. Since May, 1975-nd appointed A. Shengardt, who later became the chief designer for this aircraft and its numerous modifications, as the head of the "one hundred and fifty-four". Prior to 2011, he supervised the entire range of work related to the improvement of the liner.

In 1969, the Soviet Union demonstrated an experienced Tu-154 at a salon in the French Le Bourget.



In May, 1971 began operational tests of pre-production machines on Aeroflot lines. They were used to deliver mail from the Soviet capital in Tbilisi, Sochi, Mineralnye Vody and Simferopol. The first regular passenger flight on the route Moscow - Mineralnye Vody Tu-154 performed on the day of the 49 anniversary of Aeroflot - 9 in February of 1972.



In the eighties, the Tu-154 of various variants became the most popular Aeroflot vehicles. They were operated from the airfields of almost all major cities of the USSR. In the summer, the airliner became the main carrier of numerous holidaymakers to the southern regions of the country. It flew almost a hundred cities in Europe, Asia and Africa. By the beginning of 1996, KuAZ produced an order of 950 machines. Tu-154 serially produced before 2013 year. To date, about 80 machines continue to be in operation.

Airliners of the first issues enjoyed good international demand. What is not surprising: having a profitability that was not inferior to Western counterparts, he markedly surpassed them in comfort. Under capitalism, the profitability of the car comes out on top, it should bring income to the operator. In the USSR, the approach was different, they were not thinking about making a profit, but about the safety of passengers (which, in particular, provided a three-engine scheme) and their convenience. Now this is rarely remembered, but in those years the Soviet Union was a trendsetter in the design of passenger aircraft, it was noted by world aviation publications and proved the relevant diplomas and other awards of international air shows. Starting in the 1972 year, the Tu-154 were sold and began to be used in Bulgaria and Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Cuba, and the DPRK. Total by the mid-eighties abroad sold about 60 machines. With the advent of the new modification of the Tu-154M, exports have expanded even more. At the end of the 20 century aircraft of this modification were operated in the PRC, Cuba, Iran, Poland, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Germany. Abroad put about 100 Tu-154M, of which almost half purchased the PRC. In those years, this aircraft in Russia and the CIS countries is the most used passenger airliner.



Before the collapse of the Soviet Union, KuAZ jointly with the ASTC them. A.N. Tupolev developed and introduced into the 22 series of different versions of the Tu-154. It also became the basis for the creation of the Tu-155 - the world's first aircraft using such an alternative type of fuel as liquefied gas, and its further development - the Tu-156 (with liquid hydrogen).

The first two years of operation of the Tu-154 showed that it has significant opportunities for its further improvement. As a result of the joint activities of the OKB and KuAZ, a modification of the Tu-154A arose.

The main structural difference between the Tu-154A and the previous version was the replacement of the NK-8-2 aircraft engines with the NK-8-2 aircraft engines with increased thrust, which made it possible to more effectively use the good strength capabilities of the glider to bring the take-off weight of the 150th to the 94 and the range flight to 3300 km at a speed of 900 km at 16 t payload. Since 1974, the 78 Tu-154A has been manufactured. The most massive modification was the Tu-154B, which until the end of mass production in the mid-eighties was released in the number of 486 machines. The Tu-154B strengthened the airframe design in order to increase its resource. At the same time, the take-off weight increased to 98 t. They also improved the wing's mechanization control system with changed deflection angles in take-off and landing modes.

The Tu-154B was produced in two main tourist options, on 152 (summer) and 144 seats (winter) with additional wardrobes. Layouts with 138 and 146 seats were developed.

Re-equipment of the machine from one option to another could be carried out under operating conditions. In addition to the deployment of mass production of Tu-154B, modernized the existing fleet of Tu-154 and Tu-154A under the standard "B". Thus, by the early eighties, almost all aircraft of the earliest modifications were modified.

To further improve the efficiency of air travel, Tu-154B-1, designed for 159-169 seats, was introduced into mass production. It was created and its convertible version of the economy class for 180 passengers, received the designation Tu-154-2. Re-equipment was carried out by eliminating the buffet-kitchen by aviation companies in just an hour 2-2,5. Subsequently, the Tu-154B-2 made up the bulk of the Tu-154B fleet. The project of the truck on the basis of the latter was originally designated Tu-154T, and then - Tu-154С. It was supposed to use it both in cargo and cargo-passenger versions.



At the beginning of the 1980s, at the KuAZ, the TU-9 and Tu-154А planes were converted into cargo 154 airplanes from the planned twenty, with simultaneous resource modifications to Tu-154B standards. The cargo door (2,9x1,8 m) was installed on the port side. The cargo with a total weight of up to 20 t was placed on nine pallets secured with mooring nets and moved manually across the cargo compartment and along the cargo compartment along the ball and roller tracks. They were fixed in the corresponding sections by nodes mounted on the floor rails. The cockpit was protected from the possible movement of goods using a barrier mesh.

The main objective of the modernization of the Tu-154M was to significantly reduce fuel consumption by installing more economical D-30KU engines. The tailless leaky part of the fuselage was replaced with the installation of engines in the new nacelles, and the auxiliary power unit was moved to the compartment under the channel of the middle engine. Underwent changes and internal wing flaps.

In 1978, the Kuybyshev branch of the OKB MMZ "Experience" began to develop documentation for the first modified Tu-154B aircraft with three D-30KU aircraft engines. They built a full-scale mock-up of the HCHF, which allowed them to work out the installations in all the “narrow” places and correct the design documentation. For Tu-154B it was supposed to prepare the following layouts of the passenger cabin; mixed version - 154 places, tourist - 164 places, economic - 180 places. A cargo version of the Tu-154С type and a mixed cargo-passenger version with 102 seats and two standard containers in the front passenger compartment were considered.

The D-30KU engine in the Solovyov Design Bureau was modernized, increasing the service life and reducing the take-off thrust by 500 kgf, which increased reliability and reduced specific fuel consumption. The new engine, which received the designation D-30KU-154, had a low specific fuel consumption in cruising mode, not exceeding 0,69 kg / kg.h, with a degree of bypass - 2,45. For reference: the American engine JT8D-15A, which in these years was installed on the Boeing-737, had a specific consumption 0,73-0,779 kg / kg.h.

At the same time, they improved the aerodynamics of the airliner, thanks to which it was possible, despite installing an engine with an increased degree of bypass, to even get some increase in aerodynamic quality in cruising flight mode. This was due to the installation of the internal flaps on the wing and its new fairing with the fuselage, changing the contours of the rear fuselage. As well as the elongation of the flaps of flap mechanisms, sealing and closing the gaps on the wing with removed mechanization and reduction of gaps. As a result, the maximum aerodynamic quality increased to 15 units, which corresponded to the best twin-engine airliners (as we remember, the Tu-154 had three engines).



The first flight of the upgraded Tu-154M made in 1980-m. Factory tests, basically, confirmed the expectations of the developers: according to its characteristics, the aircraft met the requirements of the MGA. In the summer of the 1981-year, the Tu-154M has undergone extensive testing. And three years later, in July, the crew of test pilot A. Talalakin raised the first production car into the air, and the large-scale production of the new version began.

Serial machines had improved engines D-30KU-154 2-series. Passenger salons were performed in various versions. Fuel efficiency compared with modification “B” improved by 10-20% when flying to 3000 km and 30% - at a distance of more than 3000 km. In an hour of flight, compared to the previous version, 1000 kg of fuel was saved.

From the end of the eighties on the Tu-154M a new flight-navigation complex "Jasmine" with the inertial system I-21 complete with ABSU-154-3, which made it possible to perform an automatic landing according to the requirements of 3А category ICAO.

To test the automatic landing of the Buran orbital vehicle, it was necessary to build a number of flying laboratories. Create a flying stand for the reproduction of the flight of the aerospace was not easy. After all, it was necessary to install automatic and manual landing systems on it, identical to those on the Buran. In proximity to the weight and geometric dimensions, the Tu-154 was chosen as the base machine. In order that he could maneuver “in a stormy manner”, flight dynamics specialists developed a system for changing stability and controllability and “entered” it between the standard systems of “Buran” and Tu-154. The new aircraft under the designation Tu-154LL has turned into a dynamically similar analogue of an orbital ship.

When landing the flying laboratory, two side engines were introduced into the reverse mode and, in contrast to the normally operating central engine, they pulled the plane back. Because of this, the fuselage tail section had to be strengthened. In addition, the Tu-154 spoilers, which are usually used to work in conjunction with the ailerons in roll and rejected after landing, were constantly exposed to the stream. The flight path turned out so steep that from the ground it seemed as if the car was falling.

Instead of a regular place of the right pilot on the Tu-154LL, a command post was set up with a control stick and digital system instruments identical to the one delivered on the Buran. This place during the flights was occupied by a test cosmonaut.



Under the program converted five aircraft of various modifications. Moreover, two cars could perform landing in a fully automatic mode. Externally, the flying laboratories from the serial Tu-154 were distinguished by the presence of additional system antennas and other minor features. At TU-154LL, more than 200 flights were performed, which made it possible to obtain the necessary data for testing the Buran spacecraft.

In the early nineties, the countries of NATO and Russia decided to deploy a system providing air surveillance of military activities in Europe. For this purpose, several types of reconnaissance aircraft were offered for this purpose and they provided for the re-equipment of the main passenger aircraft, in particular, the Tu-154.

In 1995, the Daimler Benz Aerobas plant in Dresden carried out a refurbishment of the Tu-154M aircraft under the Open Sky program. Previously, this car belonged to the GDR, and after the merger was operated in the "Luftwaffe". The aircraft is equipped with optical cameras and camcorders. The passenger compartment is completely remade for new tasks. However, the machine was not used for this program for long, hitting a disaster in 1997. Similar work on the refurbishment of the Tu-154M was carried out by the ASTC. Tupolev, preparing the draft Tu-154M-HE.

Total for the period from 1968 to 2013. 998 Tu-154 aircraft of various modifications were manufactured, the main of which were Tu-154B and Tu-154М. In conclusion, it should be noted that all modifications of the Tu-154 differed significantly in the composition of the equipment and its layout from the first copies of the aircraft. This is understandable: after all, a veteran aircraft during 45 years of operation experienced more than one technical revolution, while it continued to correspond to the time.





Sources:
A. Wolfov, Kolesnik D. “The workhorse” of the Tu-154: 30 years in the sky // Aviation and Cosmonautics. 1998. No.11-12. C.24-32.
Rigmant V. Tu-154 // Aviation and Cosmonautics. 2000. No.3. C. 35-43.
Rigmant W. Flight length of 30 years // Wings of the Motherland. 1998. No.1. C.4-8.
Huntsman V. Unknown Tupolev. M .: Yauza, 2008. C.211-223.
Shevchuk I. 80 years of design bureau of OJSC "Tupolev" // Wings. No.17. C.32-33.
Author:
85 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. svp67
    svp67 April 18 2016 06: 18
    +29
    A beautiful and truly epochal car for our Aeroflot. It is a pity that "Airbuses" and "Boeings" have come to replace him. I'd like to see in the sky many new generation civil aircraft with the Tu, Il and Yak brands
    1. Sirocco
      Sirocco April 18 2016 07: 15
      +12
      Quote: svp67
      It is a pity that "Airbuses" and "Boeings" have come to replace him.

      And why did they come? because we began to live in the conditions of wild capitalism.
      Under capitalism, the profitability of the machine comes first, it must bring profit to the operator. In the USSR, the approach was different, they thought not about making a profit, but about the safety of passengers (which, in particular, was ensured by the three-engine scheme) and their convenience. Now they rarely remember it,

      I hope that this capitalism, all the same, sooner or later will bite its tail, or rather it already does, with the ensuing negative consequences for it. Everything goes in a circle, and not the first time, alas.
    2. g1v2
      g1v2 April 18 2016 12: 50
      +6
      The Yak will be unambiguous - ms21, it’s the Yak 242 according to another designation this year should fly up. Silt 114 and silt 112 will also be, maybe modified silt 96 will appear by the end of the five-year period. But about that - it is doubtful. Although maybe 204 will be produced for the state, it is unlikely to become massive.
      1. svp67
        svp67 April 18 2016 13: 46
        +8
        Quote: g1v2
        The Yak will be unambiguous - ms21, it’s the Yak 242 according to another designation this year should fly up. Silt 114 and silt 112 will also be, maybe modified silt 96 will appear by the end of the five-year period.

        I will be very happy if the magic "import substitution" touches civil aviation directly and to the maximum extent.
        And if the
        Tu-154: business card of the Soviet "Aeroflot"
        then this film is "the visiting card of the Tu-154"


        And soon there will be a new "Crew" I would very much like a Russian plane of the Tu, Yak family or, at worst, Su ...
        1. 26rus
          26rus April 18 2016 15: 27
          +6
          Oooooo !!! There were so many stories with this "Crew" ... For example, there were transport carts for the air intakes of the second engine in the workshop, so everyone who saw them for the first time considered it their duty to try to get through them, like the hero of the film. Himself a sinner, he was young. And when I first got into the cockpit, the "senior comrades" asked me to find that huge display "Not ready for takeoff", which was shown in the film. What a surprise it was when it turned out that this window was just over a square centimeter in the very corner of the cabin.
        2. Mordvin 3
          Mordvin 3 April 18 2016 16: 58
          +7
          Quote: svp67
          And soon there will be a new "Crew" I would very much like a Russian plane of the Tu, Yak family or, at worst, Su ...

          Already out. There Tu-204СМ. And as for their release, in this matter we have Gref and Medvedev authorities.
          1. PHANTOM-AS
            PHANTOM-AS April 18 2016 17: 24
            +2
            Quote: Mordvin 3
            There Tu-204SM. And as for their release, in this matter we have Gref and Medvedev authorities.

            In the segment of long- and medium-haul aircraft Il-96 and Tu-204/214 / 204СМ.
            As for the regional airliners, then in this segment An-148, Tu-334.
            Only our "rulers" prefer to buy Watermelons and Broilers. am
            But the Tu-154 receiver
    3. yehat
      yehat April 18 2016 14: 48
      +6
      Aeroflot’s favorite airplane is fast, it’s not as strong in the pressurized cabin as Broiler’s, pressure drops are felt, it shakes much less.
      neither the 62nd, nor the 86th, nor any other plane on which he flew was so comfortable
      maybe the Boeing 747 is no worse, I don’t know. But from what he flew, the Tu-154 and Tu-154m are the best.
      1. svp67
        svp67 April 18 2016 15: 08
        +7
        Quote: yehat
        neither the 62nd, nor the 86th, nor any other plane on which he flew was so comfortable

        I don’t know, but I really liked Il86
        and another Yak42,
        the same good machine was
        1. PHANTOM-AS
          PHANTOM-AS April 18 2016 17: 25
          +4
          Quote: svp67
          and another Yak42,

          Great plane!
          And this one is worse?
          1. Chicot 1
            Chicot 1 April 18 2016 17: 45
            +5
            Quote: PHANTOM-AS
            Great plane!
            And this one is worse?

            The fact that they were like a bone in the throat for Senor Poghosyan (who headed the UAC for a long time) with his "innovative" (and very expensive in comparison with the Tu-334) "Super-Jet" ...
            1. PHANTOM-AS
              PHANTOM-AS April 18 2016 17: 57
              +1
              Quote: Chicot 1
              The fact that he was like a bone in the throat of Senor Poghosyan (for a long time the head of the KLA)

              It is safe to say that the bone is not only from Signor Poghosyan, but a lot of "Signors" took part in the sawing. yes
            2. NordUral
              NordUral April 18 2016 18: 07
              +3
              For this Super to the wall must be put. And for what they did with our design bureaus and aircraft factories.
              1. PHANTOM-AS
                PHANTOM-AS April 18 2016 18: 20
                +7
                Quote: NordUral
                For this Super to the wall must be put. And for what they did with our design bureaus and aircraft factories.

                Who will deliver them? They have ratings, getting up from their knees, Olympiad, mat.capital, krimnyash and many more nishyachki for the plebs, in the form of messages, "straight lines", a muppet show - "look sho on the outskirts of tvorizzo", "endure the imperials, all around the enemies "," USSR-Turma of the Peoples "," Stalin is a bloody tyrant ".
  2. lwxx
    lwxx April 18 2016 06: 25
    +11
    Eh, the plane was good. Now we also need to release our own, and not depend on foreign partners. Moreover, we have a good school of aircraft engineering and not only the military.
    1. aba
      aba April 18 2016 06: 56
      +5
      Moreover, we have a good school of aircraft engineering and not only the military.

      There is a school, but there are no planes. Therefore, our companies pay Europeans or Americans for the fleet.
      And the plane was really cool! Everywhere they write that they say our carcasses are not allowed on international lines because they are noisy. Only in December last year, I flew on a Boeing 757-200 - the car is incredibly noisy, in the cabin you speak in raised tones. I don’t remember what would be the same on Carcases. Rather, the fact is that no one needs competitors.
      1. lwxx
        lwxx April 18 2016 09: 33
        +3
        There are no airplanes, because there are no orders from our airlines, including those with state participation. Noisy due to old engines that were not given international certificates. But inside the country they could safely be exploited. And the noise inside the Boeing due to poor insulation, as a result of savings. I fly not so much, but once a year for sure, it happens more often, since I live in Kamchatka
      2. 73bor
        73bor April 18 2016 11: 40
        +10
        About the noise, this is a noodle for mugs and officials of those years who sold the domestic aviation industry! And also about their inefficiency, insecurity and in general they are bad.
        1. yehat
          yehat April 18 2016 18: 10
          +2
          about inefficiency - true
          about the noise ... in general, also true
          only the carcass made noise at full power on take-off; it did not make noise at landing.
        2. Nekarmadlen
          Nekarmadlen April 19 2016 22: 38
          +1
          Here's more about the noise from planes ... If anyone remembers the Soviet era, a plane flying in the sky at high altitude was well audible, but not now ... Indeed, the noise from Boeing and Airbuses is lower ... Or, hearing rumbled worse with age (( (
      3. yehat
        yehat April 18 2016 18: 08
        +1
        I lived near Pulkovo Strip for 3 years
        usually you don’t notice planes, but the Tu-154 roars on takeoff so that you take every takeoff
        and the noise - most likely, you either sat near the engines, or the noise insulation in the broiler was bad. The Tu-154 has an excellently sealed cabin. Therefore, the sound is poorly audible.
        1. 26rus
          26rus April 18 2016 20: 53
          +2
          Do not confuse with Tu-134? Here it is, on takeoff, really quite noisy, the 154th is far from it. For decades, both flew literally overhead, and they could be distinguished without looking at any time of the day.
      4. PHANTOM-AS
        PHANTOM-AS April 18 2016 18: 31
        +4
        Quote: aba
        School is,

        Now there is an exam, but there is no school!
        When a generation such as the SSI-Ancients leaves, who really care for aviation, then aviation itself will leave with them (ours, I mean).
        This is exactly what the "reformers" are trying to achieve.
      5. veteran66
        veteran66 April 19 2016 06: 30
        -1
        Quote: aba
        Carcasses are not allowed on international lines because they are noisy.

        so they were really noisy, part of the approach by box goes over my house, so I always distinguish our carcasses by sound (now they, however, very rarely fly). A new engine was needed, and this is a new aircraft, but, unfortunately, they were ruined by the Okulovs, Poghosyan and others like them.
  3. D-Master
    D-Master April 18 2016 06: 56
    +5
    Great was the plane! It hit the country enough for almost 50 years of operation !!!! Our lag behind Boeing in was not significant and we could easily compete with him. Moreover, only the collapse of the USSR and the departure of the -154 from markets and airfields opened the way for competitor Airbus 320.
  4. Rjn
    Rjn April 18 2016 07: 10
    +1
    The sediment leaves the fact that the author does not distinguish between turbojet engines and fuel engines (Tu-104 and Tu = 114).
  5. qwert
    qwert April 18 2016 07: 12
    +7
    Quote: aba
    Only in December last year I flew a Boeing 757-200 - the car is incredibly noisy, you speak in the cabin in elevated tones. I don’t remember what would be the same on Carcases.

    And what a salon. Boeing generally has a barn. Long gray, dark. No curtains in the openings as on the carcass. During the flight, the flight attendants suddenly got into chairs and began to convulsively fasten their belts. Well, I think, everything, something happened ... It turns out passed went to the landing. There is no separate kitchenette either, everything shows how they are messing around with trays and gurneys. In short, some kind of scourge. This is my personal impression of the insider. This is how the Moscow metro is compared with the low, dirty and gray New York.
  6. Vovanfalcon
    Vovanfalcon April 18 2016 07: 15
    +12
    Favorite plane, honest plane! 24 years in the operation of Tu-154M, he never cheated, never let down! He was alive, with soul and even blood (AMG-10), not like these "flying computers" recourse
  7. kirgudu
    kirgudu April 18 2016 07: 42
    +7
    Yesterday I saw the 154th in the sky. Beautiful fast-moving airplane.
  8. UVB
    UVB April 18 2016 07: 50
    +5
    In my opinion, the most beautiful passenger plane of all time! And it is in the classic Aeroflot color.
    1. FID
      FID April 18 2016 08: 32
      +5
      In my opinion, the IL-62 will be more preauthorized ...
      1. weksha50
        weksha50 April 18 2016 15: 07
        +7
        Quote: SSI
        In my opinion, the IL-62 will be more preauthorized ...



        IL-62 - solid, serious, barly, regally-sleek ... With a certain arrogance to his younger brothers ...

        Tu-154 - an energetic, reliable work-drill horse, without a backside ...

        Well, something like that ... BUT both are respected, working and reliable cars ...
      2. dmmyak40
        dmmyak40 April 18 2016 21: 25
        +2
        No, the most beautiful plane is the Yak-40! Grace itself.
    2. Ruby
      Ruby April 18 2016 08: 42
      +10
      Airplane era.
      The author accurately noticed that in the USSR and in the West there was a different approach to the design of passenger aircraft. They primarily have economic efficiency, we have flight characteristics. The same increase in engine efficiency, we primarily considered as a reserve for improving aircraft performance (range, payload). There was a lot of kerosene, and it was cheap. The economy in the USSR was not much considered. But this is precisely what killed him. The market came, everyone began to count money. The plane became unprofitable in operation.
      In addition, it is much more difficult to pilot than the Boeing and Airbus. It required a pilot, not a button operator.
    3. bert123
      bert123 April 19 2016 02: 22
      -3
      and unparalleled in the world
  9. AndreyS
    AndreyS April 18 2016 08: 44
    +4
    I will write my feelings as a passenger! Many times flew on the Tu-134, and then it turned out to fly to St. Petersburg on the Tu-154. In terms of comfort, the differences were tangible, but when I had to from S.P. fly back to the A-320, then I realized that the Tu-134 is a very comfortable plane. (there are no talks about 154)
    In Tu-154 I was sitting in a chair with great comfort, and could pull my hooves without any problems, then with my height of seventy meters, in a-320, I rested my knees on the seat in front of me. Well, something like this!
    1. Alex_59
      Alex_59 April 18 2016 09: 20
      +10
      Quote: AndreyS
      In Tu-154 I was sitting in a chair with great comfort, and could pull my hooves without any problems, then with my height of seventy meters, in a-320, I rested my knees on the seat in front of me. Well, something like this!

      It is not a matter of which plane, but what interior design is the step of the seats. Obviously in A320 you flew in a creepy, creepy economy class. In A320 in economy class, the step of the seats is 28, 29 and 32 inches. The fact that 28 inches is almost impossible to fly is a collective farm with wings, but there aren’t enough people holding grab bars in the aisles. This is not the fault of the plane - this is the customer (airline) ordered such a performance because she does not consider you to be a person, and the main thing is loot to them. You can tamp the people in Carcass in such a way, only no one will do this anymore, the plane is being decommissioned.
      1. 26rus
        26rus April 18 2016 15: 43
        +2
        In "Carcass", even in the most economical version of 182 passengers, I sat quite comfortably (this is with my 192 cm), and here a man with a meter seventy writes that he could not fit his legs in "Watermelon".
  10. Pvi1206
    Pvi1206 April 18 2016 09: 01
    +4
    Tu-154 were mass-produced until 2013. To date, about 80 more machines are still in operation.

    I flew at least 100 times on this plane. I always admired him.
    Only a great aviation power could afford to design, build, modernize and operate such an aircraft for a long time.
    The past 20 years has been a failure in this area of ​​our country.
    But times are changing. Everything will be fine!
  11. sgr291158
    sgr291158 April 18 2016 09: 53
    +3
    A beautiful plane, very much connected with it in our aeroflot, has not seen this car in the sky for a long time. It is very unfortunate that they stopped their flights, but they could still work on domestic airlines.
    1. FID
      FID April 18 2016 10: 27
      +4
      Well, how they stopped ... They fly in the north, fly in Siberia ... They fly in China ... They don't fly only to Europe.
  12. 1vlad19
    1vlad19 April 18 2016 10: 32
    +1
    Quote: AndreyS
    In Tu-154, I was sitting in a chair with great comfort, and could pull my hooves without any problems

    What is the comfort? How many hours were you flying on it? From Khabarovsk to Novosibirsk 4 hours flight, from Novosibirsk to Khabarovsk almost five. You fly and think when this torment will end. The last time, the turbine started up the third time (I served at the Murena KNVP, I know how the turbine "falls"), I never flew on the 154 again.
    1. 73bor
      73bor April 18 2016 11: 46
      +7
      I flew from Barnaul to Moscow, from Krasnoyarsk to St. Petersburg I always felt great, you were just out of luck! The plane is beautiful despite any intrigues of the West.
    2. svp67
      svp67 April 18 2016 13: 39
      +5
      Quote: 1vlad19
      What kind of comfort?

      It’s quite normal ...
      Quote: 1vlad19
      How many hours in flight were you on it?

      Well, for example, from Vladivostok to Moscow, with two landings on it, I used to fly a lot. Better than seven days by train.
      Quote: 1vlad19
      You fly and think when this torment is over
      Purely subjective opinion ...
      1. yehat
        yehat April 18 2016 14: 53
        +5
        for very long flights, the 62nd is better.
        no intermediate landings
        1. svp67
          svp67 April 18 2016 15: 43
          +3
          Quote: yehat
          for very long flights, the 62nd is better.

          And I flew on it, 11 hours in the sky - the same is not a big "ICE", but still better than by train ...
  13. Verdun
    Verdun April 18 2016 10: 36
    +2
    Really nice plane. Not without flaws, of course, but who does not have them? But against the background of this article and the mention even in the comments of the Design Bureau of Tupolev, Ilyushin, Yakovlev, the decision to entrust the development of the main aircraft of the Sukhoi Design Bureau, which has absolutely no experience in civil aviation, looks especially strange. The conjuncturist smells, however ...
  14. exo
    exo April 18 2016 12: 08
    +7
    Legendary car! Gave fifteen years of his life working and flying on this beautiful airplane. Perhaps, almost everyone who worked in the Civil Aviation of the USSR and Russia had an affair with the Tupolev or Aurora.
  15. pimen
    pimen April 18 2016 15: 36
    +1
    engines under the wings are easier to maintain, but on middle-class machines, the third (rear) engine seems not at all out of place
  16. AlexSam
    AlexSam April 18 2016 15: 47
    +6
    guys, the whole weekend over Voronezh and the suburbs flew IL-96-400, so low, slowly, majestically, quietly ... such a handsome man !!! my daughter and I couldn’t stop looking at her)) she said that it was uncles who were flying)) 2 years old, and looked with such enthusiastic eyes !! I want that when they grew up, they fly exclusively on our beauties such as this Il ... and the 747th served as a great attraction))

    and for the first time in my life I flew just on the 154th in 1980 from Balkhash to Adler) we were fed dinner and played audio recordings of Joe Dassin, there were so many emotions))
    1. NordUral
      NordUral April 18 2016 18: 13
      +4
      And for the fact that the IL-96 did not fill our sky, it is necessary to plant some people at stake.
  17. zluty
    zluty April 18 2016 16: 05
    +5
    96th in Voronezh accept after repair) a good plane!
    1. yehat
      yehat April 18 2016 18: 21
      +1
      in Sochi flew on the Tu-154m great mood fast flight
      flew back on a Boeing 737 - an hour and a half longer, disgusting inside, noticeably dangling in the air, it was stuffy, when landing in Moscow, the plane altered its height so quickly that many felt bad in the cabin.
  18. Just BB
    Just BB April 18 2016 18: 17
    +1
    The trouble with the three-engine scheme is "business class": aircraft have rear alignment - the front cabin sits down first, and lands last! (And "they" are the best, as "cattle" wait)
    Capitalism, however, and you - profitability, noise.
    Reliability and safety is not now ....
    I flew once on two engines across the ocean. The sensations were worse than in that flight, when the engine stopped on our "breadwinner" An-26 and we returned for 40 minutes with one worker - but that was the ground below, and so the water could see as many eyes as possible. The case in the Dominican Republic is another confirmation
    1. exo
      exo April 18 2016 18: 30
      +1
      When the business class appeared on the Tu-154, they almost always put two gangways. On the front, the business went out. First of all. Then went out along the central gangway, the second cabin. Then the first one. So, there was no problem .By the way, they brought business, last of all, on a separate bus. And they also planted it through the front door.
  19. 16112014nk
    16112014nk April 18 2016 18: 35
    +4
    Quote: Verdun
    . Not without flaws, of course, but who does not have them?

    Yes, there was one problem with the first Tu-154, which was quite serious. The author did not mention her. The problem was in the wing. It was designed for 30000 flight hours, but after a few thousand it was cracking. This turned into a redesign of the wing, a change in its manufacturing technology. The wings had to be replaced on more than a hundred previously built machines. Also required centering changes, automation of control of the wing mechanization and stabilizer. All this demanded large financial costs. Under the capitalist system, which is now in Russia, the Tupolev Design Bureau would have gone bankrupt and disappeared. And only socialism could solve this problem. In England, Rolls-Royce had similar problems with the RB211 engine. The firm went bankrupt and only nationalization saved it.
    And I myself flew the Tu-154 for the first time back in 1990 from SVO to Syria, to Damascus. I still remember the feeling of comfort and safety.
    1. Verdun
      Verdun April 18 2016 23: 17
      0
      And only socialism could solve this problem. In England, Rolls-Royce had similar problems with the RB211 engine. The firm went bankrupt and only nationalization saved it.
      In a capitalist economy, this is a fairly common occurrence. First they shout about the effectiveness of capitalism, and then they are saved at the expense of nationalization.
  20. FID
    FID April 18 2016 18: 42
    +2
    Little known fact: Tu-154 and Tu-22M appeared almost simultaneously ... So, the automatic on-board control system (ABSU) on them is almost the same ... There are some differences, but the architecture, with the exception of the warhead, is the same .. .
    1. pimen
      pimen April 18 2016 19: 17
      0
      strange of course. Tu-154 is much more similar to Tu-22
      1. Verdun
        Verdun April 18 2016 23: 18
        0
        Unification, especially in terms of internal filling, is a normal phenomenon. A bunch of money allows you to save.
        1. glasha3032
          glasha3032 April 19 2016 18: 29
          0
          Unification is very small, maybe 1-2%, no more. The rest is all different. Yes, even on the Tu154 B and TU-154m GO ALL TOTAL DIFFERENT BLOCKS AND SYSTEMS. NOT INTERCHANGEABLE!
    2. glasha3032
      glasha3032 April 19 2016 18: 19
      0
      only BAP is the same - 6 with BAP 3-1, and the rest is different! There, even the BVK 5-3 is not similar to the BVK-10, and the rest does not at all!
  21. Aleksandr2012
    Aleksandr2012 April 18 2016 18: 55
    0
    Many consider it the best passenger plane of all time. http://letchikleha.livejournal.com/tag/%D0%BF%D0%B5%D1%81%D0%BD%D1%8F%20%D1%82%D
    1% 83154
  22. exo
    exo April 18 2016 20: 11
    +2
    Quote: Aleksandr2012
    Many consider it the best passenger plane of all time. http://letchikleha.livejournal.com/tag/%D0%BF%D0%B5%D1%81%D0%BD%D1%8F%20%D1%82%D

    1% 83154

    One must still be fair: the Tu-154, very good, for its time. But, for each time, it will be its best. It had enough shortcomings. That, by no means diminishes its contribution to the domestic, but unfortunately not to the world, aviation. They could not sell it abroad, the CMEA countries, we put it out of brackets. There was Egypt, but quickly abandoned their operation.
    The article, although not bad, is very concise.
  23. Ivan Tartugai
    Ivan Tartugai April 18 2016 20: 32
    +2
    Quote from the article:

    A condition was put forward: the new liner had to take all the best from its predecessors (Tu-104, Il-18 and An-10)Naturally, given the new requirements for passenger aircraft.


    In 1977-78, the Il-18 aircraft were replaced by Tu-154 airliners on the Moscow-Karaganda route. I did not feel any special improvement from this replacement.
    Of course, the time directly in flight was reduced, so the IL-18 had four hours of flight, then the Tu-154 was 3 hours 30 minutes, i.e. for half an hour. But on a civilian plane to reduce the flight time by half an hour, does not matter. And if we add the mandatory time of check-in, baggage check-in, check-in, baggage claim to flight time, then the reduction in time was only 4-8%.
    The noise in the cabin of the Tu-154 wins, especially compared with the first cabin of the IL-1. In the rest of the salons, i.e., in comparison with the noise level in the 18nd and 2rd IL salons, a significant reduction in the noise level in the Tu-3 salons is not noticeable, almost the same. Although it can measuring instruments and caught noise reduction. But in the 154rd cabin of the IL-3, the noise level was exactly lower than in the salons of the Tu-18.
    The fare on the Tu-154 increased, so on the IL-18 the ticket price was 45 rubles, then on the Tu-154 it was already 54 rubles, i.e. increased by 20%. The authorities and the aviation authorities explained to us that this increase in the ticket price is explained by higher comfort and a reduction in the duration of the flight. IL-18 was more economical than the Tu-154.
    In addition, since flight time on the Moscow-Karaganda route was reduced and became less than 4 hours, during the flight they stopped feeding passengers a hot breakfast. Of course, none of the passengers died of starvation, but flight comfort was somewhat reduced. Breakfast somehow distracted and the time in flight passed, sort of faster, especially when you fly with children. Naturally, the children had breakfast on the plane, during the flight it was very interesting.
    In general, a full-fledged replacement of the IL-18 with the Tu-154 with an improvement, as the authorities planned and the aviation authorities did not work. But this is my view, the view of one ordinary passenger, who in those years often and traveled a lot around the country, both on official business and personal.
  24. exo
    exo April 18 2016 22: 03
    -1
    Quote: Ivan Tartugay
    Quote from the article:

    A condition was put forward: the new liner had to take all the best from its predecessors (Tu-104, Il-18 and An-10)Naturally, given the new requirements for passenger aircraft.


    In 1977-78, the Il-18 aircraft were replaced by Tu-154 airliners on the Moscow-Karaganda route. I did not feel any special improvement from this replacement.
    Of course, the time directly in flight was reduced, so the IL-18 had four hours of flight, then the Tu-154 was 3 hours 30 minutes, i.e. for half an hour. But on a civilian plane to reduce the flight time by half an hour, does not matter. And if we add the mandatory time of check-in, baggage check-in, check-in, baggage claim to flight time, then the reduction in time was only 4-8%.
    The noise in the cabin of the Tu-154 wins, especially compared with the first cabin of the IL-1. In the rest of the salons, i.e., in comparison with the noise level in the 18nd and 2rd IL salons, a significant reduction in the noise level in the Tu-3 salons is not noticeable, almost the same. Although it can measuring instruments and caught noise reduction. But in the 154rd cabin of the IL-3, the noise level was exactly lower than in the salons of the Tu-18.
    The fare on the Tu-154 increased, so on the IL-18 the ticket price was 45 rubles, then on the Tu-154 it was already 54 rubles, i.e. increased by 20%. The authorities and the aviation authorities explained to us that this increase in the ticket price is explained by higher comfort and a reduction in the duration of the flight. IL-18 was more economical than the Tu-154.
    In addition, since flight time on the Moscow-Karaganda route was reduced and became less than 4 hours, during the flight they stopped feeding passengers a hot breakfast. Of course, none of the passengers died of starvation, but flight comfort was somewhat reduced. Breakfast somehow distracted and the time in flight passed, sort of faster, especially when you fly with children. Naturally, the children had breakfast on the plane, during the flight it was very interesting.
    In general, a full-fledged replacement of the IL-18 with the Tu-154 with an improvement, as the authorities planned and the aviation authorities did not work. But this is my view, the view of one ordinary passenger, who in those years often and traveled a lot around the country, both on official business and personal.

    Strange. I, flying often, on the IL-18 from Leningrad to Kamchatka, after changing to the Tu-154, felt the difference in noise level strongly. And not only in noise, but also in vibration in the cabin.
  25. 406ppm2gv
    406ppm2gv April 18 2016 23: 09
    +1
    I had to fly on the AN-2, Li-2, IL-14,18. TU-124, 104,134, 154.AN-24, Yak-40, the father was a military man. But from Nebit-Dag it was possible only by plane. in 2011 on the A-320. I completely agree with you. The TU-154 is a cool car. Moscow-Rostov is back there, I’m a sergeant of the SA, for everything about 7 days. But LI-2 will always remember with warmth too. It rinsed me when I was a kid.
  26. exo
    exo April 18 2016 23: 19
    +1
    Quote: 406ppmp2gv
    I had to fly on the AN-2, Li-2, IL-14,18. TU-124, 104,134, 154.AN-24, Yak-40, the father was a military man. But from Nebit-Dag it was possible only by plane. in 2011 on the A-320. I completely agree with you. The TU-154 is a cool car. Moscow-Rostov is back there, I’m a sergeant of the SA, for everything about 7 days. But LI-2 will always remember with warmth too. It rinsed me when I was a kid.

    Here, by the way, the prototype of Li-2, or rather DC-3, like a passenger plane of all time. It flies to this day and by and large, is the father of modern passenger aviation (IMHO). Although, now not about him.
    1. Andrey77
      Andrey77 April 20 2016 14: 07
      +1
      And Li-2 (DC-3) would be profitable now. Fuel (compared with turbojet engines) spends a penny, simple as a light bulb (maintenance is cheap), reliable (they sat on a single engine in the war). Speed? But not everyone needs it. Well and noisy - you can’t see the telly. Sadness ...
  27. Pushkar
    Pushkar April 18 2016 23: 42
    0
    Tu-154 is an unreliable, expensive, gluttonous machine with a short flight range - Tu-154M - 3900 km, Il-18 - 6500 km (with the remaining fuel for 1 hour of flight!). When it became possible to buy foreign aircraft, it became clear that it was a huge lag behind the "peers". Let's say, from Boeing 737. In all respects! If you are interested, Aeroflot's business card is now A-320 and A-321. There are more than 53 percent of them. And the Tu-154 was decommissioned by Aeroflot in 2009. And the IL-18 has been flying until now. And not only in Russia.
    1. Just BB
      Just BB April 19 2016 06: 22
      +1
      Aeroflot's business card is now A-320 and A-321

      You can fly on your "business card" only by "business" - you sit like on a school chair!
      And the burned engine oil from the air conditioning system constantly stinks
      1. Pushkar
        Pushkar April 20 2016 00: 42
        0
        Do not compose, I often fly "economy" - good, simple, reliable cars.
    2. exo
      exo April 19 2016 12: 13
      0
      Tu-154M, no worse than its peer: Boeing 737-300
      And you, make a comparison of this aircraft with much newer modifications of the Boeing and Airbus, which our a / c purchased in the 2000s. By the way, the M-range is more than 5000 km, with a full load.
      1. Pushkar
        Pushkar April 20 2016 00: 39
        0
        And in fact, someone can object to something? Boeing 737 was released a year earlier, BOTH aircraft were modernized. Are you aware that on this tsatse (Tu-154) of the first series, the front landing gear fell off during landing, plowed on the rack? (My dad sat down like that once) And whence the range of 5000 km, I took the maximum, in the first series - 2500 km. As for better or worse, not you, but the same "Aeroflot" to judge.
        1. exo
          exo April 21 2016 18: 27
          -1
          The range of M-ki, depending on the load: 3900-5200km. Personally, flew to Dubai from St. Petersburg. With full load and refueling. And this is 4300km.
          Tu-154 was upgraded, by and large, 1 time. And the Tu-154M, in comparison with the Boeing 737-300, its peer, looks decent. But, the same 737-500 and higher, it loses seriously. Like the D- engine 30Ku-154, loses CFM-56. About the TU-154, I know a lot. And about the advantages and disadvantages. As well as about the family of Airbuses, which I am working on now.
          Believe me, there are no perfect planes. Closest to them, Boeing 767. And this, not only my opinion. But, on the expanses of the former USSR, they have not created anything competitive yet. Why? This is another topic.
  28. tolancop
    tolancop April 19 2016 18: 39
    +2
    Quote: yehat
    Aeroflot’s favorite airplane is fast, it’s not as strong in the pressurized cabin as Broiler’s, pressure drops are felt, it shakes much less.
    neither the 62nd, nor the 86th, nor any other plane on which he flew was so comfortable
    maybe the Boeing 747 is no worse, I don’t know. But from what he flew, the Tu-154 and Tu-154m are the best.

    I didn’t fly in the cockpit. Only a passenger. And the IL-62 liked a lot more than the Tu-154. It flew rarely and perhaps my sensation is subjective, but in Il it was much less pressured on the ears than in Tu.
  29. vnedra
    vnedra April 20 2016 00: 20
    0
    since childhood, flew these cars, this is my favorite plane. from Urengoy with transfers and to Simferopol fellow
  30. Lens
    Lens April 20 2016 07: 34
    0
    He was not only a visiting card, but also a workhorse!))))
    1. Andrey77
      Andrey77 April 20 2016 14: 16
      0
      These are different concepts. A business card is the best you can show. A workhorse is what is ordered (in the USSR) to be mass-produced. He was a workhorse, but not a business card.
  31. shorner
    shorner April 20 2016 21: 12
    0
    the most elegant and beautiful aircraft of the XNUMXth century, a clean profile, ideal aerodynamics for a heavy rear-wheel drive scheme, which everyone sinned at that time! great car.
  32. shorner
    shorner April 20 2016 21: 16
    0
    that Andrei77 did you live in the USSR? to make this kind of statement ???
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Andrey77
      Andrey77 April 23 2016 11: 47
      0
      I lived (through "and" is written). From 1977 to 1990 years old! What statements do you mean?
  33. Just BB
    Just BB April 23 2016 06: 52
    +1
    Quote: Pushkar
    And in fact, someone can object to something? Boeing 737 was released a year earlier, BOTH aircraft were modernized. Are you aware that on this tsatse (Tu-154) of the first series, the front landing gear fell off during landing, plowed on the rack? (My dad sat down like that once) And whence the range of 5000 km, I took the maximum, in the first series - 2500 km. As for better or worse, not you, but the same "Aeroflot" to judge.

    To discuss something, you first need to understand the "topic" wink
    The plane does not front or rear chassis!request
    Just a "chassis".
    And then: "front landing gear", "right pillar ...", etc.
    So, in the topics not only "passengers" participate, but "Aeroflot"! - "I am tormented by vague doubts ..."
    1. exo
      exo April 26 2016 19: 09
      +2
      In Soviet aviation, that's right. But for Western aircraft, the concept of MAIN Gear, that is, the main landing gear, includes left and right support. Nose landing gear, for some reason, is considered separately. This is simple: for information;)
      1. Just BB
        Just BB April 27 2016 05: 46
        +1
        wink They are "poor" with their own "English" language.
        You know, of course, how many devices are called by words MAIN Gea.
        But, at the same time - this "main stand (support)"
        But here everyone is trying to write in Russian:
        "Chassis - support system aircraft, providing its parking, movement along the airfield or water during takeoff, landing and taxiing. "
        hi
  34. HELIX
    HELIX 18 June 2016 16: 15
    0
    The most beautiful apparatus, although other Soviet ones did not suffer from a wretched appearance - it is a pity that they ate it so quickly - I could still work hard - just refuel it!