Military Review

"Slave Wars." The uprising led by Spartak (part three).

76
As you can see, the slaves rebelled in Rome so often that there would not be enough fingers to list all their speeches, and this is not surprising. The critical mass of slaves grew and grew, and sooner or later, but something like the revolt of Spartacus was bound to happen. Yes, but who was he, this Spartak, and where did he come from? As often happens in history here mythology mixed up, which tells us that some time ago Cadmus arrived in Boeotia and built the main city of Thebes. There he met a dragon who guarded a water source dedicated to the god Ares, and killed him, and sowed his teeth according to the advice of the goddess Athena. And it was out of these teeth that the strong men grew, called “Sparta”, which in Greek means “sown”. The strength of the Sparts, according to the myth, was so great that Cadmus was forced to wage a stubborn struggle with them. Moreover, the Cadmus family even intermarried with Sparta, but ... they also Cadmus, and his entire family were driven out of Thebes - such were the strange kinship between them.


"Slave Wars." The uprising led by Spartak (part three).

"The dying gladiator" F.A. Yuronnikov (1856).

And there are several such legends, and in all there is a kind of native tribe that grew out of dragon's teeth. According to legend, this tribe lived in the north of Greece and fought with Cadmus, who tried to seize their land. This legend was transmitted by such historians as Pausanias and Ammianus Marcellinus, and the Greek historian Thucydides even reported on the existence of a city in Macedonia, called Spartol, on the Chalkidike peninsula. Stephen of Byzantine also called a city like Spartakos in Thrace, just in the homeland of Spartacus. So, we can assume that under this tale of Sparta hides some real historical fact. It was possible that the people of Sparta existed (not to be confused with the Spartans), and that such cities as Spartol and Spartakos were associated with its self-name, and that Spartak itself received its name (or nickname?) In honor of the city or the people.


Reconstruction of gladiator duel in Nimes.

Now a little about how Spartacus, originally from Thrace, turned out to be in Rome? The historian Appian in his "Civil Wars" writes about it like this: "Spartak fought with the Romans, but then fell into captivity with them."


"Roman gladiators." Fig. Angus McBride

And they immediately sold him into slavery, and that's how he got to Rome, where, for the extraordinary power, Spartacus was sent to the school of gladiators in Capua. Note that the slaves in Rome were used not only as cheap labor, but they also recruited gladiators from the “people of the sword” who fought first for funeral ritual at a funeral, and then simply for the amusement of the Roman public, who traditionally wanted “bread and circuses. " According to legend, their Romans borrowed all from the same Etruscans. For the first time such a battle was organized in 264 BC. er Noble Romans Mark and Decius Brutus after the ceremonial funeral of his father. Well, and then they began to arrange more and more. Initially, only a few pairs of gladiators fought. In 216, 22 pairs were fought, in 200 - 25, in 183 - 60 pairs, but Julius Caesar decided to overshadow all his predecessors and organized a fight in which gladiator pairs of 320 took part. The Romans were very fond of gladiator fights, especially in those cases if they skillfully and bravely fought and killed each other "beautifully." Announcements of the performances of the gladiators were painted on the walls of houses and even on gravestones. So even such tombstones appeared that contained short appeals to such “advertisers” with a request not to write on this tombstone reports about the shows.


The gravestone monument to the gladiator discovered in Ephesus. Ephesus Museum. Turkey.

In a large number of advertisements about the battles in the circus found in the ancient Pompeii. Here is one of these announcements: “Gladiators of Edyla A. Svettia Ceria will fight in Pompeii on May 31. There will be a battle of beasts and a canopy. ” The public could be promised a "watering" arena to reduce dust and heat. In addition to the fact that the Romans "just looked" at the gladiator fights, they also made bets on them, that is, the tote already existed then. And some of them earned good money, so it was not only “interesting”, but also very profitable!


Gladiator's Shoulderguard of Pompeii. British museum. London.

The school owner was Lentul Batiat, and the conditions there were very difficult, but Spartak had good military training and in the gladiator school he learned everything that was required of the gladiator. And then, on one dark night, he and his comrades escaped and took refuge on Mount Vesuvius. At the same time, Spartacus immediately turned out to have two loyal assistants, Kriks and Enomay, with whom he made a small detachment and engaged in the fact that he began to raid the estates of slave-owners and free the slaves belonging to them. Appian says that his army consisted of runaway gladiators, slaves, and even "free citizens from Italian fields." Flor, author of the second century, reports that Spartak had a total of up to 10 thousands of people, and the whole Campaign was now in danger from them. Weapon they got from the detachment, which carried military equipment for one of the gladiator schools. So at least some of the soldiers in Spartak were equipped, albeit somewhat specific, but with quite high-quality and modern weapons of the time, but they could do something themselves.


Colchester Vase, c.175 AD Colchester Castle Museum, England.


The image of the fighting gladiators on the Kolchester vase close-up. As you can see, the gladiator-retiarium has lost his trident and net, and is now in full power of the murmillon, who attacks him with a sword. All the details of their equipment, and even the swastika on the murmillon's shield, are very clearly visible.

The first commander, who was led against Spartacus at the head of a three-thousand-strong detachment, Plutarch calls Praetor Praetor; Flor informs about a certain Claudia Glabra, other names are also called. In general, who started first is unknown, and it is clear why. Great Rome simply considered it inferior to pay much attention to some rebellious slaves. A detachment of Claudius, equal to three-quarters of the number of the legion - this was already serious. Although ... they were not legionnaires, but something like a militia. Moreover, it is noted that Claudius acted boldly and decisively, and soon surrounded Spartacus on the summit of Vesuvius. Spartak, however, managed to get out of this trap: slaves wove ladders from wild grape vines and descended from the mountain at night where no one expected it, and then unexpectedly attacked the Romans from the rear. Only one of the slaves broke down and crashed during the descent. Claudius was utterly defeated, and then the same fate befell the two quaestors of the commander, Publius Varinius, and he himself was nearly captured.


Gladiator-Thracian. Modern reconstruction. Park Carnunte. Austria.


The Gladiator-Thracian fights with the gladiator Murmillon. Park Carnunte. Austria.

Many Roman historians mention the descent of the stairs from the vine, so that he apparently did have a place, and the courage of the slaves and the military talent of Spartacus made a strong impression on his contemporaries. The historian Sallustiy notes that after this the Roman troops did not want to fight with Spartacus. And Appian does say that among the legionnaires there were even defectors in the army of Spartacus. Although Spartacus was cautious and did not take everyone into his army. As a result, Rome was forced to send both consuls against him. And both of them were broken! Interestingly, Spartak tried to prevent violence from its soldiers over the civilian population and even ordered to worthily bury the Roman matron who had been subjected to violence and committed suicide with himself. Moreover, her funeral was marked by a grandiose gladiatorial battle with the participation of 400 prisoners of war, organized by Spartak, which at the time of history turned out to be the most massive, since no one had exhibited at the same time 200 pairs of gladiators. So its members could be “proud” ...


Ceramic vessel with gladiators from the museum in Zaragoza.

Interestingly, Spartak immediately after the victory over Clodius reorganized his “army” according to the Roman model: he started cavalry and divided the warriors into heavily and lightly armed. Since there were blacksmiths among the slaves, the manufacture of weapons and armor, in particular shields, was begun. It would be very interesting to imagine what kind of weapon the army of slaves armed themselves, besides the trophy and gladiatorial ones. There is no doubt that if slaves were dressed in armor, then they should have been simplified as much as possible.


Gladiator helmet from the British Museum.


Bronze helmet of the gladiator-murmillon. "New Museum", Berlin.


"Helmet with feathers." Reconstruction. Calkrais Museum and Park. Germany.

For example, helmets could have the appearance of a simple hemisphere with two peaks. Torso armor (if slaves made them) could be two anthropomorphic plates on the chest and on the back, tied on the sides with straps, and connected from above by means of semicircular shoulder pads with ties on the back and chest. Chainmail could be used, but only captured. It is possible that skin shells were made from leather, again, like the Greek thoraxes. Shields could be round, wicker and rectangular - also wicker, as well as glued from shingles and also covered with leather. So it would be easier and more reliable! Actually, gladiator equipment was too specific and, perhaps, was altered somewhat. For example, the helmets of the gladiators were too closed, which is inconvenient in real combat, moreover, they could not hear anything. It is unlikely that the Thracians were used. In such leggings it is inconvenient to run.


The figure of the gladiator-samnita from the museum in Arles. France.

But further, as it always happens between people, Spartak and Kriks began to disagree. Spartak offered to go to the Alps and, crossing them, return the slaves to their homeland. Criks also demanded a march on Rome and the destruction of all Roman slave-owners as such. Since the number of rebels reached 120 thousands of people, it was necessary to decide on either one or the other. As a result, Kriks with a detachment of Germans separated from the troops of Spartacus, who went north, and remained in the south, where he was defeated by the consul Lucius Gellius at the Garganskaya mountain. Spartacus, meanwhile, passed Rome and moved to the Alps. Enomay (exactly how he died, unknown) also separated from the main forces and was also defeated.


Gladiator equit. Modern reconstruction. Park Carnunte. Austria.


Gladiators provokers. Park Carnunte. Austria.

However, Spartacus again went south again and agreed with the Cilician pirates to transport his army to Sicily. However, they deceived him, and then the slaves, as Sallust describes, began to build rafts in order to force the narrow Messenian Strait. However, in this they were not lucky. A storm broke out and carried the rafts into the sea. Meanwhile, it turned out that the slave army was blocked by the Romans under the command of Marc Licinius Crassus. By the way, he began by exposing his troops, so far losing a series of battles to the slaves, decimations - that is, the execution of every tenth by lot. In total, according to Appian, 4000 people were executed in this way, which greatly enhanced the spirit of the legionnaires. They dug a deep ditch, more than 55 kilometers in length, across the Regian Peninsula, where the army of Spartak was, and reinforced it with ramparts and a palisade. But the slaves managed to break through these fortifications: the ditch was filled with trees, brushwood and the bodies of prisoners, and horse carcasses; and defeated the units of Crassus. Now Spartak headed for Brundisium, a major seaport, in order to take slaves to Greece through it, since it was very close to Brundysia and it was possible to do so. But ... it turned out that he could not take the city. In addition, two detachments broke away from Spartacus — Gannik and Casta — and were defeated by the Romans, and, in addition, they landed with the help of Gnea Pompey in Italy to help Crassus.


Spartak in battle. As you can see, many of the battling slaves are depicted in reconstructed defensive armaments and with improvised wicker shields. Fig. J. Rav.

Under these conditions, Spartak was forced to join the decisive battle with Crassus, in which he himself died (his body was never found), and his army suffered a crushing defeat. Captive slaves were crucified along the road from Capua to Rome on the crosses. Then both Crassus and Pompey still for some time finished off the remnants of the army of Spartacus in the South of Italy, so that the uprising, one might say, continued for some time after the death of Spartacus himself. There are several heroic descriptions of his death, but how it all happened, nobody knows for sure.


Gladiatorial fight: retiariy against the secant. Mosaic from Villa Borghese. Rome.

There is an image on the wall of a house in Pompeii, depicting the moment when an equestrian Roman warrior wounds Spartacus in the thigh. In the book of the famous Soviet historian A.V. Mishulin on page 100 is a reconstruction of this event. However, she can hardly be trusted, given the fact that the Roman horsemen used throwing spears, not shock! Interestingly, he also has another image of this moment on the screen saver on the 93 page.


Felix of Pompeii injures Spartacus in the thigh. (See p. 100. AV Mishulin. Spartak. M .: 1950 g.)


Also an image, more realistic, given our knowledge of the Roman army of this period. (See p. 93. AV Mishulin. Spartak. M .: 1950 g.)

And here it is much more reliable and appropriate. However, if we believe him, then we will have to admit that the Roman rider somehow ended up in battle behind Spartacus, and this does not quite fit with the descriptions of the last battle of the leader of the army of slaves. Whatever it was, but this fresco with the words "Spartacus" is his only image! Over the head of the second rider there is an inscription: "Felix of Pompeii", although she understands with difficulty. It is interesting that it was made in the ancient Okox language, and then this mural was once again covered with plaster in the times of the Empire, and opened only in 1927 year. From this we can conclude that this drawing was made by Felix himself (or by someone on his order) in memory of the perpetuation of such a significant event as was his victory over such a glorified and dangerous opponent! By the way, Plutarch reports that Spartak was accompanied by his wife, a Thracian, who had the gift of divination and a fan of the cult of the god Dionysus. But where and when he managed to get hold of her is unknown, and then other historians do not mention its existence.
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Articles from this series:
"Slave Wars" in the ancient world. Uprising to Spartacus. (Part one)
"Slave Wars." The second slave rebellion in Sicily (part two)
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  1. V.ic
    V.ic April 18 2016 06: 45
    +5
    The Roman Republic in the era described was in a sluggish civil war, which was stopped by Caesar Gaius Julius, who defeated Pompey. The internal disunity of the Romans allowed the rebellious slaves greater freedom of action, which they took advantage of.
    1. Kenneth
      Kenneth April 18 2016 11: 45
      +2
      There was no civil war. There were foreign wars in which all regular troops were involved. Spartacus was opposed by the usual militias of the localities that he robbed. Most likely no better than his gangs armed and trained
      Until Crassus introduced discipline and with his big money armed with a normally hired rabble, there was no success. In any case, Pompey would crush Spartak.
      1. V.ic
        V.ic April 18 2016 17: 56
        +1
        Quote: Kenneth
        There was no civil war.

        What a news! Straight for a doctoral dissertation "pulls"! Did they invent it themselves or suggested by someone? Have fun! lol
        http://www.krugosvet.ru/enc/istoriya/KATILINA_LUTSI_SERGI.html
        "AT civil warwhen Sulla successfully dealt with the followers of Lucius Cinna (83 BC) ... "
        Speaking of Sulla: for what carriages did he receive the title of LIFE dictator?
        For some reason Caar crossed the Rubicon and moved to Rome? It was the establishment of the "principate" regime by Caesar that brought relative stability to the Empire.
    2. ver_
      ver_ April 19 2016 03: 52
      -2
      ... the whole history of Rome is a beautiful fairy tale .. Written with a backward mind .. It’s easy to find out in Gaius Julia Caesar - Yuri Georgy Dolgoruky, and in Alexander the Great - Alexander Nevsky .. Well, I really want to be Great ..
      It is worth looking at the woman in a military outfit and coat, both before plaster and in a dressing gown ..
  2. ovod84
    ovod84 April 18 2016 06: 52
    +8
    I read a book about Spartak in my childhood, and then I watched the Spartak movie with Kirk Douglas, just an unforgettable feeling. The name of Spartak went down in the history of mankind as a leader of the oppressed who fought for justice. And if you compare the gladiators with the present, then I think they were replaced by fighters for fights without rules, where people are attracted by blood and entertainment.
    1. baudolino
      baudolino April 18 2016 09: 22
      +1
      Rather, football. Fights without rules - the sport is quite specific.
      1. Uncle VasyaSayapin
        Uncle VasyaSayapin April 18 2016 14: 53
        +2
        In terms of mass entertainment, football is more likely, and in terms of fighting with someone for something - fighting without rules.
  3. qwert
    qwert April 18 2016 07: 18
    +6
    Spartacus and Crixus had the same disagreements as between Stalin and Trotsky. One was a realist, the other wanted a "world revolution"
    1. alekc73
      alekc73 April 18 2016 08: 33
      +3
      Stalin destroyed Trotsky. Spartak allowed the separation of forces, remained in Italy (or could not leave), and therefore was defeated
  4. parusnik
    parusnik April 18 2016 07: 45
    +4
    There is an image on the wall of a house in Pompeii, depicting the moment when an equestrian Roman warrior wounds Spartacus in the thigh. In the book of the famous Soviet historian A.V. Mishulin on page 100 is a reconstruction of this event. However, she can hardly be trusted .....Spartacus fought in the forefront of his warriors and tried to break through to Mark Crassus himself to fight him. He killed two centurions and quite a few legionnaires, but, "surrounded by a large number of enemies and courageously repelling their blows, he was finally chopped to pieces." This is how the famous Plutarch described his death. Flor echoes him “Spartacus, fighting in the first row with amazing courage, died, as would befit only a great commander.” Before the battle, Spartacus, as a military leader, brought his horse. But he, drawing his sword, stabbed him, saying that in case of victory his soldiers would get many good horses of the Romans, and in case of defeat he would not need his own.
    1. kalibr
      April 18 2016 11: 53
      +2
      Yes, Mishulin has all this ...
  5. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin April 18 2016 09: 35
    +2
    Quote: qwert
    Spartacus and Crixus had the same disagreements as between Stalin and Trotsky. One was a realist, the other wanted a "world revolution"
    Only in the role of Trotsky was Spartacus, who dreamed of a general uprising of slaves, and Crixus wanted to leave and simply "wanted to build communism in one, separately taken country."
  6. Riv
    Riv April 18 2016 09: 38
    0
    Well, it’s time for a techno-fascist to make a comment? ;)

    The first thing worth mentioning: the gladiator on the Roman social ladder was somewhere between artists and prostitutes. Actually, many of the gladiators quite successfully combined performances in the arena with prostitution. So ... do not need heroics and pathos. And yes, yes: a woman could become a gladiator.

    Second, how many gladiatorial fights do you think were fought throughout the Empire? Thousands a year. If in every battle one of the opponents died, then no human material would be enough, and none of the free for any price would not enter the arena. What is this 50/50 lottery die? It must be remembered that the chance of dying in battle for a "typical" gladiator was no more than 10%. That is, again: no heroism and pathos. Two artists came out, showed off, one gets a shallow scratch - and parted. The audience is happy.

    And now let's move on to Spartak. In fact, practically nothing is known about him. Not of the hereditary slaves sold to the lanist, of course. The slave could not have such charisma. Either a prisoner of war (and not an ordinary one), or a fined legionnaire officer (again: not an ordinary soldier). That's practically all that can be asserted with a degree of confidence. Everything else is Roman gossip.

    But he got into the arena very successfully, in one of the most famous schools, in a large city. He quickly became popular, according to some sources, got freedom, became an instructor at school. It would seem: to live, but to live ... Why rebel? There is a version that Spartak the lanist simply wanted to force to enter the arena again. Either someone paid him, or he himself didn’t. He did not want to enter the arena and solved the problem radically, raising his students to a riot. And what? It’s all the same to die, so at least take a walk at last. Well, walk ...

    At first there were less than a hundred rebels and all that was enough for them was to flee the city, rob the villa that turned up by the arm and gain a foothold on the inaccessible mountain slope. And here is the first mystery: the runaway gladiators were caught up and locked up on a mountain, as Roman historians say. Who is locked? The Legion was not there, otherwise the gladiators would immediately have left a wet place. So the city lawns and the garrison. Two or three centuries, 250-400 people (3/4 of the legion - this is most likely an ordinary exaggeration), well-armed and well trained. Minimum three times superiority in power. The classic version claims that the rebels descended from the opposite slope on the ropes, suddenly attacked and overcame. Imagine yourself in their place. Slopes are viewed, the terrain is patrolled. You only have a few hours at night to go down (at night, Karl!), Go around the mountain and get ready for the attack. Will you attack? Of course not. So no one smashed the vegils pursuing the rebels, but headed at maximum speed to the nearest latifuntia.
    And then it spun ...

    Let's start the srach. And then I will go through the other riddles of the uprising. :)
    1. qwert
      qwert April 18 2016 10: 36
      +10
      And here we will not begin. Everyone has the right to their opinion. Everyone has the right to choose their sources. To Mukhin, to Solzhenitsyn. And do not convince either one or the other.
      I don’t care about the status of a gladiator. As a commander, Spartak was well done. It’s a pity that he didn’t leave for Thrace or where else.
      1. Leto
        Leto April 18 2016 12: 10
        +3
        Quote: qwert
        And here we will not begin.

        The man is in the subject, the ax is sharpened, the chain mail straps are tightly tightened, and you say "there is no enemy, go home" ...
        Quote: qwert
        As a commander, Spartak was well done. Sorry did not go to Thrace or where else

        Well then, the glory of him would not reach us
      2. Mikhail Matyugin
        Mikhail Matyugin April 18 2016 12: 49
        +3
        Quote: qwert
        As a commander, Spartak was well done. It’s a pity that he didn’t leave for Thrace or where else.

        What specifically did he prove to be as a great general of the Caesar level?

        And yet - a little surprise - just at the borders and the bulk of the legions were located - so that none of them would have reached, because on the borders they would have been met by professional Roman soldiers, and not by a territorial guard.
        1. Cartalon
          Cartalon April 18 2016 13: 10
          +5
          Augustus placed the legions on the borders and in this era they were recruited by necessity and dismissed after completing the task, the Alps were the border at that time, Spartak actually reached them
    2. kalibr
      April 18 2016 11: 56
      +2
      You write everything correctly. We just do not have other sources. What to argue about and what is there to discuss? Could - could not! This is a fortune-telling on coffee grounds ... And everything is right about the gladiators. Otherwise, women from noble families would not have come to them. Who is committing suicide?
      1. Riv
        Riv April 18 2016 13: 02
        +1
        Divination. But not on coffee grounds, not at all.

        “Suetonius tells me that Nero at one time intended to remove the Roman legions from Britain. I do not reject this testimony of Suetonius not because some more perfect source contradicts it, for, of course, I do not have such sources. I reject it, because, reconstructing the policy of Nero based on the writings of Tacitus, I can’t assume that Suetonius is right ... I can include what Tacitus told about in my own coherent and integral picture of events and I can’t do this with the stories of Suetonius. ”

        This is J. Collingwood, an English philosopher and historian. Is it clear what I mean? You need to see the whole picture, otherwise the story will remain a collection of jokes for a person.
        1. kalibr
          April 18 2016 16: 39
          +1
          I agree with Collingwood!
    3. Mikhail Matyugin
      Mikhail Matyugin April 18 2016 12: 46
      +4
      Quote: Riv
      Not of the hereditary slaves sold to the lanist, of course. The slave could not have such charisma. Either a prisoner of war (and not an ordinary one), or a fined legionnaire officer (again: not an ordinary soldier). That's practically all that can be asserted with a degree of confidence.
      Absolute truth ! Gladiators could sell hereditary slaves only for mass slaughter. But so that the legionary officer could be sold as a slave? hardly - such fines were fined for a trifle, for a more serious one or to prison, or executed.
      1. Riv
        Riv April 18 2016 12: 53
        +1
        What can I say? Lucky for him. Maybe in peacetime it was stolen, or something else ...
        Very much for the fact that Spartak was a professional military and it was an officer. For example, his raids on Italy speak of a splendidly set intelligence.
      2. Pomeranian
        Pomeranian April 18 2016 14: 32
        +2
        Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
        But so that the legionary officer would be sold as a slave

        Michael, free citizens of Rome calmly sold themselves as gladiators. Voluntarily. The killing, in the main, was at a funeral and some other events when bloody victims were required. And so, gladiatorry is mostly wrestling and a prototype of the current private security companies.
  7. but still
    but still April 18 2016 12: 17
    +3
    Monument to Spartak in Sandanski
  8. but still
    but still April 18 2016 12: 19
    +1
    The same monument
  9. RPG_
    RPG_ April 18 2016 13: 12
    +4
    I will bring my five cents. The Thracians and Gauls are a type / type of gladiator distinguished by uniform and combat style. So Spartak could not have been a Thracian at all, but Crixus was not Galom.
    1. but still
      but still April 19 2016 03: 20
      +1
      A certain Lentulus Batiatus kept a school of gladiators in Kapua, most of whom were Gauls and Thracians

      It is logical to assume that the born Gauls in battles also played the role of Gauls. In the same way, the born Thracians also fought in the guise of the Thracians.
      There remains a MINORITY, which, in your opinion, was neither Galician nor Thracian in origin, but played the role of Gauls and Thracians - from here you assume that Spartak belonged to this minority and was not of Thracian descent,

      BUT:

      The first of these was Spartak, Thracian, descended from the honey tribe, - a man who was not only distinguished by outstanding courage and physical strength, but by his intelligence and gentleness of character, who stood above his position and was generally more like a Hellenic than could be expected from a man of his tribe. It is said that once, when Spartacus was first brought to Rome for sale, they saw, while he was sleeping, a snake wrapped around his face. Spartak's wife, his compatriotendowed however with the gift of prophecy and involved in the Dionysian sacraments, announced that this is a sign of the great and formidable power prepared for him, which will lead him to the ill-fated end. The wife was now with him, accompanying him on the run.


      http://www.ancientrome.ru/antlitr/plutarch/sgo/crassus-f.htm

      Tribe HONEY - Thracian tribe (see map with Thracian tribes within the borders of the Kingdom of Odris)

      The Thracian tribes had a cult to Dionysius, which speaks of the Thracian origin of Spartak’s wife, whom Plutarch calls him a tribe, which suggests that Spartak himself is a Thracian.



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      3. but still
        but still April 19 2016 03: 39
        0
        See the HONEY tribe
  10. Riv
    Riv April 18 2016 13: 17
    +2
    What a tummy the one on the left has ... just darling! And the stand with the body tilted forward just asks: "Give me a fist in the head!"
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon April 18 2016 13: 22
      +1
      Now they believe that gladiators were guys in the body, specially eating a fat layer to protect against cuts
      1. kalibr
        April 18 2016 16: 43
        +2
        The best protection against cuts is not to be substituted under them, which means to move quickly, without a layer of fat around the heart!
        1. Cartalon
          Cartalon April 18 2016 18: 52
          0
          As if for what I bought request
        2. Assistant
          Assistant April 18 2016 23: 44
          0
          It won’t work. The loser gladiator should be nicely cut by the end of the battle so that the audience likes it.
    2. Riv
      Riv April 18 2016 13: 47
      +4
      But today we are not talking about that. Today we are talking about something else. So Spartak ...

      And where did he actually get his army? No, it is clear that he formed from the slaves, but where did he get so many slaves? How many do you need in a Roman villa? Three dozen, one hundred? No more than that. And Spartak scored somewhere 120.000 snouts. ONE HUNDRED TWENTY THOUSAND. It was necessary to get around 1200 villas. In large latifundia, there were certainly more slaves, but still the number looks fantastic. Surely part of the freed slaves simply ran away and not everyone came with Spartak.

      Now about "formed". It's only in Starcraft that everything is simple. We take crystals, gas and get a fearless spacemarine. And a real slave is a downtrodden, dull creature. Of course, you can make a soldier out of him, for this he must be taught to fear his commander more than the enemy. This takes time (my sergeant experience says that at least six months). But ... already in the same year, the rebels divide the three thousandth detachment sent against them by zero, seize the fortified camp (slaves, Karl!) And kill the praetor in command of the detachment. Seriously! For three months, Spartak formed a combat-ready formation from cattle.

      This is possible in principle. But! For this, the discipline of the rebels had to be not just harsh, but a PESEK WHAT HARD. Literally: once a month decimation, once a week - executions before the formation for the fact that the laces are incorrectly tied. With former slaves - only so. A year later, an entire army was already engaged against Spartak, 30.000 units, and it is quite successfully opposing it. Discipline, however ... About the intelligence that the rebels had organized perfectly, I already said.

      And here is one of the main mysteries of the uprising, in my opinion: why did the system fail? Why did the main associate of Spartak, Crixus break off and fermentation begin? This simply could not happen, but it happened. The destruction of the Crixus unit was the beginning of the end. Next is agony.

      Another mystery: why did not Spartacus go to Rome? A hastily assembled militia could not have hindered him, and the slaves did not need to be motivated. Suffice it to say: "Let's go rob the Eternal City!" Maybe the second explains the first, and it was precisely the disagreement on this that caused the split?
      1. Pomeranian
        Pomeranian April 18 2016 14: 30
        +3
        Quote: Riv
        And the real slave is a clogged, dull creature.

        Are these gladiators and former prisoners of war, slaughtered dull creatures? In addition, do not forget that the name Mary was remembered by many and the blood of the recent "Samnite" war has not yet been erased from memory. So Spartak had plenty of allies and volunteers, and well trained at that.
        1. Riv
          Riv April 18 2016 15: 06
          +1
          And who told you that Spartak had many gladiators? There were never very many gladiators. In large cities - several hundred. And what do you mean by "prisoner of war"? It is now customary to surrender in captivity. Civilization. And the Roman legionnaire did not try to take prisoners in battle. What for? A slave from a warrior is useless. Sell ​​Laniste? So the prisoner will run away three times while you bring it. Easier with a sword in the head. Destroy the enemy army in one battle, and take civilians into slavery.

          I do not recall offhand any evidence of ancient sources that the Romans would have taken prisoners precisely in battles. Even if they caught the leaders, they did not let them go for a ransom, but sent them to Rome. Perhaps the only exceptions are civil wars, when the same legionnaires fought on both sides. But here is the practical meaning: prisoners can replenish their own troops.
          1. Cartalon
            Cartalon April 18 2016 15: 17
            +1
            If Ganibal sold captive Romans from the battlefield (he did not have others) why would the Romans not do the same
            1. Riv
              Riv April 18 2016 17: 24
              0
              How is it "he had no others" ??? Hanibal passed half of Italy. He had the opportunity to catch as many local peyzan as he needed. And the legionnaire turned out to be a bad, worthless slave.
              1. Cartalon
                Cartalon April 18 2016 17: 30
                +1
                Italian peisans and legionnaires are one and the same people and catching in the fields is not effective; it’s good to capture them in cities and Ganibal did not take a single Roman colony.
          2. Pomeranian
            Pomeranian April 18 2016 16: 25
            +2
            Quote: Riv
            There were never too many gladiators.

            August allowed praetors to give gladiatorial fights no more than twice a year, and on the condition that no more than 60 pairs participate in each of them. At the games arranged by himself, according to his own testimony, no less than 10 thousand people fought in total. It is only in Rome. Yes, and the Roman nobility was pleased to have protection from former and current gladiators. In the civil wars of Oton with Vitellius, the gladiators served in the troops and rendered great services in hand-to-hand combat.
            On the issue of prisoners of war. During the Allied War, the entire male population took weapons from the same Samnites. So there were enough people with combat experience. This is roughly the same as in the days of the USSR, any man knew which side to approach the Kalashnikov assault rifle.
            1. Riv
              Riv April 18 2016 17: 29
              +1
              Well, yes ... About a million people lived in Rome during its heyday. If 10.000 of them are gladiators, it turns out that 1% of the population fought in arenas. Isn't it a bit much? But Augustus didn’t use the entire gladiatorial population in games, so the percentage should be even greater.

              We are not talking about the wars of late Rome.

              And about the Samnites ... If the number of people is at least 100.000 people and weapons are taken by ALL combat-ready male population, then the number of the militia is 25.000. The size of the Samnite army was several times smaller. So it is by no means "all masculine."
              In fact, this does not happen. A people practicing total war does not survive.
              1. Pomeranian
                Pomeranian April 18 2016 20: 59
                +1
                Quote: Riv
                In fact, this does not happen. A people practicing total war does not survive.

                But Wilhelm Wegner claims the opposite. In one of the wars with Rome, the Samnites, so that the Etruscans did not break away from their union, abandoned their wives, children, their homes and all those who could bear arms left Samnia, leaving even their families to their fate.
                You, esteemed, confuse a little soft with warm. No one in Rome considered slaves to be either a population or people in general. So if you had to put in the arena of 10 thousands of people, why not? You do not consider the population of the village soldiers, compactly deployed in the barracks or prisoners in the zone?
                Good. Late Rome leave. Apparently the comparison is not painfully successful for me. I will not argue.
      2. Cartalon
        Cartalon April 18 2016 14: 42
        +2
        Prisoners of war were slaves, not only from distant Asian campaigns, but mainly after internal wars, civil and allied, so there was no need to make soldiers from them, they were already
    3. kalibr
      April 18 2016 16: 42
      +2
      Yes, this photo made me laugh too, that's why I gave it. I am generally amused by the pot-bellied guys who dress up as legionnaires and gladiators and try to portray them in front of the cameras. I just want to say - "pick up the belly"!
      1. Pomeranian
        Pomeranian April 18 2016 17: 17
        +2
        Quote: kalibr
        I just want to say - "pick up the belly"!

        Vyacheslav, I am sincerely interested: Would you also say so to the Holy Pedestrian?
        1. Cartalon
          Cartalon April 18 2016 17: 33
          +2
          To Novgorod the brave one Novgorodian said so
        2. kalibr
          April 18 2016 18: 32
          0
          Who is this? Sorry, but for the first time I hear this name.
          1. Cartalon
            Cartalon April 18 2016 18: 53
            +1
            Rollo Norman
          2. Pomeranian
            Pomeranian April 18 2016 20: 51
            +1
            Quote: kalibr
            Sorry, but for the first time I hear this name.

            He was a noble Viking, jarl, heavily loaded, so that his horse’s backs couldn’t stand him (horses in Scandinavia are like ponies) and he tried to move either by boat or by legs ..
  11. Pomeranian
    Pomeranian April 18 2016 14: 27
    +1
    I am very interested why such a talented military leader opposing Rome on its territory did not interest either Mithridates Eupator or the valiant Sertorius of Spain as an ally? Based only on logic and common sense, both Mithridates and Sertorius could achieve their goals if they had such an ally as Spartak. Classroom arrogance? But Spartacus was a Roman citizen ...
    1. Riv
      Riv April 18 2016 15: 09
      +4
      Spartacus could interest Mithridates only as a splinter in the ass of the Romans. But since the splinter was already in place, then why should I be interested in it again?

      And where did you find out that Spartacus was a Roman citizen? Source to the studio.
      1. Pomeranian
        Pomeranian April 18 2016 16: 43
        +1
        Quote: Riv
        And where did you find out that Spartacus was a Roman citizen?

        "A certain Lentulus Batiatus had a school of gladiators in Capua, of whom the majority were" Gauls "and" Thracians "imprisoned for gladiatorial competitions due to the injustice of the master who bought them, who DARE TO SEND TO THE ARENA OF ROMAN CITIZENS, THE HEROIC DEFENDERS OF THE PROTECTORS. As a version HERE: http://www.wheeloftime.ru/forum/index.php?topic=3291.0;wap2.
        Simple logic. Could a simple gladiator earn credibility among veterans Mary and the Samnite war without being a Roman citizen?
        1. Riv
          Riv April 18 2016 17: 43
          +2
          You contradict yourself. SEND to the arena of a free man was impossible. First, he must be deprived of his freedom, otherwise he will not go to the arena. And the Roman citizen lost his freedom along with citizenship.

          And why do you think that the former Roman officer (I have already pointed out the arguments in favor of the fact that Spartak was one) could not enjoy authority among veterans?
          1. Pomeranian
            Pomeranian April 18 2016 20: 49
            0
            Quote: Riv
            You contradict yourself. SEND to the arena of a free man was impossible.

            I am begging you. Free citizens calmly registered as gladiators for a certain amount of money, for example, for a year. And no one has deprived them of any citizenship.
            In the second paragraph I do not argue and did not argue. Officer, participant in the war. Why not? All the same, I like the plot against the Sullans. This explains a lot: the duration of the war, and discipline, and the comparatively favorable attitude to Spartak of ancient historians.
            1. Riv
              Riv April 19 2016 06: 44
              0
              Well, the point is that the free walked ITSELF, and the slave was SENT. The difference is clear. Well, there was no such custom then: he stole, drank, to jail and to freedom with a clear conscience. No "freedom". Nakosyachil - and gladiators, for life. If the audience gives you freedom, then you're lucky.

              Nobody could "give" a Roman citizen a gladiator. A citizen who became a gladiator was deprived of many civil rights: he could not be a plaintiff in court, he could not be a witness and could not apply for public office.

              Do you understand the difference?
  12. Cartalon
    Cartalon April 18 2016 14: 33
    +4
    And nothing that Pompey returned just after the victory over Sertorius, and Mithridates was driven away from the Roman provinces by Sulla
    1. Pomeranian
      Pomeranian April 18 2016 16: 31
      +3
      Nothing. Quintus Sertorius died in the 72 year, and Spartacus revolted a year earlier. And the Third Mitridatov War in 73 only flared up.
      1. Cartalon
        Cartalon April 18 2016 17: 42
        +2
        Sertorius died in 73 and if he knew some slaves from the company, what could he do? Mithridates fought in hell on Asia without any hope of victory in theory, he could send money no more
        1. Pomeranian
          Pomeranian April 18 2016 20: 45
          +1
          Quote: Cartalon
          in theory, he could send money no more

          I beg your pardon generously, but following simple logic, the backbone of Spaortak's army was most likely former Marians and veterans of the Allied wars. At least the officers. Therefore, Sertorius, how the Marian would agree with his like-minded people, was easy. Apparently it was not for nothing that he was killed "in time" by a bodyguard. And Mithridates? Coordinate actions and help with the fleet. The revolt of Eumenes in Sicily hid for a long time on the Palatine. Can you imagine what happened with the course of the war, if Spartak and his supporters crossed over to the granary of the Republic?
          1. Cartalon
            Cartalon April 18 2016 21: 22
            0
            Spartak becomes a real force in the winter of 73-72 by the time Sertorius is dead, and Mithridates lost the army near Kizik, by the time the Cilicians could help transfer the army, Mithridates was already thrown back to Pont and could not influence anything
  13. pigkiller
    pigkiller April 18 2016 16: 35
    +1
    Can someone indicate the total (citizens, non-citizens, slaves) population of the late Roman Republic? Army of 30 and 120 thousand people. must have a population base.
    1. Riv
      Riv April 18 2016 17: 48
      +1
      According to the August census, just over 4 million people lived in Italy. Of course, no one considered slaves, women and children. Only adult free men.
  14. iury.vorgul
    iury.vorgul April 18 2016 17: 07
    +1
    A very interesting version of the uprising was given by Ukrainian science fiction writer Andrei Valentinov. You can agree or disagree with it, but for those who are interested in the history of the uprising of Spartacus and the history of Roman gladiature, it is advisable to familiarize yourself with it.
    1. Pomeranian
      Pomeranian April 18 2016 17: 13
      +2
      Quote: iury.vorgul
      A very interesting version of the uprising was given by Ukrainian science fiction writer Andrei Valentinov.

      What about Spartak from his 76 published books?
      1. Yorik
        Yorik 17 February 2017 18: 56
        0
        That's what Spartak is called http://loveread.ec/view_global.php?id=32294
        And yet, first of all, he is not a science fiction writer, but a candidate of historical sciences, associate professor of Kharkiv National University. Karazin
  15. Pitot
    Pitot April 19 2016 04: 57
    -3
    I wonder - where did the gladiator, and indeed at that time, come from bronze? People, bronze is an alloy of copper and aluminum. (Proportions and all sorts of additives are different). Aluminum (as such) was discovered in the 19th century. Again, some kind of crap. Or what? You can only talk about the rich imagination of the authors about the gladiators and about the period that they came up with. Or the gladiators were like actors in the Middle Ages (17-18th century), just like now in fiction - staged fights (ketch). And if on another - we are donkeys, and we can be rubbed anything, one figs will swallow everything.
    1. kalibr
      April 19 2016 06: 23
      +1
      Bronze, "people", is an alloy of copper and TIN, and there are also antimony and arsenic bronzes. Where are you from this ... "aluminum"? Google to help you! And if you have aluminum bronze of THAT TIME, then, yes, you remembered the long-eared animal correctly, only to whom does this apply?
  16. but still
    but still April 19 2016 12: 05
    0
    It is interesting that it is made in ancient Oka


    I wonder where you can read about the ancient Oka language?
    1. kalibr
      April 19 2016 13: 41
      0
      Probably again on the web. I met there the alphabet of the Etruscans and something about the Oka language too. And there were links to good sources.
      1. but still
        but still April 19 2016 15: 53
        0
        Yeah, so you need to search through the Etruscans - otherwise I see that there is nothing on the network, typing "ancient Oka azyk". Thanks.
  17. Pitot
    Pitot April 19 2016 16: 00
    -1
    Quote: kalibr
    Bronze, "people", is an alloy of copper and TIN, and there are also antimony and arsenic bronzes. Where are you from this ... "aluminum"? Google to help you! And if you have aluminum bronze of THAT TIME, then, yes, you remembered the long-eared animal correctly, only to whom does this apply?


    Oh saw. Well done. You read. Good. When did they dig the tin? Is it mined from casserite? In its purest form, there is no tin. How to evaporate tin? At what temperatures and what should be the reaction? How did you do that at that time? Well, not for you personally, of course. And by the way, where is tin mined? Spain, England, I still don’t remember somewhere, like Italy. When did they start mining? Look dear. No offense. Purely geologically. And where did those gladiators find manganese, beryllium and the like metals? So that the alloy can be made at low temperature and interesting reactions when creating the alloy? And I just go nuts. He made a bottle cut from an aluminum corner. So it was quiet. But tin was discovered in the 19th century.
    1. Riv
      Riv April 19 2016 21: 55
      0
      Evgeny Vaganovich, log in.
  18. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid April 19 2016 16: 27
    0
    I liked the article very much. As before --- wonderful pictures. Household items, weapons, recto-constructions .... and much more. It’s just wonderful!
    1. kalibr
      April 19 2016 20: 58
      +1
      Well, you remember, one visitor expressed a wish to help his fifth-grader son with information. And he said that Rome was coming soon. Well, there was a lot about Rome. But for a report about the uprising of Spartacus, everything is in abundance. Taking into account that schools now require "presentations" with pictures, then ... "excellent" for a guy is guaranteed, especially if dad helps a little. I remembered how in my childhood I myself read Mishulin's book, found it and did it all based on it. In Soviet times, it was good that historians knew the texture very well and were careful with the sources. If you discard the beginning - "As I said ..." and the end "As the native Communist Party teaches," there is an excellent source base!
      1. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid April 19 2016 22: 22
        0
        Good evening, Vyacheslav! You helped both the fifth grader, and the parents, as well as many other people. The articles are all the more interesting since the names and events are "familiar" to everyone from childhood and this interest remains for many years.
        1. kalibr
          April 20 2016 08: 01
          +1
          Thank! It is always pleasant when your work brings someone benefit and pleasure, or both at the same time.
  19. kalibr
    April 19 2016 20: 51
    0
    Quote: Pitot
    And tin was discovered in the 19 century.


    There is nothing to add ... You yourself said more than necessary. In history, probably, there were no more than three grades at school? And by the way, why the gladiator of beryllium?