Military Review

Find and neutralize: Fighting drones is gaining momentum. Part of 1

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Find and neutralize: Fighting drones is gaining momentum. Part of 1

IAI ELTA Systems modified its 3-D radars to detect subtle, low-flying, low-speed airborne targets.


Today, drones are a real threat to civilian and military targets. Consider developing systems designed to protect against both the most primitive and the most sophisticated threats.

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) were once exclusively the prerogative of military and government structures, initially providing them with the means of observation, reconnaissance and information gathering, and later shock capabilities. However, with the proliferation of technology of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), cheap and highly effective systems have become available to numerous non-state players.

Currently, in the store you can buy not only aircraft of aircraft and helicopter circuits, equipped with GPS-based autopilot, but also on-board equipment, which offers operators a high-quality image, in many models, even infrared. In addition, these devices can also carry a rudimentary combat load. A number of paramilitary groups gained access to UAVs, which are often in no way inferior to those deployed by modern armed forces.

Today, governments and the military need to deploy effective countermeasures against a number of threats, ranging from “lone shooter”, highly organized terrorist attacks to de facto militarized capabilities — not least shock.

Despite the fact that the UAV countering technologies are emerging, the sequence of stages of this process is clearly defined: to detect, identify and destroy. The first two elements in this chain at the moment are mostly worked out by improving existing technologies, although, by the way, there are specific solutions in this area.

When detecting and identifying UAVs, the main focus is on using a combination of radar and optoelectronic systems, and here the main problem — especially for small-sized UAVs — is due to their small effective reflection area (EPO), minimal thermal signatures, and often low airspeed. In addition, the situation is complicated by the typical conditions of combat use of such systems, which often fly at low altitudes and in built-up areas, which creates problems associated with interference from ground targets.

Saab is trying to solve the problems associated with the opposition of the UAV, by expanding the capabilities of the radar of his family Giraffe. Head of Defense Electronic Systems, Klas Trulsson said that most of Saab’s work in this area is based on its experience in building missile systems, artillery shells and mortar ammunition. This is due to the fact that small-sized UAVs have a number of similar physical and operational qualities; the latter include, for example, flying at low altitudes.

Saab's target detection technology, ELSS (Enhanced Low, Slow and Small), was integrated into its Giraffe AMB radar, although it applies to all members of the Giraffe family. Trulsson said the radar was tested in the role of a UAV control system during extended production tests, on Black Dart exercises in 2013 conducted by the United States Air Defense and Missile Defense Organization JIAMDO, as well as in the British tests of Bristow in 2013 and 2015 .

ELSS technology allows you to add to the radar mode of parallel signal processing just like the intercept mode of missiles, artillery shells and mortar ammunition, operating in parallel with the inherent system of detection and tracking. According to Saab, it combines detection and identification, featuring a multi-positive tracking system and spectral purity, which allows you to distinguish small, slow-moving objects.

The operational concept of the ELSS functionality, verified by Saab, provides that the Giraffe radar detects and conducts an initial classification of the target, and those that are defined as BLAH, are then transmitted to the optical sensor, with which the operator performs their further analysis.

Trulsson said that during the tests of Bristow 2015, conducted at test sites in Scotland for six days, the radar with the ELSS functionality was able to detect and track more than 100 complex air targets with EPOs up to 0,001 m2 flying at low speeds in a complex space. At the same time, in its standard modes, the system provided full-fledged traditional aerial surveillance. Target recognition algorithms are able to distinguish drones, birds, other moving objects, and also to distinguish movements in the air from, for example, ground-based road traffic.


Also a kind of struggle ... The UAV created by Malou Tech specialists caught a quadrocopter Phantom 2 into their networks

Cooperation

ELSS will also be part of the Saab Giraffe family of products. The Giraffe 4A is a multifunctional radar that is distinguished by a digital, active phased-array antenna (AFAR) with electronic beam control operating in the S-band. One multipath 3-D radar, which uses gallium-nitride technology, combines the capabilities of surveillance, air defense, detection and warning, and weapon guidance.

Trulsson explained that “in order for the system to be useful for operators, a high level of guaranteed automatic detection and classification of UAV threats is necessary”, adding that with algorithms (classification) of target recognition alone, the ELSS function is able to correctly classify only 80% of detected targets .

Regarding testing, Bristow 2015 Trulsson said that Saab worked with Selex to integrate an infrared camera. Here, the radar and the IR camera complemented each other well, since, although the IR camera is not optimized for monitoring multiple tracks, it provides a comprehensive identification and verification of targets that were previously selected by the radar component.

Several companies offer their integrated solutions to combat the threat of UAVs, including Airbus Defense and Space (DS), Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) and the British consortium consisting of Blighter Surveillance Systems, Chess Dynamics and Enterprise Control Systems.

“The initial impetus for our entry into this market was the events in South Korea in 2014, when several North Korean UAVs made an emergency landing in South Korea. Everyone immediately wanted to immediately check all their sensors and see what they could do to detect these relatively small UAVs, ”said Mark Redford, executive director of Blighter Surveillance Systems.

The A400 Ku-band electronic scanning radar from the Blighter Surveillance Systems is one of the components of the British consortium's AUDS (Anti-UAV Defense System) anti-UAV system. It was originally designed to provide ground surveillance capabilities. Frequency modulated Doppler radar for continuous radiation provides coverage of 180 ° in azimuth and 10 ° or 20 ° in elevation, depending on the configuration. It has a maximum range of 8 km and can detect targets with EPO less than 0,01 m 2. Multiple tracks can be captured and accompanied at the same time.

“Airspace surveillance radars have been optimized, as a rule, for long ranges and the detection of very large and visible targets. The events in South Korea clearly showed that all these available and technologically sophisticated technologies are not able to see small-sized drones, because often these days they are made of plastic or foam with a very small amount of metal and these are just incredibly small goals, ”said Redford.

“Our radars use electronic scanning and the Doppler effect in combination,” Redford explained. - Electronic scanning allows us to suppress all background noise. Obviously, if you are in the desert, you have little background and almost any radar will do its job, but since most of these threats are in urban areas or near important infrastructure, where there are large buildings and many man-made objects, you have a lot of reflection. signals, a huge number of them, and I would advise you to use electron scanning radars to reliably suppress ground-based interference so that you can see these tiny targets. In addition, Doppler technology is needed to detect very slow motion. ”

Redford also noted that in order to optimize the radar for detecting UAVs, small changes were required. The most obvious here is that the system is usually installed on a tower and sent to the ground, from which a significant amount of interference is reflected back. Installing the system closer to the ground and directing it upward allowed us to remove some of the problems with background noise.


Giraffe 4A Radar will have Saab ELSS functionality


Man-machine interface for the radar company Blighter, part of the system AUDS

The Doppler radar with continuous radiation with frequency modulation operates in the electronic scanning mode and provides coverage in azimuth 180 ° and in elevation 10 ° or 20 °, depending on the configuration. It operates in the Ku range and has a maximum range of 8 km, it can determine the effective reflection area of ​​up to 0,01 m 2 size. At the same time, the system can capture several targets for tracking.

Survey-search system Hawkeye from Chess Dynamics is installed in one unit with a radio-frequency silencer and consists of a high-resolution optical-electronic camera and a cooled medium-wave thermal imager. The first one has a horizontal field of view from 0,22 ° to 58 °, and a thermal imager from 0,6 ° to 36 °. The system uses a digital tracking device Vision4ce, providing continuous tracking in azimuth. The system is able to continuously pan in azimuth and tilt from -20 ° to 60 ° at a speed of 30 ° per second, accompanying targets at a distance of about 4 km.

“As soon as we captured the target with an optical-electronic system, we would detect it with a conventional color daytime camera, as well as a highly sensitive thermal imaging camera,” said Redford. - It gives two separate signatures, visual, which allows the operator to identify the target, and thermal, when the imager allows you to see hot spots, such as engines and battery packs; that is, we have two channels of visualization of the system, and in both of them we conduct video tracking. ”

During the tests, the system demonstrated the ability to detect, track and neutralize targets in just 15 seconds. The neutralization range is 2,5 km with almost instantaneous impact on the target.



AUDS drones control system developed by a British consortium

A key feature of the system is the ability of the RF silencer to tune in to certain data transmission channels with the exact level of exposure required. For example, a silencer can be used to silence a GPS signal received by a UAV or a radio monitoring and control channel. There is also the potential for introducing an interception capability into the system, which will allow the AUDS operator to “practically” take over control of the UAV. The work of the silencer is not only to "knock down" the device, it can be used simply to violate the functionality of the UAV in order to force its operator to withdraw its device from the zone.

IAI ELTA Systems has adapted its 3-D radar with AFAR for detecting low-flying, low-flying and low-speed airborne targets. The Drone Guard system uses ELM-2026D, ELM-2026B and ELM-2026BF radars for short-range (10 km), medium (15 km) and long-range (20 km) detection, respectively. In the Drone Guard system, radar stations and optical-electronic sensors are combined, to which, if desired, an actuating element can be added.

“The AFAR-type radar is very small, weighs a little and therefore we adapted it as a standard unit for our systems,” said Boaz Natan, the head of sales service at IAI ELTA. “This rotating three-dimensional radar has electronic scanning in elevation, which is very important for detecting small objects. Together with the radar, we have two options for mounting optical-electronic systems. Either we install the optronics on the radar itself and it rotates with the radar, or we set it on a separate basis and, while working, we transfer it to the target. In the first case, the radar is actually a tracking system in scanning mode with a very high speed, which will continuously monitor all targets in the zone. When a suspicious object is detected, it automatically takes a picture of the zone with a camera installed on the radar, that is, the operator sees the target on the radar and has a snapshot at the same time, that is, he can perform the most important task of identifying the target. If you want to work at long ranges or have something special, then we can install the opto-optical system on a separate basis, and then the operator will be able to direct this system to the target for approaching, day or night. "

Nathan believes that the accuracy of the used radar system will be a key characteristic that will help operators in its successful development. “The big problem that needs to be addressed for radar is the likelihood of detection and false positives, because we are talking about a noisy area full of people and this is the main reason why we need a highly advanced radar.”

“First of all, it must be a three-dimensional radar, since you must be able to distinguish targets on the ground and in the air. A two-dimensional radar will not work properly, since any moving car or person can be taken as a target. Secondly, it should have a low false alarm rate. You do not need a system with too many false positives, especially in a noisy space. We believe that we have a great advantage because the Drone Guard technology is purely military; This is a very advanced radar, despite its small size. "

The company Airbus DS in the development of new systems to combat UAVs also uses technologies proven in other applications. Here you can give two examples: radar with AFAR SPEXER 500 and IR camera Z: NightOwl.

SPEXER 500 is designed for use in tasks such as camp defense, perimeter security and protection of key national infrastructure. It was designed to detect and track ground and low-flying targets in areas with limited line of sight. The Z: NightOwl long-range infrared camera is designed to monitor the border, coastline and critical objects.

The head of the sales department at Airbus DS, Minrad Edel, said that for the systems, not too many hardware modifications are necessary to adapt them for the tasks of combatting the UAVs; here, much of the work is focused on software and the integration of various components. "We take the components as they are and the computer with special control software, which also includes the UAV database, and as for the equipment itself or hardware, there are no changes here." Speaking about the differences between possible targets and false positives, Edel noticed that there are two methods that the company takes into account. "The first one is mainly applicable for large distances, according to it patterns with the flight profile of the target are compared, and the second is that when the target flies, we look closer at the Doppler radar and identify it, since the bird usually does not have a propeller."

Edel said the main problem was to automate and ensure low false signals. “At the moment we have a person in the process and I think that we cannot do without it yet. However, we want to automate the systems as much as possible, since operators want systems that need the minimum number of people. They are waiting for a system that raises only real alarm, and then the operator will see what is flying there. They want less false signals and do not want the operator to sit in front of the 24 system an hour a day. This is what we need to get, that is, automate the system as much as possible and reduce the number of false positives. ”





According to the LOCUST project, one launcher will be launched before the 30 UAV in quick succession, which will form an autonomous "flock"

Threat set

Much attention in the analysis of methods to counter the threat of UAVs is paid to the fight with small aircraft, often here the quadcopter Phantom made by the Chinese company DJI is used as an example. And this is true - one can cite numerous cases in which small-sized UAVs brought a lot of trouble to the security services. The most notable incident occurred in January 2015, when a quadrocopter landed on the lawn of the White House. Many times the illegal use of small-sized UAVs led to the disruption of sporting events, the disruption of airports, not to mention the disruption of the political congress, which was attended by German Chancellor Angela Merkel.


Such a quadcopter disturbed the security of the White House. In the photo Phantom of the Chinese company DJI

The world will still witness a serious incident caused by these systems, since the simplicity with which small-sized UAVs can be used for unseemly purposes means that this seems to be only a matter of time. There is nothing difficult in that without any experience to launch a drone in the way of a large aircraft or equip it with a small amount of explosives or a poisonous substance.

If we are talking about combating the threat of UAVs, the greatest difficulties arise when the aircraft to be neutralized is a small platform that is easy to hide and launch without any aids. There is no simple solution to this problem except for enhancing the protection of those objects and those events that are considered risky.

Perhaps due to a wide discussion on the possible use of UAVs against civilian infrastructure and civilians, little attention is paid - at least publicly - to the need to combat UAVs at the operational-tactical level.

A number of non-state groups use drones for intelligence purposes. For example, the Israeli military for many years struggling with aircraft launched by Hezbollah. Most of them are relatively complex platforms that are either of Iranian origin, or made with significant assistance from this country.

Even more alarming is the emergence of such groups, such as the Islamic State, acting as operators of small systems that can provide them with essential tactical information. The armed forces, trying to contain these and other rebel groups in different parts of the world, are aware of the fact that the enemy can be monitored for their actions, and in this case the effectiveness of military operations is threatened. This can lead to the need to equip units operating on the ground with their own mobile systems, at least to detect small-sized UAVs, not to mention neutralizing them.

Although the UAVs were used in traditional bilateral warfare and earlier, for example, Georgia lost several Hermes 450 drones in a conflict with Russia in 2008, this happened sporadically and often the UAVs dealt with conventional or specialized anti-aircraft systems. Currently, unmanned aerial vehicles are regularly used in interstate clashes — more likely for information gathering and target designation than for shock operations. Far and deep to dig here is not necessary, an example of such tactics can serve as the recent military clashes between Armenia and Azerbaijan.

Military operations in Ukraine are an interesting practical example of hybrid warfare, when state and non-state groups regularly collide with each other. There were many cases of loss of small UAVs that performed reconnaissance missions in favor of units supporting the Ukrainian government. Here, UAV jamming systems played their role, almost certainly delivered or serviced by the Russian military. Also in Ukraine there were cases of jamming of UAVs flying and performing tasks under the auspices of the OSCE. In order to continue to perform their duties, Schiebel S-100 Camcopter drones belonging to this organization were equipped with countermeasures.


UAV S-100 Camcopter serves in Ukraine

To be continued
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  1. DIMA45R
    DIMA45R April 14 2016 06: 35
    +3
    Well, it is not so difficult to fight the Chinese, it is easy to take control or make a noise in the range, but specialized and deployed equipment will be required. With specials, the more difficult of course, the more interesting it is to solve an engineering problem.
    1. HERMES
      HERMES April 14 2016 16: 49
      +2
      And how do you like the idea of ​​a directed EMR pulse in case of detection of the UAV itself?
  2. sa-ag
    sa-ag April 14 2016 07: 43
    +2
    the response should be in the use of radar absorbing materials, the widespread use of an inertial control system, technical vision, and of some means of counteraction against all kinds of catchers with a net
  3. sevtrash
    sevtrash April 14 2016 07: 47
    0
    We are present at the birth / formation of a new weapon / means of observation and methods of dealing with it.
    In private hands, most likely, drones will ban. Imagine if everyone or almost everyone will have a drone and not one? And what options for using a drone can come up with?
    1. sa-ag
      sa-ag April 14 2016 08: 01
      0
      Quote: sevtrash
      Imagine if everyone or almost everyone will have a drone and not one?

      They will not prohibit, they will certainly interfere, but weapons are not forbidden to have
    2. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh April 14 2016 08: 27
      +3
      In the United States are already developing legislation on UAVs in private
      hands and in commercial firms. Where, at what height, you can let
      and where prohibited.
      They coped with the laws on private planes and helicopters, which
      there are hundreds of thousands in America.
    3. Pavel Tsybai
      Pavel Tsybai April 14 2016 10: 46
      +1
      Russian men used UAVs for their purposes, it is unrealistic to bring alcohol to the camp site, and in the far corner with the help of UAVs please. The motor-electric glider is easily controlled and the kilogram of the drink raises, and the price is up to 30 tons.
      1. Throw
        Throw April 14 2016 16: 28
        +3
        Nate to you!))
        Discover, identify, suppress! wassat
        1. Ingvar 72
          Ingvar 72 April 14 2016 16: 46
          +1
          Quote: Lance
          Nate to you!))

          To be honest, more like a montage. Unrealistic twists. request
          1. Throw
            Throw April 14 2016 21: 16
            +2
            Not installation but the skill of the operator))
            Online Roller Network
            1. Come on
              Come on April 15 2016 02: 54
              +1
              Now imagine a 1kg payload in the form of explosives with submunitions, or a "pot" with an impact core. Let the load be at the expense of maneuverability. You won't even need to aim especially, legs with magnets, sits on the roof of the tank and broads. I hope I did not advise anyone to do this :))
        2. Dulat
          Dulat April 14 2016 21: 52
          0
          smartly however, and it will be controlled by a computer dodging bullets, shells and shots, a difficult target for physical destruction
        3. Operator
          Operator April 14 2016 23: 22
          -1
          You cannot make such a missile - overloads during maneuvers are unbelievable.
          1. Throw
            Throw April 15 2016 00: 57
            +2
            This is the second problem, the first is to detect and escort this rabid air waffle iron, which whistles a meter from the ground.
          2. Come on
            Come on April 15 2016 04: 05
            0
            What about the German HEL laser system, or a similar American one? After all, already now it is quite compact, mobile (the Germans were able to fit it on their Boxer) and already reaches 3 km of defeat range. What is the problem with BC on such a machine?
        4. Cat man null
          Cat man null April 15 2016 01: 32
          +1
          Quote: Lance
          Nate to you!))

          The operator is handsome .. no words request
  4. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh April 14 2016 08: 22
    +5
    LOCUST is a promising area. In a couple of minutes - an attacking pack
    simple shock UAV. They know how to keep their distance from each other,
    Do not collide, distribute goals. When some of them die, the rest
    restore the system and redistribute goals.
    And - absolutely fearless, everyone is ready to die for their homeland.
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov April 14 2016 08: 29
      +6
      Quote: voyaka uh
      LOCUST is a promising area. In a couple of minutes - an attacking pack
      simple shock UAV.

      They are never percussion.
      And are designed to provide information to the fire control system "gunship" AC-130
      1. sa-ag
        sa-ag April 14 2016 08: 39
        0
        Quote: Spade
        They are never percussion.

        Making them drums is not a problem at all, there is a similar Switchblade with a warhead
        1. Lopatov
          Lopatov April 14 2016 08: 48
          +1
          No problem. But this will drastically reduce their intelligence capabilities.
          1. MACCABI-TLV
            MACCABI-TLV April 14 2016 10: 56
            +2
            Quote: Spade
            But this will drastically reduce their intelligence capabilities.

            leave a third, for reconnaissance, steel will be shock.
            1. Lopatov
              Lopatov April 14 2016 11: 21
              +2
              What's the point? To deliberately worsen the capabilities of reconnaissance and target designation systems for the sake of an unlikely opportunity to kill an entire baboon with a gun ...
              1. voyaka uh
                voyaka uh April 14 2016 16: 29
                +6
                "opportunities to kill a whole baboon with a machine gun ..." ///

                What are you talking about, what baboons?
                To disable an air defense radar at the cost of ... a lot of dollars
                quite accurate UAV strike with 500 g (grenade)
                explosives in a plastic case.
                Half a kilo will not reduce intelligence capabilities
                apparatus, but its shock capabilities will become deadly
                and perhaps turn the tide of an entire military operation.
  5. Adik89
    Adik89 April 14 2016 08: 32
    0
    For subtle UAVs, develop a 50 mm gun, with a high-explosive, adjustable projectile with a laser guidance head. Surely such a development is already underway. Corrected and landmine necessarily hook.
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov April 14 2016 08: 59
      +3
      Has already. The Italians, Oto Melara did. Sub-caliber HE-guided projectile.
      For ship gun mounts, and here for this:

      1. ICT
        ICT April 14 2016 11: 27
        +3
        touches a plate with a ban photo wassat
        1. Come on
          Come on April 15 2016 02: 57
          0
          Why? Think you can ignore it?
    2. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I April 14 2016 11: 56
      +1
      A cannon? belay And why do you not like the "racket"? what Ali planning ammunition? request .. What overweight in the form of a barrel ?! No.
      1. Lopatov
        Lopatov April 14 2016 12: 01
        0
        A rocket is more expensive than a shell. It was, is and will be.
    3. Maki Avellevich
      Maki Avellevich April 14 2016 12: 39
      0
      Adik89
      For subtle UAVs develop a 50 mm gun


      The 50 mm cannon is unlikely to be hung on an "inconspicuous" UAV.
      the gun also has recoil ...
      1. Cat man null
        Cat man null April 14 2016 12: 58
        +1
        Quote: Maki Avellevich
        Quote: Adik89

        For subtle UAVs develop a 50 mm gun

        The 50 mm cannon is unlikely to be hung on an "inconspicuous" UAV.
        the gun also has recoil ...

        - this is not a cannon for "hanging on a UAV"
        - it's not a "UAV gun" at all
        is a "gun from (against) a UAV" laughing
        1. Maki Avellevich
          Maki Avellevich April 14 2016 16: 01
          0
          Cat man null
          - this is not a cannon for "hanging on a UAV"
          - it's not a "UAV gun" at all
          - this is a "gun from (against) the UAV" laughing


          Ahhh ... in this sense, then sorry.
  6. Lopatov
    Lopatov April 14 2016 09: 16
    +3
    Here it is immediately necessary to clarify one fundamental question.
    There are two branches of the development of anti-UAV weapons, conventionally "Military" and "Civil"

    On the one hand, "civilian" is severely limited by the amount of possible collateral damage. Nobody will let you shoot drones over the city with anti-aircraft missiles.
    Therefore, these are various kinds of systems for suppressing the radio channel and the signal of the ZhPS, these are fired networks, these are, after all, hunting birds. And there is no need to laugh at their imaginary "inefficiency", in conditions of severe restrictions it is quite high. In addition, such complexes are opposed by civilian UAVs with greatly reduced functionality.



    "Military" has no such restrictions. But the system has to work against much more "advanced" UAVs. In addition, capable of "snap back"

  7. yehat
    yehat April 14 2016 09: 25
    +1
    guided missiles - not a complete solution to the problem
    because the drone is barely noticeable enough for quick detection
    and a full infrastructure against this junk is too expensive to deploy.
    in general, the problem of intercepting drones remains ...
    the locust project ... let's compare the Israelis' defense against missile attacks. It is many times more expensive
    than what they defend against. Efficiency is in question.
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov April 14 2016 09: 41
      +3
      Quote: yehat
      guided missiles - not a complete solution to the problem
      because the drone is barely noticeable enough for quick detection
      and a full infrastructure against this junk is too expensive to deploy.

      Firstly, for systems that can accurately detect the trajectory of 81-mm mines on the ascending branch of the trajectory, the drone notch is not a problem at all.
      Secondly, the defeat of UAVs is just one of the tasks of such systems. The main one is the defeat of precision munitions.


      Quote: yehat
      let’s compare the Israel’s defense system against rocket attacks. It is many times more expensive than what it is being protected from. Efficiency is in question.

      Hehe ...
      Template error.
      Here it is necessary to take into account not "the cost of what it protects", but the cost of the protected object.
      Or do you think it is cheaper to let a rocket get into a residential high-rise building?
      1. yehat
        yehat April 14 2016 12: 25
        -2
        2 conditions must be fulfilled - and not allowed to get in and be at least not more expensive
        simply, it happens that the tool depends on the method and the method is poorly selected
        for example, it is possible that it is much cheaper for the Israelis to kill "missilemen" with snipers than to be on duty with domes on missiles that have already been fired.
        it’s the same with drones - you can blind them to cameras, clog control channels, maybe train a waron or do something else,
        so that the neutralization tool is no more expensive than the drone itself.
      2. sa-ag
        sa-ag April 14 2016 12: 34
        0
        Quote: Spade
        Firstly, for systems that can accurately detect the trajectory of 81-mm mines on the ascending branch of the trajectory, the drone notch is not a problem at all.

        Mina, she reflects the radio signal well, who said that with the drone it will be the same? Its body can be made in such a way that it will perfectly absorb them, then its detection will be possible at the last moment, for both
        1. Lopatov
          Lopatov April 14 2016 14: 31
          +1
          Quote: sa-ag
          Mina she reflects the radio signal well

          Yeah 8))) Moreover, it is so large that it’s easier to find it in an airplane 8)))


          Quote: sa-ag
          Its body can be designed to absorb them perfectly.

          The main thing is to make the drone not move 8)))
          An old Soviet Zoo-1 mortar detects a mortar at a distance of 20 km. If you keep the UAV at about the same distance from the enemy, this should also help.
  8. Error
    Error April 14 2016 09: 37
    0
    All methods are acceptable but you can seriously catch the net !!! We damn what century we live! In my opinion, intercepting a signal and landing on its territory is really a cool thing and you have no costs
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov April 14 2016 09: 47
      +2
      Quote: Error
      All methods are acceptable but you can seriously catch the net !!! We damn what century we live! In my opinion, intercepting a signal and landing on its territory is really a cool thing and you have no costs

      No cost? After an uncontrolled drone dropping to the ground? Well, maybe it’s lucky, a falling UAV may not fly into the head of a passerby, will not create an emergency on the road, will not break through the roof of the house or scratch an expensive car.
      But developers of systems with a network for luck do not expect.
      1. sa-ag
        sa-ag April 14 2016 12: 40
        0
        Quote: Spade
        After an uncontrolled drone dropping to the ground?

        There is no uncontrollable flopping there, just a programmed check for the condition "if the signal == 0, then landing on the ground" is quite manageable, so if there is a parallel inertial control system, and GPS, only for correction, then you at least jam the channel, it won't help, the task will be performed according to the program
        1. Lopatov
          Lopatov April 14 2016 14: 33
          0
          Quote: sa-ag
          There is no uncontrollable flopping there, just a programmed check for the condition "if the signal == 0, then landing on the ground", quite manageable

          Does the robot suddenly turn on, able to evaluate the landing site?
    2. Alex_59
      Alex_59 April 14 2016 11: 37
      0
      Quote: Error
      In my opinion, signal interception and landing on its territory

      Very, very difficult task. So far, no one has successfully solved it.
  9. Operator
    Operator April 14 2016 09: 48
    +1
    Artillery and machine-gun anti-aircraft installations are not suitable for dealing with low-flying UAVs - they are too small objects. A high-flying UAVs are located outside the effective fire zone 12,7 - 57 mm anti-aircraft guns.

    To shoot down the detected drone is not a problem - the air defense has at its disposal a large number of guided missiles, including small-sized ones, which are sharpened to intercept shells and mines. The problem is in detecting the drone - if in the rear conditions you can use 3D radars, then in front-line conditions it is necessary to use non-radiating means of detection. Otherwise, the radar will become the target for anti-radar ammunition.

    The miniaturization of avionics and thermal imagers allows us to bring the linear dimensions of drones to the size of birds. The electromagnetic visibility of drones in the form of a radio communication channel with the operator is currently practically solved with the help of drones-repeaters, directional antennas and autonomous flight according to a given program. Acoustic visibility of drones tends to zero when using batteries with a larger capacity. There remains optical visibility, which is significantly reduced due to the miniaturization of drones, but cannot be reduced to zero, since the drone conducts reconnaissance precisely in the optical range.

    However, on the basis of this article, we can conclude that self-contained optical systems for detecting drones are absent as a class. It is a question of survey optical systems, and not of recognition cameras aimed at a drone already detected by the radar.

    Therefore, we can say that small reconnaissance drones with low electromagnetic and acoustic signature in combat conditions will be practically invulnerable.
    1. ICT
      ICT April 14 2016 10: 01
      0
      Quote: Operator
      noticeability in combat conditions will be practically invulnerable.

      they’re cheap and even if they’ll be knocked down, they have already fulfilled their role,
      since the information went to the headquarters (well, or to the battery)
    2. Lopatov
      Lopatov April 14 2016 11: 58
      0
      Quote: Operator
      Artillery and machine-gun anti-aircraft installations are not suitable for dealing with low-flying UAVs - they are too small objects.

      Is not a fact. In total, the problem is to accurately preempt


      Quote: Operator
      The problem is in detecting the drone - if in the rear conditions you can use 3D radars, then in front-line conditions it is necessary to use non-radiating means of detection. Otherwise, the radar will become the target for anti-radar ammunition.

      A "anti-radar" can not be shot down? Or otherwise defend against them ... Starting from a banal shutdown and ending with a virtual change in the coordinates of the emitter.


      Quote: Operator
      However, on the basis of this article, we can conclude that self-contained optical systems for detecting drones are absent as a class. It is a question of survey optical systems, and not of recognition cameras aimed at a drone already detected by the radar.

      But what about the Phoenix optical-electronic reconnaissance station, What about the Sosna air defense system? There is a huge difference between "No" and "not covered in this part of the article", isn't it?
      1. Operator
        Operator April 14 2016 12: 24
        -1
        Anti-aircraft guns can only hit straightly flying targets. Any snake takes anti-aircraft guns out of the game.

        You cannot protect yourself from advanced anti-radar ammunition - the ammunition detects a radiation source, remembers its coordinates and is already pointed at them. Therefore, all sorts of false sources of radiation will not fail.

        I kind of hint that in the first part of the article optical means for detecting aerial targets such as the Phoenix circular optical viewing station (OECCO) are not mentioned. You can wish the author to mention them in the second part.

        The Sosna air defense system in autonomous mode is not suitable for dealing with small-sized UAVs - it works in a narrow search sector and in the presence of external target designation.
        1. Lopatov
          Lopatov April 14 2016 15: 09
          0
          Quote: Operator
          Anti-aircraft guns can only hit straightly flying targets. Any snake takes anti-aircraft guns out of the game.

          "Snake" will only slightly complicate the destruction of the aircraft. Well, they will shoot down not from the first, but from the second or third stage, does this have a special meaning?

          Quote: Operator
          You cannot protect yourself from advanced anti-radar ammunition - the ammunition detects a radiation source, remembers its coordinates and is already pointed at them. Therefore, all sorts of false sources of radiation will not fail.

          You have not read it carefully. And remember the coordinates, and hit the PRR will be an empty place. Example- KRTZ-125-2M

          Quote: Operator
          The Sosna air defense system in autonomous mode is not suitable for dealing with small-sized UAVs - it works in a narrow search sector and in the presence of external target designation.

          It depends on what to compare with ... 60 degrees may be a "narrow sector" in comparison with "Phoenix", but considering that the complex is by no means "one warrior in the field", this is quite enough.
          1. Operator
            Operator April 14 2016 16: 51
            -1
            A small drone flying at an altitude of 1 km and changing direction at random times can only be accessed from anti-aircraft guns by accident.

            The complex of protection against anti-radar missiles KRTZ-125-2М is based on the formation of a circle with a diameter of 350 meters from one radar and several false sources of quasi-signal radar. This is an inefficient technology - during the war in Yugoslavia, a similar system was turned on after the radar was turned off, otherwise the radar was suppressed by its own interference (if they coincided) or the GOS of the anti-radar missiles were detached from the sources of false signals (if they were different).

            Yet 60 degrees for Pine is not 360 degrees for Phoenix. What is the difficulty in installing a Su-35S optical location station or any advanced drone on the SAM chassis?
  10. Operator
    Operator April 14 2016 10: 25
    0
    How cheap are reconnaissance UAVs used in battalion / battalion and battery / company units is a separate issue.

    In any case, the survival of drones in the front line due to the maximum reduction in their visibility in the electromagnetic, acoustic and optical ranges should be welcomed.
  11. igor67
    igor67 April 14 2016 11: 20
    0
    Iranians today announced the adoption of UAV
  12. avg-mgn
    avg-mgn April 14 2016 11: 57
    0
    Quote: Error
    All methods are acceptable but you can seriously catch the net !!! We damn what century we live! In my opinion, intercepting a signal and landing on its territory is really a cool thing and you have no costs

    To deal with scouts, perhaps, but difficult, although solvable. And what about the drummers, who can go on target without a radio channel. The main thing to detect and escort to the moment of destruction.
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov April 14 2016 12: 04
      +1
      Quote: avg-mgn
      And what about the drummers

      Shoot down like ordinary aircraft. They are large by default.

      Well, the grid, I repeat again, for use in peacetime. In conditions where the fall of the drone can cause collateral damage. For example, in a city.
    2. Operator
      Operator April 14 2016 12: 33
      -1
      Strike drones are multiples of scout drones. For example, the Israeli kamikaze drone Harop has the dimensions of a Zaporozhets.

      Reusable impact drones carrying bombs and rockets on an external sling are even larger. Because of their high visibility, they are used only in conflicts with a weak, suppressed or absent air defense system.
  13. Verdun
    Verdun April 14 2016 11: 59
    0
    It is quite obvious that the drone-intercept competition is only gaining momentum. And you shouldn't idealize drones. Small ones, remotely controlled, are intercepted quite easily by blocking the control signal. The larger ones are more difficult. However, shielding control systems is troublesome. Even on the first series of Tornado fighters there were losses due to malfunctioning of control systems when approaching powerful HF transmitters. As for attack drones carrying weapons, then for air defense there is not much difference, who to shoot down - them, cruise missiles or aircraft.
  14. 31rus2
    31rus2 April 14 2016 16: 14
    0
    Dear, it’s not said about laser systems, radars and optoelectronic systems on balloons (by the way, how to bring balloons with a grid, let's say along the perimeter of a nuclear power plant, with a small cell, UAV and CR will not fly by), on important objects in general on an ongoing basis powerful jammers should work, I think it will be in the following parts
  15. 31rus2
    31rus2 April 14 2016 17: 15
    0
    I can still offer balloons in large quantities
  16. fsb_buzuk
    fsb_buzuk 17 June 2016 09: 52
    0
    Derivation (BMP with 57mm) isn't it done against drones?