Military Review

Lessons from the Opium Wars for China and Russia

29
During the three centuries of the world drug trade, gold has always played a prominent role as a means of calculation in the drug market. Moreover, at a time when the world drug trade was only evolving, the main purpose of the potions merchants was to get the "yellow metal". The active imposition of drugs on China by the British East India Company and other British merchants was dictated by their desire to acquire the untold gold reserves that China had been accumulating for centuries.




The accumulation took place due to the fact that Chinese merchants brought silk, porcelain, spices, and other Eastern exoticism to Europe, receiving silver and gold money for this. At the same time, imports of goods by China remained much smaller. The active trade balance contributed to the increase in stocks of precious metals in China. Two "opium wars" unleashed by England (with the participation of France in the second war) were called upon to return the once-lost gold. Having planted many millions of Chinese "on the needle", the UK provided such a supply of precious metal, which allowed to introduce the gold standard - first in the UK itself, and then impose it on the whole of Europe. In the nineteenth century, the Rothschilds (first of all, the N.M. Rothschild Bank in London) were behind all these narco-gold projects. It is noteworthy that even today serious researchers are inclined to assert that the current Rothschild clan primarily specializes in such goods as gold and drugs.

Lessons from the Opium Wars for China and Russia


Hong Kong is one of the markets where it is customary to pay for the supply of drugs. Dollar bills there do not trust. It is now one of the world's largest opium and gold markets. This is what John Coleman writes in his book. Moreover, he believes that the price of gold in this market is derived from the prices of opium.

“I did extensive research,” says J. Coleman, “in order to establish a link between gold prices and opium prices. I used to say to those who wanted to listen to me: "If you want to know the price of gold, find out what the price of one pound or kilogram of opium is in Hong Kong."
In his book, J. Coleman reports that socialist China, which carries out these operations through Hong Kong, has a large income from the opium trade. The resulting gold from this trade accumulates in stocks that are not reflected by official statistics. According to J. Coleman and some other researchers, China, thanks to drug operations, is now one of the first in terms of the reserves of the "yellow metal". J. Coleman gives the following case as an example:

“Look at what happened in 1977, the critical year for gold prices. The Bank of China shocked forecasters by suddenly and without warning throwing tons of gold into the 80 market at dumping prices. As a result, the price of gold has plummeted. Experts wondered where so much gold came from in China. It was gold paid to China in the Hong Kong gold market for large quantities of opium. ”

Now, in some drug markets, gold is used not just as a means of exchange (settlement), but also as a measure of value - to reduce the risks of fluctuations in the purchasing power of official money. In particular, in Afghanistan. Andrey Devyatov writes:

"The payments for the supply of opium are not carried out in the“ zeros ”of paper money, but in the accounting units of precious metals (for the USA - in ounces, for China - in laans), and the payment is accepted not only by products and consumer goods, but also weapons»[A.P. Nine. On the scale of the world war on drugs // Journal "Samizdat" (Internet)].

In some moments stories in individual countries, what was not described in any textbook on money happened: the place of gold as a universal equivalent was replaced by drugs. As such, the drugs received the name "white gold", "narcotic gold" or "cocaine gold". Some researchers have noticed that “white gold” especially confidently took the place of “yellow” at those moments when the official gold standard collapsed, and paper money depreciated. It first happened after World War I and the collapse of the temporarily restored gold standard in 1930, the second time after the collapse of the gold standard in 1971 (Washington’s refusal to exchange dollars for precious metal).

The Celestial Empire is currently actively consolidating enterprises for the extraction of so-called rare-earth metals (REM), state control over the industry is increasing, large investments are being made to create "production chains" for the deep processing of metals. Finally, funds from the state foreign exchange reserves are generously allocated for the purchase of foreign RKZ deposits. By the way, according to some foreign analysts, China is already in the 2015 year able to become a net importer of rare-earth metals. China clearly does not want to play the role of a raw materials appendage of the western "civilization". All this threatens to escalate the usual “trade dispute” into a trade war. The tough stance of China can be understood: the story of metals has gone beyond the banal fights about the level of duties or government subsidies and is a poorly camouflaged attempt by the West to bring under its control mineral deposits in the Middle Kingdom. Arrogance, reminiscent of the requirements of London to Beijing on the eve of the "opium wars."



Let me remind you that the “opium wars” were carried out in order to achieve the “opening” of China’s domestic market for the supply of opium from Bengal by British merchants and siphoning silver, gold, tea, cotton, porcelain and silk from the country (of course, the main and final beneficiary of this trade remained the British crown). The first war (1840 – 1842) ended with the Nanking Treaty. The contract provided for the payment by the Qing Empire of contributions in the amount of 15 million silver lian (approximately 21 million dollars at the then exchange rate — huge money), the transfer of Hong Kong to the UK and the opening of Chinese ports for English trade. The English Crown received a giant source of income through the sale of opium. The first “opium war” marked the beginning of a long period of weakening of the state and civil unrest in the Qing Empire, which led to the enslavement of the country by the European powers and the forced drug addiction of the population. So, in 1842, the population of the empire was 416 million people, of which 2 million drug addicts, in 1881 year - 369 million people, of which 120 million - drug addicts.

The second war (1858 – 1860) with the participation of Britain and France ended with the signing of the Beijing Treaty, in which the Qing government agreed to pay Britain and France 8 million indemnities, open Tianjin for foreign trade, allow Chinese to be used as coolies (slave workers) in colonies of Great Britain and France.



Many Chinese are well aware of the events and consequences of the "opium wars"; their behavior in the 21st century is to a certain extent related to this memory. On the one hand, this memory gives rise to their fear and desire not to irritate the “barbarians” (as the Chinese called the English conquerors in the 19th century). On the other hand, the same memory forces them to exert all their strength in order to become a strong country capable of repelling military encroachments on the part of the “barbarians”. The Chinese understand well: trade disputes can escalate into trade wars, and trade wars - into real “hot” wars.

But back to modern China and the imminent trade war. It is able to enter the annals of world history as a "metallic war" (by analogy with the "opium wars"). This information is undoubtedly important for understanding why we were so persistently pulled into the WTO. And to understand how the WTO, fulfilling the requirements of its main "shareholders" (Western countries), will act in relation to Russia, including using the tools inherent in this organization.

Already, Russia is the world's largest supplier of natural gas and oil to the world market. It ranks first in terms of reserves of natural gas, many non-ferrous metals, platinum, apatites and other raw materials. Russia and so prohibitively exports a lot of natural resources. For example, 50% of “black gold” production, 25% of natural gas, up to 100% (in some years) of gold and some metals from the platinum group, etc. go to the foreign market. Internal needs are met on a “residual basis”. There is a pronounced priority of the needs of TNCs over the needs of the national economy.



If the authorities of the country suddenly wish to develop oil refining in the form of petroleum products, they will have to reduce the supply of crude oil to the world market. This is what the West fears. He will do everything possible to ensure that Russia continues to remain a raw material appendage of the “golden billion”. For this, the WTO was required with its “rules”. Any member of the WTO at any time can be accused of the following "crimes":

a) limiting the export of resources;

b) attempts to increase the prices of resources on the world market through the reduction of their supplies;

c) thereby causing damage to transnational corporations through “restricting access” to resources.

From Russia (as well as from another power) they can recover compensation for damage caused to transnational corporations and demand the restoration of “free access” to resources.

How can you not remember the punitive actions of England against China during the "opium wars". At the beginning of the XXI century a similar story may occur. True, instead of China there will be Russia, instead of England - the USA. And the war will be called "oil", "gas" or "gold." Her symptoms can already be seen in international politics.
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29 comments
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  1. Good cat
    Good cat April 16 2016 06: 49
    +9
    We don’t give a damn about the WTO, and we will be happy!
    1. chunga-changa
      chunga-changa April 16 2016 09: 50
      -1
      You cannot leave the WTO yourself, you can only achieve that the "adult uncles" themselves kicked out, when everything is cleaned up and taken out.
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. iouris
        iouris April 16 2016 11: 40
        0
        You carefully read the article. Especially at the end.
    2. iouris
      iouris April 16 2016 11: 39
      0
      Do not spit: fly out - you will not catch.
  2. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid April 16 2016 07: 50
    +4
    Below the picture it is written: "if the authorities of the country suddenly want to ..." SUDDENLY --- a key word that is not very hard to believe. In order for this to "suddenly" begin to implement, soooo preconditions must be.
    I am interested in the article on the topic of the Opium Wars, about which the school somehow did not understand the theme of the East in general.
  3. avg-mgn
    avg-mgn April 16 2016 07: 50
    -7
    Quote: Good cat
    We don’t give a damn about the WTO, and we will be happy!

    Passed already in the time of Khrushchev. The whole world is out of step, only the USSR knew what, how much and to whom. Belief in its exclusivity, in this case, will lead to nothing good except financial costs. Desire is certainly not harmful, but it is necessary to reckon with realities.
    1. rkkasa xnumx
      rkkasa xnumx April 16 2016 10: 19
      +6
      Quote: avg-mgn
      Passed already in the time of Khrushchev. The whole world is out of step, only the USSR knew what, how much and to whom. Belief in its exclusivity, in this case, will not lead to anything good except financial costs

      1 "The whole world" - just not in step and goes. Each country has its own interests, historical experience, mentality of citizens, its own ways of movement. And what suits one country may not suit another. There is nothing strange about this.

      2 And why in the days of Khrushchev? The USSR went all its history in a slightly different way than the Western world. And it seemed to work out quite well.
      1. zennon
        zennon April 16 2016 12: 49
        +5
        Quote: rkkasa 81
        And it seemed to work out quite well.

        People stood by the hour for bread! It was with the gravel that the general drunkenness began. With it, the lagging behind in labor productivity and the quality of manufactured products began to grow rapidly. Its idiotic decisions primarily in agriculture predetermined the growing lag in people's living standards. During it, the USSR began to purchase bread !
        1. rkkasa xnumx
          rkkasa xnumx April 16 2016 13: 27
          -1
          Quote: zennon
          stood for an hour by bread

          Quote: zennon
          general drunkenness

          Quote: zennon
          lag in labor productivity and product quality

          Sorry, but why this listing of Khrushchev's sins? request
          In my kament, it was about something else.
          1. zennon
            zennon April 16 2016 17: 46
            +1
            Quote: rkkasa 81
            Sorry, but why this listing of Khrushchev's sins?
            In my kament, it was about something else.

            This is in response to:
            And it seemed to work out quite well.

            An objective criterion for the success of a course is the quality of life of people.
  4. aszzz888
    aszzz888 April 16 2016 08: 02
    +1
    The active imposition of drugs on China by the British East India Company and other English merchants was dictated by their desire to get countless gold reserves,

    Angles everywhere started and play their playful pens. For all their deeds - to tear them to the very shoulders and say that it was! laughing
  5. Спартак
    Спартак April 16 2016 08: 51
    +2
    We are sitting here on the forums barking because of Ukraine and their Euro-association, and the fact that Dima and Vovka dragged us into the WTO do not even remember
    1. Revolver
      Revolver April 16 2016 09: 54
      0
      Quote: Spartak
      dimka with vovka

      It is somehow doubtful that you drank with them.
      Therefore, for you they are Dmitry Anatolyevich and Vladimir Vladimirovich, and not otherwise.
  6. zoknyay82
    zoknyay82 April 16 2016 09: 13
    +1
    ... "Russia (as well as from another power) can recover compensation for damage caused to transnational corporations, and demand the restoration of" free access "to resources." ...
    There will soon be no levers in the form of "sanctions", they will introduce everything they can, and a military solution ... well. In a word, a donut hole for them, not compensation. :-)
  7. Borus017
    Borus017 April 16 2016 09: 39
    +1
    That is, historically, England squeezed gold and colonial goods from China for "powder", backing up financial instruments with military superiority.
    - England (both France and the States) did this in life, in general - sell more expensive (glass beads) and take cheaper (gold). You can take it - take it. Nothing new.
    The current Chinese have reduced / eliminated the factor of military superiority, are economically strong enough and strive to "take over" REM as necessary resource for your industry.
    - Of course, many do not like independent China. So what? The focus of modern China - in my opinion - is unchanged in the historical perspective. China considered itself the Center of the world both in the 16th and 19th centuries and now - at the same time it did not seek to cover the whole world (why? And so it is the center!), Focusing its military and political activity around its borders and using force only against the obviously weakest enemy. That is - strong regional power.

    Russia as a "raw material colony of the West" is only partly true. Considering the industrial and military potential - "opium wars" against us are extremely unlikely. There are certainly some lousy tendencies, but while they are still local (within my knowledge). And the WTO, in my opinion, is the lesser of the problems - the harm was done in 2011-14.
    - Are they buying us for beads? Right. For iPhones, cheese, spas and cut paper. But this is not news. So since the 90s adopted.
    The analogy with the "opium wars" is, in my opinion, weak.
    1. Cat man null
      Cat man null April 17 2016 11: 54
      0
      Quote: Borus017
      Of course, there are some trashy tendencies, but while they are still local (within my knowledge). And the WTO, in my opinion, is the lesser problem - the harm was done in 2011-14.

      - what exactly is for the harm (2011-2014) You mean, decrypt, if possible ..
  8. Revolver
    Revolver April 16 2016 09: 50
    +3
    Frankly speaking, the article does not shine.
    Firstly, it was not about gold, but about silver. The then Chinese emperor, under the pretext of protecting local producers, forbade selling anything to foreigners (primarily the Britons) in exchange for anything other than silver. They didn’t even take gold. Those. actually closed the market for all European goods, what is now called protectionism and is considered an illegal tool in foreign trade. And at that time, China had a monopoly on tea and silk, which were in great demand in Europe, plus Chinese porcelain was valued, deservedly or not, above any European, including now famous Meissen. Silver in Europe, including colonies, mined a little.
    At that time, opium was considered not a fool, but a valuable medicine (opiates are still such today, if not abused). But then - even much later, in 1898, the German company BEYER (yes, the one that invented and patented aspirin, and in the same year) patented heroin (the same opium, but of a high degree of purification), it was sold without a prescription, and was recommended, in particular, to pregnant women as a light sleeping pill and soothing, which does not make you sick in the morning. Unfortunately, the addicts quickly figured out that in doses exceeding the therapeutic ones, he was good at sticking, and the sale had to be stopped.
    So the war was not a conspiracy to fool the Chinese, but purely in defense of freedom of trade. And opium was just a convenient commodity, because traditionally, since pre-colonial times, it was mass-produced next to China, in the British colonies of India and Indochina, light, compact, expensive, and in great demand in China. And the fact that the Chinese shamefully blew the war — it was not so with spears, wooden (!!!) cannons, and sailing junks to meddle against steam ships, rifled breech-loading artillery, and infantry with breech-loading rifles.
    1. zennon
      zennon April 16 2016 12: 59
      +3
      Quote: Nagan
      At that time, opium was considered not a fool, but a valuable medicine (opiates are still such today, if not abused). But then - even much later, in 1898, the German company BEYER (yes, the one that invented and patented aspirin, moreover, in the same year) patented heroin (the same opium, but highly purified), it was sold without prescription, and was recommended, in particular, to pregnant women as a light sleeping pill and sedative, which does not make you sick in the morning.

      I will add that 100 years ago, German cocaine was sold in pharmacies. Such beakers are stuffed with cotton wool. It was positioned as a remedy for headaches. By the way, it is. The headache presses at once! Well, then all the same consequences. Cocainists, all this bohemia of silver century smelled it "off the nail." Opiates really were not considered something reprehensible. Remember, in "Sherlock Holmes" Watson was looking for his friend in an opium smoker in London, and Holmes himself in some story makes himself an injection of heroin with the words - "Cheers and clarifies the mind "?
    2. King
      King April 16 2016 13: 07
      -4
      Let's better pour how you drank with DAM ...
  9. demiurg
    demiurg April 16 2016 15: 43
    +2
    Quote: Nagan
    Frankly speaking, the article does not shine.
    Firstly, it was not about gold, but about silver. The then Chinese emperor, under the pretext of protecting local producers, forbade selling anything to foreigners (primarily the Britons) in exchange for anything other than silver. They didn’t even take gold. Those. actually closed the market for all European goods, what is now called protectionism and is considered an illegal tool in foreign trade. And at that time, China had a monopoly on tea and silk, which were in great demand in Europe, plus Chinese porcelain was valued, deservedly or not, above any European, including now famous Meissen. Silver in Europe, including colonies, mined a little.
    At that time, opium was considered not a fool, but a valuable medicine (opiates are still such today, if not abused). But then - even much later, in 1898, the German company BEYER (yes, the one that invented and patented aspirin, and in the same year) patented heroin (the same opium, but of a high degree of purification), it was sold without a prescription, and was recommended, in particular, to pregnant women as a light sleeping pill and soothing, which does not make you sick in the morning. Unfortunately, the addicts quickly figured out that in doses exceeding the therapeutic ones, he was good at sticking, and the sale had to be stopped.
    So the war was not a conspiracy to fool the Chinese, but purely in defense of freedom of trade. And opium was just a convenient commodity, because traditionally, since pre-colonial times, it was mass-produced next to China, in the British colonies of India and Indochina, light, compact, expensive, and in great demand in China. And the fact that the Chinese shamefully blew the war — it was not so with spears, wooden (!!!) cannons, and sailing junks to meddle against steam ships, rifled breech-loading artillery, and infantry with breech-loading rifles.


    Take a look at wiki

    By the XNUMXth century, however, a product that could interest China was found. It was about opium.
    Despite the complete ban on the trade and use of opium in China (imperial decrees of 1729 and 1799), starting in 1773, the British East India Company acquired a monopoly on the purchase of Bengal opium. In 1775, it illegally, but very profitably for itself, sells 1,4 tons of opium in China. By 1830, opium sales will reach 1500 tons. Despite the absolute illegality of this trade, it receives the full support of the British government, whose goal - a positive trade balance with China - was achieved in 1833.


    Is smuggling okay? Moreover, the Chinese government was well aware of the threat of total drug addiction. Therefore, the hunweibins destroyed the urban population, they killed the nariks. Intelligence with an opium tube in his hand. So what about the medicine, this is to Europe. Opiates in Afghanistan have been cultivated since the time of Macedon for medical purposes. But it was the wounded British who first realized that it was not only an anesthetic, but also a drug.
  10. avg-mgn
    avg-mgn April 16 2016 19: 00
    +2
    Quote: rkkasa 81
    1 "The whole world" - just not in step and goes. Each country has its own interests, historical experience, mentality of citizens, its own ways of movement. And what suits one country may not suit another. There is nothing strange about this.

    2 And ​​why in the days of Khrushchev? The USSR went all its history in a slightly different way than western world. And it seemed to work out quite well.

    Let me ask you a question, or rather two:
    1 How many paths you need to go can you offer?
    2 How many countries in the world continue to follow the path of the USSR and how many have refused (at least in the last 20-30 years)?
    Unfortunately, this is a separate topic for discussion, the winner in it is the one who lived at that time, and not the one who simply heard about the subject "History of the KPPSS", and then rants about the essence of the USSR (sorry).
  11. The Sparkle
    The Sparkle April 16 2016 19: 39
    +3
    It seems to me that an inaccuracy crept into the article - "(p.) ... For example, 50% of the extraction of" black gold ", 25% of natural gas, up to 100% (in some years) of gold and some metals from the platinum group and etc. Internal needs are met according to the "residual principle" ... "- like there was a decree banning the import of gold and now all the gold is being bought by the state. In addition, Russia buys gold on international exchanges)))
  12. avg-mgn
    avg-mgn April 16 2016 20: 48
    +2
    Quote: avg-mgn
    Quote: Good cat
    We don’t give a damn about the WTO, and we will be happy!

    Passed already in the time of Khrushchev. The whole world is out of step, only the USSR knew what, how much and to whom. Belief in its exclusivity, in this case, will lead to nothing good except financial costs. Desire is certainly not harmful, but it is necessary to reckon with realities.


    This is how many children born around the 63 year are here, ask your mother how much bread she was given on the card in 63-64, (I ask Moscow to ask for silence from Leningrad) and what did you see besides your mother’s boobs? Well, forgive me, the child only has a mother in her memory. But you ask, she will tell ...
  13. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid April 17 2016 05: 32
    +1
    Somehow I did not understand, about the 63rd? What kind of children are they? And here’s what they told me: in 1964, my mother was in the village of the Kaluga Region for the summer. They brought bread 2 times a week and gave several black loaves in one hand. From 4 in the morning they took a turn. They together 3 sisters stood, at 7 in the morning they opened. There were children and old people, and adults were coming closer to the window.
  14. avg-mgn
    avg-mgn April 17 2016 06: 50
    +1
    Quote: Reptiloid
    Somehow I did not understand about 63?

    In the 62 there was a poor harvest of grain on the virgin soil and were forced to buy bread abroad (for the first time in the history of Russia), but it did not help and in the 63 they introduced a coupon and card system for bread, pasta, dairy products and sugar. The meat really was, the cattle was cut - there was nothing to feed.
  15. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin April 19 2016 02: 16
    +2
    Quote: Nagan
    And at that time, China had a monopoly on tea and silk, which were in great demand in Europe, plus Chinese porcelain was valued, deservedly or not, above any European, including now famous Meissen. Silver in Europe, including colonies, mined a little.
    Sorry, but you are wrong. Tea has long been grown wherever possible - in the same India and Ceylon.

    Porcelain was also supplied by Korea and Japan. So the "monopoly" of China in tea and porcelain was very conditional, basically it was possible to talk about silk. China was primarily interested in AS A GIANT SALES MARKET.

    Quote: Nagan
    At that time, opium was considered not a fool, but a valuable medicine (opiates are still such today, if not abused).

    But in China, it was supplied exactly as a drug. There is a very important point - it turned out that the white European population is more resistant to opiates than the yellow race. And that’s it, it rolled - By the way, the sale of opium was also free in many countries of Europe before the First World War, as well as in China, but this did not constitute such a monstrous problem.

    In China, the use of opiates in various forms has become a national disaster precisely because of the monstrous degree of addiction among the indigenous population. Those. figuratively speaking, even the smallest amount of opium bought for very little money could "poke" a Chinese and make him a drug addict, while a European could show almost nothing at all. This was the whole horror of the situation.

    By the way, the Hindustan population also had a relatively greater resistance to opiates than the representatives of East Asian races. Moreover, in many regions of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, opium was considered and is considered a medicine (at the same time it was considered the most effective medicine against cholera - in which way, it is not clear, but it really helped!), And although it was used as a drug, it did not create terrifying problem.

    Quote: demiurg
    Therefore, the hunweibins destroyed the urban population, they killed the nariks. Intelligence with an opium tube in his hand.

    Sorry, but you probably DO NOT understand what you’re talking about. Or a supporter of Mao’s radical ideas and approve of genocide by professional affiliation.

    Quote: Flame
    like there was a decree banning the import of gold and
    It seems that there was no direct decree, there is a caveat - that it is possible to sell surplus production only after the state is purchased, and it usually buys everything. Well in general the difference in form. smile
  16. Cat man null
    Cat man null April 19 2016 02: 47
    0
    Zadolbali by the Chinese .. about porcelain - it is from the First century of the era in Kmtai .. in Europe - from the 18th .. Betgers are all different there, yeah ..

    Here it is - read it ... I have one tongue
  17. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid April 20 2016 04: 47
    0
    Quote: avg-mgn
    Quote: Reptiloid
    Somehow I did not understand about 63?

    In the 62 there was a poor harvest of grain on the virgin soil and were forced to buy bread abroad (for the first time in the history of Russia), but it did not help and in the 63 they introduced a coupon and card system for bread, pasta, dairy products and sugar. The meat really was, the cattle was cut - there was nothing to feed.

    It is interesting that many people do not want to remember the bad. Of our acquaintances --- "there was always a lot of everything." About the same stories of my mother, how they stood in queues. In Leningrad they came in 63-64 before the opening and the queue. people in the state said not to get ready. And my mother did not understand why they should be listened to. "He left, and we will." And it was necessary to take food to the village if the child was taken there.
    And the theme of the Opium Wars is eternal, timely, anyway.
  18. 2-0
    2-0 2 October 2016 14: 41
    0
    Bravo! Bravissimo! This is me to the British. Well this is necessary, without looking back at anyone, so put on the yellow ones - and not share with anyone. That's what caring for one’s own interests means.
    China then, even having nuclear weapons and a billion people - could not yap in the direction of Hong Kong.