97 years have passed since the Cossacks, now forgotten by the Upper-Don uprising of Cossacks, whose echoes still exist. Previously, any mention of this uprising was under strict prohibition. Some documents are still not declassified. Although popular rumor has long been learned to bypass all sorts of prohibitions, and yet that time, like weed grass on the field, gradually overgrown, goes into oblivion. And only the descendants of those Cossacks, to which I also rank myself, can restore the picture of what happened thanks to the stories of their great-grandfathers.
There was no analogue to the Cossacks in any camp of the world. The fate of the Cossacks is inextricably linked with the military glory of the state. History Cossacks with their roots almost all over the earth. More than one century passed before the free people of the southern steppes became the service estate of the Russian kingdom, and then of the Russian empire. The Cossacks participated in all the wars that led our country since the times of Tsar Ivan the Terrible, and at the same time served as a reliable border guard for the state.
They were raised in the steppes. The Cossack spirit is an existence in nature, brought up, inspired by will and glory. Cossack was born a warrior. On the fortieth day, at the same time as he was baptized in the church, the infant received the baptism of fire: the father brought a sword to his headboard and brought the child to the horse. Three-year-old children already rode freely on horseback through the yard, and five-year-olds were already galloping along the steppes and felt like a whole horse. They say that in their blood they kept the genetic code of the first Cossack Ilya of Murom.
13 Cossack troops were dispersed in the outskirts of the Russian Empire, and the largest was the Don.
They were the guardians of Russia. That is how the Russian writer Leo Tolstoy, who wrote in one of the most insightful books about the Cossacks: “The Border Bore the Cossacks”, defined their role. Freedom of the human soul, conjugate with the will of the state.
In terms of the Stolypin reform, there was a resettlement of people from regions with a high population density to free territories convenient for agriculture. This affected the area of the Don Cossacks.
In order to understand how Cossacks lived before the revolution, I visited the Morozovsky district of the Rostov region, which consists of parts of three districts of the Don region that were before the 1917 revolution. The yurt of the village of Taubevskaya belonged to the second district with its center in the village of Nizhne-Chirskaya. All this - Volgograd direction.
The Yurt Tsesarevichsky and Yanovsky parish were part of the Donetsk district with the center in the village of Kamenskoy. The village Chertkovskaya belonged to the first Don district. This sparsely populated area at the end of the 19th century on the outskirts of three districts revived with the opening of the Likhaya-Tsaritsyn railway in 1900.
The military circle 1909 of the year decided to allocate land to create new stanitsa yurts. The decision of the Land Council created four villages, including Taubevskaya (the city of Morozovsk) and Tsesarevichskaya (Volno-Donskaya). The names were assigned to them by order number 77 of 1911 year. The village of Tsesarevich (this difficult to pronounce word soon turned into a more acceptable one - Tsesarevskaya) was named after the heir to the throne (Tsesarevich), who was traditionally the chief of all Cossack troops. Taubevskaya - in honor of the ataman of the Army Don Don Baron FF. Taube, who atamanov in 1909-1911's.
In 1917, both villages were renamed: Morozovskaya and Volno-Donskaya respectively. On the lands of the newly created yurts, Cossacks moved from the old villages located along the banks of the Don and its tributaries, where the population density was high and there was a shortage of land. At the same time, plots for non-resident alien people were allocated on free lands. Thus were formed the General Farm, Spellboxes.
The territory of the Don Region was divided into military, Cossack (yurt), peasant and owned land. So, for example, the Cossack farms Lyubimov, Morozov, Ryazankin with their lands and population were assigned to the village of Esaulovskaya, located at the confluence of the Aksenets river to the Don, before 1910.
Territories compactly populated by non-Cossack people were united in townships with centers in the villages or suburbs. The military lands belonged directly to the Don Army and were used by the government to extract income to the treasury by leasing the land and for their own needs. An example of property land is the farm of Georgians, whose lands belonged to representatives of a noble Cossack family of Georgians.
According to the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary, in 1887, in the Don region there were 114 Cossack villages and 135 volosts. The newly formed farms, both Cossack and peasant, were allocated land from the territories belonging to the Army Government. True, none of the common people could sell or pass on their land, as it was allocated to them by the community for a certain period. But the landlords had the land in full ownership and could sell it, mortgage, lose.
Taubevskaya was inhabited mainly by immigrants from the banks of the Don, from the farmsteads and stanitsas located in the territory of the present Volgograd region, which at that time was part of the Don region. These are the villages of Sirotinskaya, Trekhostrovyanskaya on the territory of the present Ilovlensky district and Pyatiizbyanskaya, which is currently flooded by the Tsimlyansky reservoir. From it remained the farm Pyatiizbyansky Kalachovsky district. Also flooded and the former yurtovy village of the farms of Lyubimov and Morozov - Esaulovskaya. When relocating, wealthy Cossacks, who had houses made of wooden plates (thick boards), dismantled their houses, transported them and put them in a new place. But the majority built the so-called dugouts of clay and straw, covered with reeds, partially dug into the ground. The plots were about 45 acres, so that the distance between the houses was eight times more than now. The names of the streets were given by the name of the villages, of which there were immigrants, and in memory of the famous Cossacks: Yermakovskaya, Platovskaya, Pyatiizbyanskaya, Sirotinskaya, and also in honor of Orthodox holidays: Voskresenskaya, Pokrovskaya.
The church before the revolution served as a modern registry office. The village by status should have had its own church. And 18 on April 1912 of the year, at the stanitsa assembly, the Cossacks of Taubevskaya decided to build a temple. Troops Land Council on this goal was released thirty thousand rubles. For comparison: a new wooden house in the center of the village in 1911 was estimated at 850 rubles.
In addition, the Cossacks leased 500 tithes of land from the reserve for a period of five years so that the proceeds went to the construction of the stanitsa and old believe churches. The consecration of the first of them in honor of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary was held on 25 on April 1915. The temple operates in the present. Old Believers St. Nicholas Church is located on the corner of the Flame of Revolution and Kirov.
In May, 1913 was consecrated in honor of the Nativity of the Most Holy Mother of God and a new brick church in the Cossack village Chekalov. This temple now also operates and is a monument of architecture.
The agricultural lands allocated to the village were divided into plots that were redistributed among the Cossacks.
Streets Taubevskoy closely adjacent to the station railway houses, which were of the same type and are now easily guessed. For example, the second floor of the former building of the railway clinic is attached. Despite its age, all buildings are very well preserved. The railway park near the station had a high stage, where during the warm season, every evening a brass band played, and romances were performed accompanied by violins and cellos. The park was lit with carbide lights. Young people walked along clean, tamped paths.
From the station, the street went to the stanitsa square (Maidan), on which stood the stanitsa cathedral. On the approach to it from the east were the Cossack military barracks. Opposite them is the stanitsa government building, which is currently located on the territory of a military unit. Next to him was a commercial school.
By the decree of the troop congress of the Don Cossacks, decree No. 314 of 24 on April 1917 of the year, the village of Taubevskaya was renamed Morozovskaya.
In 1913, Emperor Nicholas II during the celebration of the 300 anniversary of the House of Romanov arrived in the summer in the city of Novocherkassk, visited the Alexander III cadet corps and the gymnasium. Here he was met according to the tradition with the orchestra. As the pupils recall it, the head of state said: “Hold on, learn, and strengthen yourself”. His words more than predicted the fate of many Cadets.
After all, then there was the First World War, the monstrous civil war, wandering around the white light. Among those who left the country was the 20-year-old Cossack with the surname Turover, which was very common in the Don.
Nikolai Nikolayevich became one of the most outstanding poets of the Russian emigration. He did not write a lot of poems, but his poetry was so penetrating and original, there was not a single fake note in it. It was all he suffered and transferred to paper. It was a rhymed tragedy of a Russian officer who survived the revolution and found himself in turmoil. The same fate befell many Cossacks. One of them was Chernetsov, who organized one of the first partisans on the Don. Nikolai Turoverov and his sixteen-year-old brother, the cadet Alexander, were in this detachment. It was their first choice - with whom to fight and for what. These were terrible years.
So, it all started with Lenin's notoriously famous directive on raskazachivaniyu, which was based on the main principle - the total destruction of this class, the bastion of the previous government.
The complete extermination of the combat-ready part of the Cossacks, the elimination of the economic base, the settling of the originally Cossack lands by people from small areas, mass terror and the violent destruction of national identity - this was the main task of the 1919 directive of the year. The press of that time wrote: “The Cossacks must be burned in the flames of a social revolution. Don needs to disarm, disarm and de-multiply. " With this evidence, ideological ground was prepared to justify the policy of terror and genocide against the Cossacks. And all because during the revolution 1917, the majority of the Cossacks opposed the Soviet government. They could not change the oath to the king.
Created over centuries of the tradition of martial arts, flourishing farms seemed to be put an end to. In two years, several million people were expelled from their native land. For the new government Cossacks posed the greatest danger.
Pockets of resistance arose throughout the region of the Don Cossacks. It was at this time that the notorious uprising began on the Upper Don in the area of the Vyoshenskaya-Kazanskaya-Migulinskaya stanitsa. For three months, the Cossacks, cut off by regular units of the Red Army from Novocherkass, in complete isolation, made incredible attempts to resist, which was doomed to failure.
The fate of the Cossacks was different. I did not think that Nikifor Petrovich Mescheryakov, a farmer, did not guess that fate would play a cruel joke with him. He lived like all farmers. Had a big farm. Six daughters gave him a wife Maryushka. In order to manage the farm, in the spring he always hired workers who went to Nikifor Petrovich eagerly, because he paid well and ate with the workers at the same table. During the expropriation, Nikifor Petrovich was arrested and sent to the prison of the city of Millerovo. There, he and the other prisoners were sentenced to death without any interrogation and charges. Unhappy, they tied up their hands with ropes, put them on a horse-drawn sleigh in two rows and took them out of town towards the Khominsky forests for execution. The driver and the two guards were drunk. Nikifor Petrovich was lying on the back of the same poor fellow. They helped untie each other's hands.
On one of the sloping slopes of the road near the bush Nikifor Petrovich fell from his sleigh and hid. Chase was not. He went towards the forest, came across the forester's hut, where he was warmed, fed and hid for several days. He showed up only to his wife, who fed him, hid him for a while, and then he disappeared.
How difficult it was for Maria Ivanovna to live with children, only God knows. Of the six children, three survived: Frosya, Fields, Anna. Grown up, went to work in the farm. Borrowed their families. Two daughters lived with their mother in their home, which they returned after the war. And in the 1958 year, one summer day, a man entered the courtyard. Slowly, looking around, climbed the familiar porch. It was the master of the house, Nikifor Petrovich, who had lived all those long years in a strange land under an assumed name. Entering the house, he fell on his knees in front of the images, he began to cry, thanks to God for the opportunity to see his family in his declining years. Maria Ivanovna recognized him, knelt down beside him and began to cry too.
“Forgive me, Maryushka, I did not willingly leave you and my children to grief,” he asked his wife.
“God is with you, Petrovich, I have no evil on you, the main thing is that you are alive, this is a great joy for me,” she replied through tears.