This interest manifests itself in various ways, including leading to the emergence of analytical publications. For example, 27 in March, the online publication Army Recognition published an article entitled "Analysis of the situation of Russian tanks and armored vehicles on the global arms market". From the title it is clear that the purpose of the article was to study the achievements of the Russian industry in the field of trade in armored vehicles of various classes and types.
At the beginning of their publication, foreign analysts recall the structure of the Russian production of armored vehicles. Currently, the construction of various armored vehicles of different classes is carried out by three organizations that carry out orders of the Russian Ministry of Defense and foreign countries. These are large corporations that include plants, research institutes and other organizations with different goals and objectives. For the construction of tanks and vehicles on their base, Uralvagonzavod Research and Production Corporation is now responsible. This organization offers potential customers from foreign countries the main T-90C and T-90MS tanks, modernization options for the existing T-72, BMPT and Terminator-2 tank support vehicles, the BMR-3M clearance vehicles and the BREM-1M evacuation vehicles.
The second manufacturer of armored vehicles in Russia is the concern Tractor Plants. The defense enterprises from this organization are building infantry fighting vehicles BMP-3, repair and evacuation vehicles BREM-L, as well as equipment for the airborne troops - BMD-4M and BTR-MDM. Also, the production of armored vehicles of various types are engaged in plants that are part of the Military Industrial Company. The military industrial complex builds and offers for ordering armored personnel carriers of the BTR-80 and BTR-82 families, BREM-K repair and recovery vehicles, as well as several variants of the Tiger armored car.
Current trends in the international arms market, the authors of the analysis point out, have been observed over the past one and a half decades. So, since 2001, there has been a steady increase in interest in the main Russian-made tanks. According to the Stockholm Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), in 2001-2015, the Russian industry sold 1416 T-90С tanks, which were supplied both as an assembly and in the form of sets of parts. In total, over a decade and a half, 2316 tanks have been sold in the world.
In addition to the sale of finished armored vehicles, the Russian industry organized a licensed assembly of equipment. The assembly of T-90C tanks from the supplied components was deployed in India and Algeria. It is noted that India is the largest foreign buyer and operator of T-90С tanks. For all the time, Indian troops received 947 tanks of this type, including the 761 machine, built on local plants from Russian assembly kits. As of the beginning of the current year, the Russian enterprise Uralvagonzavod should supply a significant number of new tanks to customers. Indian tank forces should get around 710 new cars.
Algeria received 315 T-90CA (“Algerian”) tanks, differing from the basic version with the letter “C” by the availability of an updated air-conditioning system. Of this number, 190 tanks were assembled by the Algerian industry from the sets of components supplied to it.
Also in recent years, deliveries were made to other countries, but they differed in much smaller volumes. By the beginning of 2016, the supply of X-NUMX T-100С tanks ordered by Azerbaijan was almost completed. In the 90-2009 years, ten tanks of this type were sold to Turkmenistan. In 12, the 2011 armored vehicles traveled to Uganda.
The authors of the analysis claim that the main tank T-90С and its modifications, as before, are in great demand from various potential customers. For example, at the Russian Arms Expo 2015 exhibition last year, representatives of several Arab states expressed their interest in the T-90C and T-90MS tanks. The reason for this interest, Army Recognition analysts, consider the recent events in the Middle East, namely the war in Yemen.
A coalition led by Saudi Arabia, launching an invasion of Yemen, soon identified the problems of the available technology. As it turned out in practice, the available armored vehicles, including tanks, cannot fully solve combat missions in desert and mountain-desert landscapes. Thus, according to some data, the troops of the United Arab Emirates during the fights empirically confirmed the high firepower of French-made AMX-56 Leclerc tanks, but revealed a number of technical problems that impede the full operation of this technology.
There are serious problems with the army of Saudi Arabia, operating the main tanks M1A2 Abrams American development and assembly. During the conflict, Arabian troops lost a certain number of such vehicles, and some of these losses were attributed to anti-tank missile systems of relatively old types. The enemy is not without success applies the Soviet complexes 9М111 "Fagot" and 9М113 "Competition", which, as it turned out, when used correctly, it is quite capable of striking modern tanks.
In such conditions, the Arab states are forced to look for alternatives to the existing equipment and therefore are interested in the Russian T-90MS, which is the newest version of the T-90С. During the modernization of the machine retains high performance and ease of use. At the same time, the new T-90MS has great advantages over its predecessor in terms of protection and firepower. An increased level of protection is provided by the new dynamic protection system “Relic” (developed at Steel Research Institute), which covers the frontal projection, the tower and part of the sides.
The Army Recognition authors indirectly confirm the high efficiency of such protection as follows. Not so long ago, the events in Syria clearly showed that the dynamic protection of "Contact-5", which is equipped with T-90A and T-90C tanks, is able to withstand anti-tank missiles of the TOW-2 complex. According to published data, the Relikt system has a greater efficiency on 50% compared to Contact-5. This may indicate a significant increase in the level of protection of the updated tank.
The main armament of the T-90MS remains the 2A46М-5 caliber 125 mm cannon launcher. Such weapon allows the tank to use the full range of anti-tank and anti-personnel ammunition, as well as guided missiles 9М119М Invar and 9М119М1 Invar-М1.
Not only tanks, but also Russian-made infantry fighting vehicles are in great demand in the international market. Last year's RAE-2015 exhibition clearly showed the interest of Middle Eastern states in such armored vehicles. First of all, a new modification of the BMP-3 called “Derivation” attracted much attention of potential customers.
From 2001 to 2015, Russia supplied several hundred infantry fighting vehicles BMP-3 in various versions to different customers. Azerbaijan received hundreds of such vehicles in the BMP-3M version, Indonesia purchased the 54 BMP-3FS for the marines, 37 machines were sent to South Korea in the base configuration. Late last year, deliveries of BMP-3MS machines to Kuwait (70 units) and Venezuela (123 machines, including several repair and recovery BREM-L) were completed. Turkmenistan became the most modest foreign customer, having bought only six cars.
The main advantage of the BMP-3 and its modifications over other machines of a similar class is high firepower. In the basic configuration, this technique gets an 100-mm gun-launcher 2А70 with the possibility of firing projectiles and guided missiles 9М117 "Bastion", 30-mm automatic gun 2А72 and several machine guns. Such weapons can solve various tasks on the battlefield and makes the BMP-3 one of the best cars in its class.
Army Recognition analysts note that the BMP-3 in its original configuration is inferior to some foreign counterparts in side projection protection. However, the addition of additional reservation and dynamic protection "Cactus" can solve this problem. In this case, the machine is protected from small-caliber guns and some missiles. In addition, the BMP-3 can carry the Arena active defense system, which also reduces the chance of being hit.
Currently, in a number of NATO countries, projects of promising caliber guns up to 40 mm with high characteristics are being developed, which with the help of kinetic shells will be able to pierce up to 100 mm homogeneous armor. For example, in 2014, CTA International introduced the 40 mm caliber 40 CTAS gun, using piercing slug shells with a detachable tray. According to official data, from a distance of 1500 m such a gun will be able to penetrate up to 140 mm of armor, which will allow it to effectively hit various modern armored vehicles. There are already projects to install 40 CTAS guns on various equipment. For example, back in 2014, the French company Nexter Group showed the T40 combat module for a new 40-mm gun designed for installation on the VBCI BMP. It is also possible to install similar weapons on other equipment of foreign production.
The Russian response to promising small-caliber guns was the new development of the Tractor Plants concern. Last year, a modification of the BMP-3 called “Derivation”, featuring a new combat module, was shown. The main weapon of this machine is a new automatic gun caliber 57 mm for ammunition 57x348 mm. An armor-piercing feathered projectile fired from such a cannon, at distances to 1800-2000 m, will be able to pierce up to 140 mm of armor. With the help of high-explosive fragmentation projectiles 57-mm gun can hit air targets. Thus, the 40 CTAS cannon is no longer the only high-caliber small-caliber cannon on the market.
The armored personnel carriers of the BTR-80 and BTR-82 families in recent years were built and exported in large quantities. Despite the relatively weak booking and low protection against explosive devices, this technique is of great interest to customers. One of the main reasons for this interest is the installation of automatic guns on 30-mm armored personnel carriers.
In 2001-2015, the Russian industry sent 1036 1068 armored personnel carriers to the buyers. 70 machines BTR-80A went to Azerbaijan, 318 BTR-80 replenished the fleet of vehicles of Bangladesh, 114 BTR-80a went to Venezuela, 100 BTR-80A were delivered to Yemen, 32 BTR-82 brought to the schedule of the NPR APPs of the NPR APA of the NPR, the AHR-NNXXA were delivered to Yemen, 8 BTR-80 were placed in the quest for the challenges of the NPR APCs, and NNXXA were delivered to Yemen, 93 BTR-80 were in the service of the NPR were sent to Colombia, the same amount of equipment ordered the army of Djibouti. Also deliveries were made to Indonesia, Mongolia, Sudan, North Korea, Turkmenistan, Uganda and other countries. Particular attention is paid to the order of Kazakhstan, which acquired 44 BTR-82, 18 BTR-80 and XNUMX BTR-XNUMX.
The authors of the analysis believe that in the coming years, foreign customers will retain their interest in the BTR-80 / 82 armored personnel carriers. This technique is quite cheap, inexpensive and effective means for the delivery of soldiers and their subsequent fire support. In fact, the BTR-80A and BTR-82A, being armored personnel carriers, have the firepower of infantry fighting vehicles. The new projects provide for some measures aimed at increasing the level of protection. BTR-82А vehicles are equipped with a new anti-splinter underlay and some means of protection against mines. As a result, the equipment receives sufficient protection from small arms, splinters and explosive devices.
At the same time, it is noted that the supply of the BTR-80 in the original version has significantly decreased in recent years. The main armament of this vehicle is the 14,5-mm KPVT machine gun, and most of the modern foreign armored vehicles have 4-level protection according to the STANAG 4569 standard and is protected from such weapons. As a result, the armored personnel carriers of old models can not fight with modern foreign technology and for this reason are no longer of interest to potential customers.
As you can see, in the last decade and a half, Russian industry has taken a leading position in the field of construction and sales of armored vehicles of various classes and now retains its place in the market. The conquest of the “place under the sun” was promoted by the high quality of the products and the advantageous combination of various characteristics, overall efficiency, etc. Now the industry continues to develop existing equipment, which helps to maintain a place in the market and attract new customers.
The article in the Army Recognition publication on the place of Russian armored vehicles on the market provides not only numerical sales figures, but also methods for maintaining a place on the market. Thus, to maintain its leading position in the tank market, the T-90MS project was created, which differs from its predecessors by a number of features and enhanced characteristics. Due to the use of new systems, as well as due to the failure of competitive equipment in recent local conflicts, T-90MS has a good chance of being the subject of orders.
The infantry combat vehicle BMP-3 in its basic configuration differs from the main competitors in a number of characteristics, including the uniquely high firepower caused by the use of 100-mm and 30-mm guns. In addition, in response to recent trends in the development of foreign armaments, a modification of the “Derivation” combat vehicle with a 57 mm caliber cannon, featuring high power, was proposed. Such a technique, like the base BMP-3, may be of great interest to potential customers.
As noted, because of the relatively weak weapons, the BTR-80 armored personnel carriers are no longer of special interest to foreign customers. Modifications of such equipment, armed with automatic guns, in turn, retain their place in the market and continue to become subjects of new contracts. Thus, in the BTR-82A project, the problem of low firepower was solved and the level of protection was noticeably increased, which makes this technique interesting for potential customers. Relatively low cost also affects the volume of orders.
At present, the overwhelming majority of Russian armored vehicles are produced by only three large organizations, which include many factories and enterprises. This technique is built for the Russian armed forces and for export deliveries. The power of the industry allows you to keep the required rate of renewal of the domestic fleet of equipment, as well as to fulfill foreign orders. Taking this and other factors into account, it can be argued that in the foreseeable future, Russia will retain its place on the international market for armored vehicles of various classes, and in addition, it will be able to increase its share in global supplies.
The article "Analysis about the Russian armored vehicles and tanks in the global military market":