“And I saw that the Lamb took off the first of the seven seals, and I heard one of four animals, speaking in a thunderous voice: go and see. I looked, and behold, a white horse, and on it a horseman who has a bow, and a crown was given to him; and he came out as victorious, and to conquer. "
(Revelation of John the Divine 6: 1-2)
(Revelation of John the Divine 6: 1-2)
Completely randomly on the pages of VO, the theme of English onions arose. And who knows the English bows better than the British themselves? No one! Therefore, it probably makes sense to turn to English sources, which tell the following about English bows: English bow, also called Welsh bow, is a powerful medieval weapons about 6 feet (1,8 m) in length, which was used by the English and Welsh shooters for hunting and as a weapon in medieval wars. The English bow was effective against the French during the Hundred Years War, and it showed itself particularly well in the battle of Sluis (1340), Crecy (1346) and Poitiers (1356), and possibly in the most famous battle of Azincourt (1415). Less successful was its use in the Battle of Or rather (1424) and in the Battle of Pat (1429). The term “English” or “Welsh onion” is a modern way to distinguish these bows from other bows, although in fact identical bows were used in both northern and western Europe.
The earliest onion, famous in England, was found in Ashkot Heath, Somerset and dates from 2665 BC. More 130 bows have come down to us from the Renaissance. More than 3500 arrows and 137 whole bows were removed from the water along with the ship Mary Rose, the flagship of Henry VIII, which sank in Portsmouth in 1545 year.
English onions are also called “big onions” and this is true because its length exceeded the height of a person, that is, it was 1,5 or 1,8 meters in length. Richard Bartlot of the Royal Artillery Institute describes a typical English bow as a weapon of yew, 6 feet (1,8 m) in length, with 3 feet (910 mm) arrows. Gaston Phoebus in 1388 wrote that the bow should be “from a yew or boxwood, seventy inches [1,8 m] between the attachment points for the bowstring.” On Mary Rose, bows were found in lengths from 1,87 to 2,11 m, medium length 1,98 m (6 feet 6 inches).
Archers, crossbowmen and cooler printers are fighting near the walls of New Orleans. Miniature from the Chronicles of Jean Froissart. National Library of France.
The tension force of the bow of the medieval period is estimated at 120-150 N. Historically, hunting bows usually had the power of 60-80 H, and the fighting were stronger. To date, there are several modern bows with power 240-250 N.
Here is a description of how English boys were taught to bow during the reign of Henry VII:
“[My father] taught me,” wrote one Hugh Latimer, “how to hold a bow correctly and where to draw an arrow ... I had a bow that my father bought me according to my age and strength, and then my bows were more and more . A man will never shoot well unless he constantly trains with a suitable bow. ”
The preferred material for onions was yew, although ash, elm and other types of wood were also used. Giraldus Cumbrian of Wales wrote that traditional onion manufacturing technology consists of drying yew wood for a period from 1 to 2 years, and then its slow processing. So the whole process of making onions takes up to four years. On Mary Rose, the bows had a flat exterior. The inner side ("belly") of the onion had a rounded shape. Bows can be stored for a long time, if protected by a moisture-resistant coating, traditionally of "wax, resin and fat."
The British quickly izvest stocks yew in England and began to buy it abroad. The first documentary mention of the import of yew in England refers to the 1294 year. In 1350, there was a serious shortage of yew, and Henry IV ordered the introduction of private property on the land where the yew will be divorced. The Westminster Statute of 1472, each ship returning from the Russian ports, had to bring four bundles of yew for bows. Richard III increased this number to ten. In 1483, the price of such blanks increased from two to eight pounds. In 1507, the Roman emperor asked the Duke of Bavaria to stop the destruction of the yew, but the trade was very profitable, and the duke, of course, did not listen to him, so that by the XVII century almost all the yew in Europe had been exterminated!
English bow string is traditionally made from hemp. War arrows are ordered with 24 bundles of arrows in a bundle. For example, between 1341 and 1359, the English crown was known to have received 51 350 of such bundles or 1 232 400 arrows!
On Mary Rose, they found 3500 arrows made from poplar, ash, beech and hazel. Their length ranged from 61 to 83 centimeters (24-33 inches), with an average length of 76 centimeters (30 inches). The tips were mostly armor-piercing and wide, often moon-shaped, in order to “cut down” the ship's gear.
Learning to shoot archery well was difficult. Therefore, shooting training was encouraged by the monarchs. So King Edward III in 1363 indicated: “While the people of our kingdom, the rich and the poor, used to shoot a bow in their games earlier ... With God's help, it is well known that honor and profit will not come to us just like that in order to have an advantage in our warlike enterprises ... every person in this country, if he is able to work, is obliged to use bow and arrows in his games on holidays ... and so practice archery. " At first, the boy was given a stone in his left hand and was forced to stand like this, holding him up in the air. The stone grew heavier with time, and the time - more! On the battlefield, the English archers learned to stick their arrows vertically into the ground at their feet, reducing the time it took to reach and shoot them. That is why they used quivers only for carrying them. The dirt on the tip made it more likely to cause an infection.
English historians have suggested that the range of the arrow at a professional archer of Edward III’s time could reach 400 yards (370 m), but the farthest shot at the London Finsbury training range in the 16th century was 345 yards (320 m). In 1542, Henry VIII set the minimum shooting distance for adults at 220 yards (200 m). Modern experiments with analogs of bows with Mery Rose have shown that one can easily shoot 328 m (360 yards) with a light arrow, and a heavy one, weighing 95,9 g, at a distance 249,9 m (270 yards).
In 2006, Matthew Bane, using a bow with a power of 330 H, shot him 250 yards. The shooting was carried out on the type of brigandine armor, while the tip penetrated into the barrier to 3,5 inches (89 mm). Moon-shaped tips do not penetrate into the armor, but they are capable of causing deformation of the metal. The results of firing on the plate armor were as follows: with the “minimum thickness” of steel (1,2 mm), the tips penetrated the barrier very slightly and not always. Bane concluded that thicker armor (2-3 mm) or additional padded armor would have been able to stop any boom.
In 2011, Mike Loades conducted an experiment in which a shot at armor was made from 10 yards (9,1 m) from a bow with a 60 H power. The goal was “armor” from 24 linen layers glued to each other. None of the arrows in the end "textile armor" did not break through! The experimenter, however, came to the conclusion that a long awl-shaped tip would penetrate this barrier.
Gerald of Wales described the use of Welsh onions in the 12th century:
“... [In] the war against the Welsh one of the men was struck by the Welsh arrow. She went straight through his thigh, high up where it was protected outside by his armor, and then through his leather tunic; then it penetrated that part of the saddle, which is called the alva or the seat; and, finally, hit the horse so deeply that it killed the animal. ”
Archery has been described by contemporaries as ineffective against lamellae in the battle of Neville Cross (1346), during the siege of Bergerac (1345) and in the battle of Poitiers (1356); however, such armor was not available to European knights until the end of the XIV century. D. Nicole, in his study on the Hundred Years War, wrote that it was enough for a knight to bow his head so that the arrows would bounce off his helmet and shoulder pads, but could hit him in the thigh. But they hit knightly horses in the croup and in the neck, and they could not run and just lay down on the ground.
Also, the enemy crossbowmen in the Battle of Crecy were forced to retreat under a hail of arrows, since they did not have Paves shields. Historian John Keegan bluntly states that the bow was a weapon not against people, but against the horses of the French knights.
It should be noted that each archer had 60 - 72 arrows during the battle. At first they fired volleys on a hinged trajectory to hit the riders and their horses from above. When the latter were in close proximity (50-25 m), the archers fired independently and with maximum speed. That is why a number of English historians call the bow "machine gun of the Middle Ages."
If the arrow stuck in the wound, then the only way to remove it was to smear the shaft with water or oil and push it so that the tip came out on the other side, which was an extremely painful task. There were specialized tools used in the medieval period. storiesto extract arrows if they are stuck in the victim's body. Prince Hal, later Henry V, was wounded in the face with an arrow in the Battle of Shrewsbury (1403). The court physician John Bradmore took the arrow from the wound, stitched it up and covered it with honey, which is known to have antiseptic properties. Then poultices of barley and honey mixed with turpentine were made on the wound. After 20 days, the wound was free from infection and began to heal.
Training English archers. Thumbnail from Psalter Lattrell. OK. 1330-1340 Painting on parchment. 36 x 25 see British Museum Library, London.
Were there shorter bows in England? In 2012, Richard Wajad, taking into account the analysis of extensive iconographic material and archaeological evidence, concluded that short bows coexisted with longer ones between the Norman conquest and the rule of Edward III, but powerful bows that shot heavy arrows were rare until the end of the XIII century. The Welsh themselves used their bows in ambush, often shooting them point-blank, which allowed their arrows to pierce any armor and in general caused much harm to the British.
Bows remained in service until the 16th century, when progress in the development of firearms led to a change in battle tactics. The last recorded example of the use of bows in battle in England took place during an exchange of fire in Bridgnorth in October 1642 during the civil war, when the city police, armed with bows, proved effective against unarmored musketeers. Archers were used in the royalist army, but were not used by the "round-headed".
Subsequently, many advocated the return of the bow to the army, but it was only Jack Churchill who managed to use it in France in 1940, when he landed there with his commandos.
The tactics used by the English archers during the Hundred Years War was as follows: the infantry (usually dismounted knights and soldiers in armor, armed with pollaks — battle axes with hammers on a long pole), became in the center of the position.
Modern English archers.
Archers deployed primarily on the flanks, sometimes in front of the infantry under the cover of pointed stakes. The cavalry stood either on the flanks or in the center in reserve to attack any of the broken flanks. In the 16th century, cooler arrows were added to the archers, which frightened their horses with shots.
In addition to the bows with "Mary Rose", five bows of the 15th century have reached our time, which allowed English researchers to study them well.
Bow entered the traditional English culture, as evidenced by the legends of Robin Hood, where he is portrayed as the “main archer of the country”, as well as “Song of the Bow” - a poem by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle from his novel “The White Squad”.
It was even suggested that the yews were specially planted in English cemeteries in order to always have wood for the bows.
Typical English yew onion, 6 ft. 6 (2 m) in length.