Military Review

Doves of war

32
The experience of using the UAV in the army was successful


The priority in the creation of unmanned aerial vehicles controlled from the ground belongs to Princess Olga, who lived in the 9th century, who, as weapons against the Drevlians who had come out of obedience, they used pigeons, with whose help, they set fire to the enemy Iskorosten.

The unpatented successes of Russian geniuses, according to the established tradition, have remained in the shadow of the achievements of pragmatic Anglo-Saxons. The first to achieve some success in this direction were the Americans. In 1910, a military engineer from Ohio, Charles Kettering, proposed a flying device controlled by a clockwork mechanism, which in a given place should have dropped wings and a bomb to fall on the enemy. Having received money from the US government, the inventor built several vehicles with varying success, but they did not participate in the hostilities.

In the USSR in the 30s, Nikitin developed a special purpose torpedo bomber-glider (PSN-1 and PSN-2) of the “flying wing” type. By the beginning of 1940, a draft unmanned flying torpedo with a range of over one hundred kilometers was ready. However, the development did not go into action, because then in the air then bomber dominated aviation.

Record "flight"


The idea gained a second wind in 1957, when the Tupolev Design Bureau received a state order for a supersonic medium-range cruise missile. The experimental model Tu-121 has not received further application. But the created design came to court when designing reconnaissance drones: Tu-123 Hawk, Tu-143 Reis and Tu-141 Strizh, which were in service with USSR Air Forces from 1964 to 1979. These samples were also supplied to Warsaw Pact friends in African and Middle Eastern countries, including Iraq and Syria. In 70 – 80, the USSR was the world leader in their production; about 950 Tu-143 alone were produced. They, for example, were widely used during the Lebanese War 1982 of the year. A "Swift" is still in service with the Ukrainian Air Force.

Doves of war


Conflicts in the Middle East contributed to the intensification of work in this direction. Remote-manned (UAV) and autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) were used by both sides of the Gulf War 1991 of the year (“Desert Storm”) primarily as observation and reconnaissance platforms. During this operation, tactical intelligence drones of the coalition made more 530 sorties, having stayed in the air for about 1700 hours. Russian-made UAVs were actively used in KTO in the North Caucasus, and currently serve in Syria.

Drone harms career


Major Timur S., an officer of military special forces, admits that RPVs used in his unit do not have the necessary performance characteristics for full reconnaissance of the area, and are skeptical of drones. Although, in his opinion, in some structures such as the GRU or the FSB there are quite appropriate for the tasks assigned drones, as a rule, of foreign manufacture. Their command saves - dear, everyone counts, so they are used only in exceptional cases. Some bosses believe that it is easier to report for a dead soldier who was lost during a search on the ground than for an expensive drone. After all, even if the unit is not knocked down, it can be lost or fall into the hands of the enemy, which is fraught with much more serious consequences for a career. Our special forces, following the saying, “Desire to fiction is cunning,” manages to launch home-made craft into the sky, collected almost on the knee, which in some respects surpass factory samples.

The officer calls the typical flaws of the UAVs: they make a lot of noise than they unmask themselves, they are used more often during the day when they are more likely to be noticed and shot down, their matrix is ​​imported and in the event of a military conflict with the producing country such UAVs are out of order. Hidden enemy, which is hidden, for example, in the reeds or in more often, it is very difficult to detect an aircraft-type drone: there is enough battery for a maximum of one and a half hours. When communication is lost, UAVs, as a rule, lose their orientation and fall, so it is necessary to resolve the issue so that the device can blindly return to the launch point.

For tactical special forces, where the major serves, helicopter-type drones are preferred, but, according to the officer, a miser goes.

How shot down "Eleron"


Captain Ilya M., platoon commander of a special reconnaissance complex, has operated two types of UAVs since 2010: Eleron-3CB - short-range tactical and Eleron-10CB - operational-tactical zone. Both production Kazan JSC "Eneks". Basic TTX samples. “Middle” weighs five kilograms, operates at a distance of up to 25 kilometers, flight time - 90 minutes, working altitude range - from 100 to a thousand meters, ceiling - five thousand meters. Speed ​​- from 70 to 130 kilometers per hour. The average "Aileron" weighing a kilogram of 15,5 takes on board up to 4,5 of a kilogram of payload, works up to 60 kilometers away. Able to be airborne for about an hour.

Flight altitude for the Aileron-10CB is not critical, since 1000 – 1500 meters are most suitable for conducting reconnaissance. The same is true with the flight range: if the UAV manages to get too far away, problems with data transmission will begin, especially via video channel. The tactical "Aileron" can be sent for 100 kilometers, but in this case it will not transmit the "picture". Excessive, it seems, the weight of this model gives an advantage in the case of bumpiness in the air. But there are restrictions on the take-off. For example, if the wind speed exceeds 15 meters per second, it is forbidden to start - tipping is possible.

In March, 2012, in the area of ​​the Daghestani village of Gubden, with the help of the Aileron, was found and eliminated a gang of 18 people who had long been successfully hiding in a difficult mountainous region. The result paid off all the material and moral costs invested in an air reconnaissance aircraft. The equipment installed on these UAVs, allows not only to find, but also to identify objects and objects.

In the opinion of Ilya, the advantages of aircraft-type vehicles can also be attributed to the fact that not only visual reconnaissance is carried out with their help, but also reconnaissance, panoramic shooting of plans for correcting maps, communication is maintained (or, if necessary, its suppression). The noise from the drone, according to the officer, does not exceed the general background and at the working height does not attract attention.

Meanwhile, in the unit operating in Syria, one of these devices was shot down. Bullet-fool landed in the battery. All hits to other parts of the drone - the console, tail, do not affect the flight due to the given stabilization design. By the way, a rocket can not bring down such a UAV because of too low values ​​of the parameters for which the homing is performed.

First of all - helicopters


Helicopter-type vehicles are multifunctional complexes of aerial reconnaissance of the terrain and objects based on a UAV of vertical take-off and landing, they are also copters, in Ilya’s division they were used only as experimental ones, but they proved to be good. It is about "Nelk-V6", made in Moscow. The weight of the device, depending on the modification, can reach 3,5 kilograms. The target load is up to two kilograms. Such devices are best suited for units that perform tactical combat missions, reconnaissance, search and rescue activities: when you need to see some details, open the disguise.

The advantages can be easily attributed to the absence of special devices for launching, hence the reduced time to prepare for the flight - up to seven minutes (two to three times less than that of an aircraft type UAV), a large payload - up to 20 kilograms and more, except for ordinary telephones and cameras, as well as a thermal imager, a laser scanner, “jammers” and other special equipment, which allows you to more clearly visualize the necessary part of the terrain or solve specific problems.

The officer attributed the vulnerability of “Nelka” to vulnerability (to put the device out of operation, one precise shot is enough), the high cost of the sample (about two million rubles), and a short flight time (less than an hour).

The captain, through his example, spoke about the contact that exists between the UAV designers and their users in the military. As for the "Aileron", then he is familiar to the person who is engaged in their development. On occasion, they call each other and the designer advises, that is, there is a connection to which developers, manufacturers and operators should ideally strive for. Alas, this approach is rather atypical. And if Kazan are ready for such contacts and help the military to troubleshoot, others more often keep their distance, guided by the principle: sold and forgotten.
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32 comments
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  1. Dmitry Potapov
    Dmitry Potapov April 7 2016 12: 46
    +8
    Judging because our drones were used in Syria and how much our military and the president pay attention to the perfection and production of drones, God will give access to world leaders just around the corner.
    1. cniza
      cniza April 7 2016 12: 55
      +7
      Quote: Dmitry Potapov
      Judging because our drones were used in Syria and how much our military and the president pay attention to the perfection and production of drones, God will give access to world leaders just around the corner.


      Good experience has been gained - now the conclusions and production of models with new principles and purpose - we do not have shock drones and this is bad.
      1. vv3
        vv3 April 7 2016 13: 15
        +4
        Look how famously it turns out: we are already talking and building strike UAVs. But what about ordinary small UAVs, like their integration with other weapons. Where we have a common information field. As I understand it, they need the target’s coordinates to fire the Hurricane and the Coalition. the attack aircraft and the bomber worked, they should get the coordinates of the target. It seems to me that the funds I have listed are more destructive than any strike UAV, the main purpose of the UAV is to give such coordinates. Moreover, when creating an information field in real time, the leading role belongs to the UAV. the information field is created with the help of calculators, it provides for the presence of closed channels, repeaters, provides the exchange of information between reconnaissance devices and means of destruction, allows you to control the means of destruction from a single information and combat control centers. But the drone UAV is one of the elements of this system. Those. if there is not enough radius of destruction for other weapons, and there is no way to keep patrol guided aircraft means in the air, then they use shock UAVs. They can patrol zones for a long time. But again, their main function is to give out the coordinates of targets. As I understand, we have all this fiction Already have and we are missing only the drone UAV? It seems to me that an attempt to create such UAVs without creating such an information system is untimely and harmful. The lack of a developed information network, as the basis of modern warfare, which provides for the integration of weapons and reconnaissance equipment in real time, does not allow you to move forward and master modern methods of warfare It throws us back to the level of World War II, forces us to use spotters, and does not allow us to use all the capabilities of our ultramodern weapons. The same will happen with UAV drums if this information foundation is not created.
        1. Lopatov
          Lopatov April 7 2016 13: 45
          0
          Quote: vv3
          It seems to me that an attempt to create such UAVs without creating such an information system is untimely and harmful.

          To the point.
      2. Rostov Papa
        Rostov Papa April 7 2016 13: 15
        +3
        The work of our engineers and designers is still no end. Involuntarily come to mind our former leaders of the country and all that they have done. For a long time they will have to disentangle the results of their vital activity.
      3. weksha50
        weksha50 April 7 2016 15: 09
        0
        Quote: cniza
        we have no shock drones and this is bad.



        So it seems that they are working on their creation ...
        1. Prager
          Prager April 7 2016 16: 44
          0
          like right now they are testing three options, one of which, according to the test results, will have to be adopted. info about this on the network was already.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Hon
      Hon April 7 2016 12: 58
      +1
      Quote: Dmitry Potapov
      Judging because our drones were used in Syria and how much our military and the president pay attention to the perfection and production of drones, God will give access to world leaders just around the corner.

      while catching up, in production, technology and experience of use
      1. vv3
        vv3 April 7 2016 13: 18
        +4
        And now a simple example. Primitive and murderous to tears. In Syria, the main channel for supporting terrorists in the north, about 100 km of the border. We place one battery of Hurricanes and Coalitions in the Alepo area and on the other side of the corridor at friendly Kurds, like another 2 batteries, naturally guarded. They cover the entire corridor. Over the corridor from the side of Syria, we organize constant patrol by a group of helicopter-type UAVs at an altitude of 3 km. The quantity is selected considering the properties of their surveillance systems. The simplest, with day and night vision systems, equipped with GLONASS receivers under the control of operators with the ability to transmit their coordinates to the operator, the operator, detecting the targets, controls the UAV so that it hangs over the target and at that moment receives the coordinates of the UAV. artillery and missile systems. Operators are sitting, for example, in Alepo. If there are inaccuracies in the example, do not judge strictly. This is not important. I chose the most primitive, very simple UAV. The corridor is closed. Where's the fantasy? One question: why is this not done? What am I wrong about? This is a small element of modern warfare that we cannot wage. It's a shame and a shame ..
        1. Riv
          Riv April 7 2016 13: 54
          +1
          ... and stupid. Why hang a scout over a target, if you can attach to the area and give the battery a target, and then adjust the fire? And, for that matter, why drag a division somewhere in the desert, if there is air supremacy and similar tasks are solved by attack helicopters?

          You Ukrainians are funny people. Spit on anyone - you get into a strategist.
          1. Lopatov
            Lopatov April 7 2016 14: 10
            +4
            Quote: Riv
            You Ukrainians are funny people. Spit on anyone - you get into a strategist.

            Cool.
            Here, for example, you ask an interesting question:
            Quote: Riv
            And, for that matter, why drag a division somewhere in the desert, if there is air supremacy and similar tasks are solved by attack helicopters?

            Are you Ukrainian too?

            The artillery division will solve the problem of defeating the convoy several orders of magnitude faster, several orders of magnitude cheaper, is on alert around the clock, year-round and all-weather, ready to fire at a new target within a minute ...
            But why use it, it's not cool. Is it a matter of combat helicopters ...
          2. vv3
            vv3 April 7 2016 14: 43
            +2
            "..give the battery a target" - how's that? Look, you said the same thing as me. But you reproached me ... Read the text again: "... he is transmitting artillery and missile systems", "... The corridor is closed." The target destroys the battery ...
            1. Riv
              Riv April 7 2016 16: 27
              0
              I say: you Ukrainians are funny people. Everyone is a strategist, but they can’t read.

              Why drag a division somewhere in the desert if there is air supremacy and similar tasks are solved by attack helicopters?


              The question is not in cheapness (although batteries will also have to be delivered through the desert and guarded, or by air, and the batteries themselves must be protected), but in efficiency. One attack of attack helicopters - and nobody will climb a month on this route. Afghan guarantees. Air superiority is good because it allows you to strike not only where the guns reach, but everywhere.

              However, why am I explaining all this? In Ukraine, after all, everyone since childhood is a commander. Yyyy ... ... :)))
        2. Lopatov
          Lopatov April 7 2016 14: 00
          +4
          Quote: vv3
          constant patrolling by a group of helicopter-type UAVs

          Aircraft type. The helicopter UAV has its own niche.

          Quote: vv3
          I chose the most primitive, very simple UAV

          You don't need anything "simple" and "primitive"

          We need a normal UAV capable of detecting, identifying (albeit with the help of an operator) a target, calculating its coordinates, and not by hovering over it. And then the target will be illuminated with a laser pointer for applying the WTO. Or fully serve sighting and fire to defeat conventional ammunition

          And
          - it should work day and night, not entering the zone of destruction of small arms
          - he must maintain a stable relationship with the command and information center
          - he must have sufficiently accurate navigation equipment and determine the coordinates of the target. Within the requirements of full artillery training.
  2. Spartanez300
    Spartanez300 April 7 2016 12: 47
    0
    Yes, for the husband of his prince Igor paid the Drevlyans in full.
    1. V.ic
      V.ic April 7 2016 12: 53
      +1
      Quote: Spartanez300
      Yes, for the husband of his prince Igor paid the Drevlyans in full.

      A common legend / regarding the burning of the Drevlyansk fortress with birds taken in the form of tribute /, this story was known even before R.Kh. It was just that the chronicler had to profitably set off Olga's sharp mind.
      1. Cartalon
        Cartalon April 7 2016 13: 03
        +3
        And not reliable, a burning dove does not fly into a nest
        1. Wanderer 2008
          Wanderer 2008 April 7 2016 15: 25
          +1
          What does "burning dove" mean? He's not burning! It's just that a smoldering tinder is tied to his paw, and when the pigeons were released in the evening dawn, naturally they flew to their nesting sites, in those days the roofs were usually covered with thatch, something like this. The result is more or less known to all.
        2. Wanderer 2008
          Wanderer 2008 April 7 2016 15: 25
          -1
          What does "burning dove" mean? He's not burning! It's just that a smoldering tinder is tied to his paw, and when the pigeons were released in the evening dawn, naturally they flew to their nesting sites, in those days the roofs were usually covered with thatch, something like this. The result is more or less known to all.
          1. Riv
            Riv April 7 2016 16: 21
            +2
            Yes, all this tales. Conducted experiments. If the bird is tied to a paw something burning, then it flies not to the nest, but from the nest. Instinct. Apparently not really stupid, right? However, you can check it yourself with your mother-in-law in gardening, if you find a dove in her attic.

            There is one more nuance. No pigeon in his right mind would make a nest in a village house. Why? Because the people who lived weren’t in such a way that they were very satisfying, the Drevlians would simply catch him and eat him. At a minimum, they would destroy the nest and gobble up eggs laid with such difficulty. This is a dove for you - a bird of the world, and for them - a stupid protein.
            1. Bayonet
              Bayonet April 7 2016 16: 57
              0
              Quote: Riv
              This is a dove for you - a bird of the world, and for them - a stupid protein.

              So a beautiful legend crashed, about the gray everyday life of the drevlyans ... smile
    2. iConst
      iConst April 7 2016 13: 21
      +1
      Quote: Spartanez300
      Yes, for the husband of his prince Igor paid the Drevlyans in full.

      The priority in creating ground-controlled unmanned aerial vehicles belongs to Princess Olga

      “It's more like unguided shells, not drones.”
  3. iliya87
    iliya87 April 7 2016 12: 57
    0
    They say combat drones are getting ready to leave. It would be interesting to look at them. By and large, in this path we are behind. Fortunately, there are still good designers, and I think that if they pay attention to this aspect of military weapons, we will catch up and overtake in the near future.
    1. vv3
      vv3 April 7 2016 13: 49
      +3
      For the use of UAVs, we do not have information support. The level of use of our UAVs and other reconnaissance means does not allow waging a modern war. This, in turn, does not allow us to use the full potential of our ultra-modern weapons. Our conventional weapons are not only not inferior to the advanced foreign ones. but in some directions the means of a potential adversary are ahead. At the same time, information support is at the level of World War II. UAVs are just the Stone Age, if you like. This once again confirms this article and the author's judgments - they are of this level. We do not have " unified combat information and control system ". And this is fraught with serious consequences. The threat level corresponds to the 2st year with all the ensuing consequences. If it were not for the nuclear shield, we would have been crushed long ago ... To make it clearer, I quote an excerpt from my comments on an article about the development of a 41th generation aircraft , where the author mentions a non-existent "unified combat information and control system".

      "And how will it act in what is not? There is neither a single nor a local one ... You, mister author, first create this unified combat information and control system ... We have the experience of World War II, we have there are spotters of fire on enemy territory ... We can send sappers to Palmyra ... But we cannot get an information picture from a 2 km section of the Turkish-Syrian border in the absence of air resistance and air defense weapons. , neither with the help of satellite reconnaissance with a resolution of 100 meters, nor with the help of AWACS aircraft, nor with the help of reconnaissance aircraft, nor ground-based radar systems and other means of reconnaissance ... Neither, nor how ... terrorists do not run out ... Even if the entire territory of Syria is cleaned ... They will crawl from the territory of Turkey and Iraq and from other sides ... But we make robots, attack drones, UAVs based on the Yak-2, aircraft of 130 and 5 generations and others, which can be used in the "unified combat information control the influencing system "then, when we do it ... I think that now everyone understands where the main efforts need to be directed, where the money should be injected urgently. And what to work on? ... Let's tell you: into the" unified combat information and control system ", or at least the elements of this system."
    2. FID
      FID April 7 2016 14: 30
      -1
      Quote: iliya87
      They say combat drones are getting ready to exit

      What's the point in them? "The Death Star" ? The Americans refuse them (unmanned drums) ... to repeat their path ????
      1. Riv
        Riv April 7 2016 16: 30
        -1
        What are we arguing about? Ukrainian clearly outplayed in tanks. :)
    3. Bayonet
      Bayonet April 7 2016 17: 03
      0
      Quote: iliya87
      in the near future we’ll catch up and overtake.

      "catch up and overtake" - this is some kind of obsessive chronic sore. Just create normal working conditions for people, give good salaries, then the wonders of science and technology will appear on their own ...
  4. made13
    made13 April 7 2016 13: 04
    +3
    Until the production of the element base is restored in Russia, and the entire range, the military-industrial complex will depend on third-party manufacturers. So what if the device says "Made in Russia" if all the components are Chinese or Korean?
    1. LastLap
      LastLap April 7 2016 16: 47
      +1
      Iron piece - it is inert. Firmware - makes it useful or not.
  5. shinobi
    shinobi April 7 2016 13: 07
    +2
    Eat, the toys on the background of the quadrocopters are worth a penny. Minimum refinement is required, the webcam is remote and the amplifier is good to receive. The militias organized almost serial production in Novorosiya. There you need to take a few super-quality, how many. That's when the ratio will change.
    1. vv3
      vv3 April 7 2016 13: 57
      +2
      A very substantive and high-quality answer ... Here is an example that does not exist. Imagine the operator behind the monitor with the coordinate grid of the controlled area receiving the digital image from the UAV at the current time. The task of controlling the UAV and relaying the signal is carried out by technical specialists with a communication channel at operator.The operator’s area on the monitor shows the defeat zones of the donated assets. The operator visually or using special programs identifies targets. He selects the appropriate means of destruction from the given ones. The defeat means are tied to the coordinate grid and use the calculator to determine the rotation and excess angles. And they fire , it is better in automatic mode, destroying the target. Of course, simplifications or options are possible depending on the degree of integration of reconnaissance and destruction means. This cannot be done in manual mode or by phone. These modes must be provided, personnel are trained and trained. Separate systems are opportunities allow you to do this, technically These improvements are insignificant. You need to train, choose the best options and master and implement. From what is and will succeed. Who should do this, what do scientific companies do? When will the generals understand this ... WHAT do military universities and academies do? Industry will not bring it's on a silver platter ... There is no time, we are lagging behind .... A small benefit from 4 opinions has turned out, but it is compelled.
      1. Cat man null
        Cat man null April 7 2016 14: 06
        +1
        Quote: vv3
        A very substantive and high-quality answer ... Here is an example that does not exist.Imagine the operator behind the monitor with the coordinate grid, the controlled area, which receives a digital image from the UAV at the current time. The task of controlling the UAV and relaying the signal is performed by technical specialists with a communication channel from the operator ...

        Quote: vv3 Yesterday, 15:10 Fighter of the sixth generation: near distant
        A very substantive and high-quality answer ... But we are talking about something else.Imagine the operator behind the monitor with the coordinate grid, the controlled area, which receives the digital image from the UAV at the current time. The task of controlling the UAV and relaying the signal is performed by technical specialists with the operator’s communication channel. The operator’s area on the monitor outlines the affected areas of the donated funds ...

        The record stuck, the campaign .. wink
        1. The comment was deleted.
        2. vv3
          vv3 April 7 2016 14: 49
          +1
          One clever person on the forum said that I played "tanks". Yes, it looks like a computer game! But behind this "game" there are real people, real technology. Such an information system of modern combat control allows not only to stop local conflicts, but also to prevent them. In Syria, in eastern Ukraine, in Karabakh .. .. there is no way to get away from such or similar systems. They are expected, they are needed. The more people understand this, the faster they will appear.
          1. Cat man null
            Cat man null April 7 2016 14: 54
            0
            Quote: vv3
            One clever person on the forum said that I played "tanks". Yes, it looks like a computer game! But behind this "game" there are real people, real technology. Such an information system of modern combat control allows not only to stop local conflicts, but also to prevent them. In Syria, in eastern Ukraine, in Karabakh .. .. there is no way to get away from such or similar systems. They are expected, they are needed. The more people understand this, the faster they will appear

            Quote: vv3
            Yesterday, 15:46 Fighter of the sixth generation: near distant
            One clever person on the forum said that I played "tanks". Yes, it looks like a computer game! But behind this "game" there are real people, real technology. Such an information system of modern combat control allows not only to stop local conflicts, but also to prevent them. In Syria, in eastern Ukraine, in Karabakh .. .. there is no way to get away from such or similar systems. They are expected, they are needed. The more people understand this, the faster they will appear

            Yes, there is a machine ... like a barrel organ laughing
            1. vv3
              vv3 April 7 2016 15: 04
              0
              I got it, phone booth. No, no. Go further downstream ....
    2. Riv
      Riv April 7 2016 14: 08
      0
      You have a poor idea of ​​the role of intelligence and its mission. The dronelet, assembled on its knee, can solve the reconnaissance tasks of a platoon, the maximum - companies and only in defense. On the offensive, the information received from him will become obsolete faster than he reaches the company commander. At the same time, the company commander must also understand the situation not only in the area of ​​his unit, but also in the strip of the entire regiment / brigade, that is, have access to the data of regimental intelligence.
      And of course, reconnaissance should be conducted continuously. Such semi-artisan apparatuses are by definition incapable of providing this.
  6. X Y Z
    X Y Z April 7 2016 13: 34
    +2
    Manufacturers who do not go into contact with direct consumers need to simply and clearly explain (and we know how to do this) that their "business" can suffer greatly. And don't scare us that they might go somewhere there. Otherwise, the situation may develop as with a progressive scale of taxation. We are constantly frightened that if it is introduced, the oligarchs will be offended and will not pay at all.
  7. jan
    jan April 7 2016 15: 02
    +1
    Well, at the expense of Olga and the pigeons, of course, a beautiful fairy tale, because not when the bird does not fly to burn its nest, but at the expense of UAVs and other robots controlled from the shelter it becomes more and more a reality. In IDUs, Osia are already urging gamers to military service precisely for this purpose. Cars of war are coming.
  8. weksha50
    weksha50 April 7 2016 15: 06
    +1
    " there is a connection that developers, manufacturers and operators should ideally strive for"...

    This is ideal ... If such a connection were always and everywhere (during the development and implementation of any type of equipment and weapons), then the success in their development and implementation would be much higher ...
  9. Weyland
    Weyland April 7 2016 23: 43
    0
    Artist - in the furnace! A cross on the chest with what joy, if the baptism of St. Olga took 12-14 years later (according to various sources) ?!