Military Review

Great hike companions

China and Russia have common interests outside the land

The Chinese space program in scale, scope and pursued goals continues similar "imperial" projects of the Soviet Union and the United States. It puts an extensive set of applied tasks of an economic, military, and scientific and technical nature. But this is not limited. Space activities are one of the important tools for strengthening China’s status as a new superpower.

The fundamental decision on the need to develop the space program was made by Mao Zedong in 1958 year. Shortly after the launch of the Soviet satellite, the country, with difficulty with the help of the release of trucks and MiG-19 fighters, launched the program “Liang Dant and Shin” - two bombs (atomic, thermonuclear) and one satellite. It became the basis of a decade science and technology policy. It was assumed that the implementation of the program will ensure the independence and defense of China, will strengthen the prestige of the new government.

The atomic and thermonuclear bombs were tested in 1964 and 1967, and in 1970 the launch vehicle “Great campaign-1”, created on the basis of Dongfeng-4 BRSD, the Chinese launched the first satellite.

The relatively rapid development of national programs for the development of ballistic missiles and launch vehicles became possible thanks to technical assistance from the USSR in the 50s and the fatal miscalculation allowed by the US government. The Soviet Union transferred the production technology of the P-1 and P-5 missiles (a variant of the latter, known as DF-2, for a long time became the basis of the Chinese nuclear forces). The United States provided the Chinese with something that they would never have received in the USSR. In 1950, in the wake of McCarthyism, the FBI suspected (most likely unfoundedly) the communist activities of a prominent American missile scientist, Qiang Xuesen. He was harassed, suspended from work. But there was no evidence against him, and in 1955, he was allowed to leave the United States. If from the USSR the Chinese received only well-trained young engineers, then from America came to them a world-class scientist who was able to independently implement the most complex technical projects.

As a result, the conventional arms industry of the Middle Kingdom and in the 80-s continued to produce improved modifications of the Soviet 50-s technology, but the rocket industry, despite the general scarcity of resources, became a growth point. In 1971, flight tests of the Chinese Dongfeng-5 intercontinental ballistic missile began. For the PRC space program, it played exactly the same role as the P-7 ICBM for the Soviet, acting as the progenitor of the most widely used RN family - CZ-2 (“Great Trip-2”).

The second attempt

History manned space flight counts from July 14 on 1967, when the State Council and the Central Military Council of the People's Republic of China approved the Shuguang project (the 714 project). The decision was taken on the basis of prestige considerations without taking into account the real technical capabilities of the country. The first manned space flight was planned on 1973. The ship "Shuguang" with two astronauts, according to published documents, was supposed to resemble American Gemini.

In 1968, the Center for Space Medicine is based in Beijing. At the start of 70, 19 astronaut candidates are selected from fighter pilots. But in 1972, the project was closed due to obvious technical impracticability. Shuguan was an example of a deliberately unrealistic design. For its implementation took on a wave of dizziness from past successes. An even more eloquent example of such an approach is the 640 project, a program for creating a strategic missile defense system that was rolled out at the beginning of 80 after huge waste.

Subsequently, the Chinese acted more cautiously. The space program developed even against the background of a general sharp reduction in defense spending in the 80-s, demonstrating some success. In 1984, the first Chinese telecommunications satellite, DFH-2, appeared in orbit, and by 2000, the Chinese grouping of such devices had increased to 33. Advances in the development of telecommunications satellites allowed building an experimental positioning system "Beidou-2000" covering the territory of the People's Republic of China in 2003 – 1, and starting with creating a full-fledged "Beidou-2007" from 2.

The ability to maintain a powerful grouping of such spacecraft in combination with its own global positioning communications system is of growing military importance, as China turns into a major global manufacturer and exporter of MALE-class UAVs (medium altitude, longer duration of flight). They are controlled via satellite communication channel and require high-quality transmission of huge amounts of video information and other data. Since 1988, the PRC has launched a series of Fengyun meteorological satellites into heliosynchronous orbits. 14 launches of such spacecraft were made, one of which, having completed its FY-1C, was destroyed during the tests of the Chinese anti-satellite weapons in 2007 year.

Russia was a key partner of China in space exploration, having played a special role in the 90 in promoting the Chinese manned program known as the 921 project (launched in 1992). Beijing was assisted in the organization of a cosmonaut training system, the design of spacesuits and ships of the Shenzhou series, which made their first manned flight in 2003. Ukraine became another important partner, all the 1990s and 2000s almost free of charge transferred Soviet military and dual technologies to the Chinese. With the Ukrainian help, the People's Republic of China mastered the production of an analogue of the Soviet liquid-propellant rocket engine RD-120, which allowed the Chinese to move in the direction of creating their own heavy LV.

Great hike companionsSelf-reliance (with a reservation on the openness of international cooperation) is an important principle of the Chinese space program. It is enshrined in official documents - the White Paper published on 2006 and 2011 White Paper on space activities of the PRC. The country carries out programs of international cooperation in space with Russia, the European Union, and developing countries. But the ultimate goal is to increase their own capabilities in the exploration of extraterrestrial space.

Beijing declares its commitment to the peaceful use of outer space, but understands this solely as a refusal to deploy weapons. China - one of the world leaders in the creation of ground-based anti-satellite systems, produces a wide range of reconnaissance satellites.

Currently, the Chinese program is developing in the following important areas. The development of a new generation of launch vehicles CZ-5, CZ-6, CZ-7 is nearing completion. A group of artificial Earth satellites is growing with a simultaneous increase in their technical level, and an increase in the duration of their service. The use of satellites in telecommunications and television is expanding. By 2020, the construction of the national Beidou global positioning system should be completed. New research satellites, including the X-ray orbital telescope, are being prepared for launch. In the field of manned space exploration, flights to the Tiangong orbital modules will be carried out, docking technologies and units of the future station, and cargo ships will be developed. Exploration will continue on the program for a manned flight to the moon, research aimed at soft landing and delivery to the Earth of soil samples. It is planned to develop ground-based infrastructure, in particular, the new Wenchang cosmodrome on Hainan Island and fleet spacecraft space tracking "Yuanwang."

In January, 2013-th became known indicators, which should be achieved by 2020 year. By this date, China will have at least 200 spacecraft in orbit, and the number of launches of PH will increase on average to 30 per year. Exports of products and services will be at least 15 percent of revenues from space activities. By the year 2020, the construction of a national orbital station should be basically completed, so that the crew worked on it all the time with 2022.

Already at the end of 2014, China bypassed Russia by the number of satellites operating in orbit, 139 units. In 2015, he performed 19 RN launches, taking third place after the Russian Federation (29) and the USA (20). This year, the number of Chinese orbital launches is expected to exceed 20. It should be noted that in recent years, the percentage of failures in the PRC is lower than in the United States and Russia.

In the field of manned cosmonautics, the Tiangong program is of paramount importance. It assumes that three so-called target modules are put into orbit in succession - analogues of an orbital station that have only one docking station. The Tiangun modules are able to provide crews with a stay for 20 days. Having a two-year life cycle, in fact, “Tyingong-1”, launched into orbit in September by 2011, stopped data transmission to Earth only last March, having managed to make three docking with the “Shenzhou” spacecraft. The "Tiangun-2" module will be launched this year. It is assumed that these works will allow the Chinese space industry to hone all the necessary technologies to 2020, when with the help of more powerful launch vehicles "Great March-5" it will be possible to put into orbit the modules of the first national orbital station.

Collaboration resources

Back in 90, China achieved success in building optical-electronic reconnaissance satellites, the first of which was developed jointly with Brazilians ZiYuan-1 (Resource), launched into orbit in 1999. It was followed by a series of exploration ZiYuan-2 (all of them are declared by the Chinese government as geological). In 2006, a program was launched to create the Yaogan group in orbit (remote sensing). The satellites of this series include several types of spacecraft intended for conducting radar, electro-optical, and electronic reconnaissance.

“Chinese satellites of electron-optical intelligence, according to American estimates, already in 2014, had a resolution of 0,6 – 0,8 meter”
In total, 36 Yaoganey has been launched into orbit. Today, the creation of an orbital constellation of satellites intended for marine radar reconnaissance is of particular strategic importance. It is assumed that they should be the main source of target designation for the anti-ship ballistic missile complexes DF-21D and DF-26D.

Associated with the programs to create anti-satellite weapons are projects of military special mission spacecraft of the SJ ("Shijian") family, on the basis of which orbital fighter satellites are created. Experiments on approaching and docking are carried out with the SJ placed into orbit.

Another program with an obvious military component is the unmanned orbital aircraft "Shenlong", resembling in size and layout the famous American X-37. It is planned that “Shenlong” will start with the suspension of a specially equipped H-6 bomber.

To bring such satellites into orbit in a special period, China is working on solid-propellant Great-11 rocket launchers based on the design of the DF-31 ICBMs, which can be used from mobile launchers. In addition, based on the DF-31 and DF-21 BRSD, two families of land-based missiles (KT-1, KT-2) are created, equipped with kinetic interceptor warheads. This program is closely connected with another major project - the creation of a national strategic missile defense system. This time, unlike in 70, the PRC has every chance to finish the job.

The Ukrainian crisis, which occurred against the background of a simultaneous deterioration in relations between China and the United States, led to some intensification of Russian-Chinese space cooperation, which significantly slowed down after 1990-x - the beginning of 2000-x. Promising areas of cooperation include the integration of Beidou and GLONASS navigation systems, possible deliveries of RD-180 engines to China, purchases of electronic components to the People's Republic of China, and joint research projects on the Moon and deep space. As far as can be judged, all projects are at the stage of development or at an early stage of implementation. All such complex technical programs require long coordination, so that we can see the results of joint programs only in a few years.
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  1. Kronos07
    Kronos07 April 9 2016 06: 30
    Well, at least somewhere issues are resolved peacefully soldier
  2. Kronos07
    Kronos07 April 9 2016 06: 33
    CRS-8 | The first landing stage on the Droneship drinks
    1. itr
      itr April 9 2016 07: 16
      why rejoice ??????? shuttle, snowstorm technology 70-80 years please note completed
      and here it’s clearly some kind of crap. Droneship reminds me of a 5th generation airplane everyone admires him
      but I still didn’t understand what he made a breakthrough (except for the price) it flies at the speed of an airplane of 2 generations and everyone sees it
      1. Kronos07
        Kronos07 April 9 2016 07: 27
        The Falcon 9 lower stage return technology is extremely important for the space program, as reuse can significantly reduce the cost of commercial launches.
        1. itr
          itr April 9 2016 07: 45
          I agree with you, but they returned the stage and not the spaceship, do you feel the difference?
          Want to tell you how to cheaply lower the stage ????? AT A SHOW)))))))))) technology of the beginning of the 20th century
          1. sa-ag
            sa-ag April 9 2016 07: 50
            Quote: itr
            Want to tell you how to cheaply lower the stage ????? ON PARASHUT))))))))) t

            you can return it, only here during a parachute landing you can damage something, because the descent is uncontrolled, and so the rocket got on its supports and that's it

            "... possible deliveries of RD-180 engines to China, purchases of electronic components from China,"
            The Chinese want not just engines, but the entire production with technology, and in the Russian Federation to get only military and space-class components (not production)
            1. itr
              itr April 9 2016 07: 56
              But is this pipe needed ??????? engine repair is doubtful Th going to return? scrap metal ????? Is space debris fighting expensive ?????
              tanks gentlemen with a parachute crew land technology 60 years
              another wash of dough this rocket is not a damn new except for a terrible price
              1. Foofighter
                Foofighter April 9 2016 08: 01
                everyone needs money ... how does it look like an F-35
              2. Kronos07
                Kronos07 April 9 2016 08: 10
                the engine will be used repeatedly
                1. itr
                  itr April 9 2016 08: 23
                  my friend I think the engine will burn for the second time
                  1. Kronos07
                    Kronos07 April 9 2016 09: 02
                    this has already been done. The new Shepard flew out again on April 2, 2016, culminating in 339,178 feet or 103 kilometers. This was the third flight with the same equipment.
            2. Foofighter
              Foofighter April 9 2016 07: 58
              so she sank into the water and all ...
              you can make it controlled and to get up on all the supports - this is not a problem
            3. Voha_krim
              Voha_krim April 9 2016 08: 28
              Quote: sa-ag
              "... possible deliveries of RD-180 engines to China, purchases of electronic components from China,"
              The Chinese want not just engines, but the entire production with technology, and in the Russian Federation to get only military and space-class components (not production)

              Russia is not yet ready to supply rocket engines to China, since it is not involved in a control regime for such technologies.
              "To organize cooperation in the field of rocketry, it is necessary to create a reliable regulatory and legal framework. It would regulate the obligations of the parties to protect and prevent the proliferation of missile technologies. Roscosmos has established working groups with Chinese colleagues in many areas, and we are looking for solutions that may be found. by the end of the year."

              RIA Novosti
          2. Kronos07
            Kronos07 April 9 2016 07: 57
            ON A SHOWER? good luck hi
            1. Foofighter
              Foofighter April 9 2016 08: 03
              Are you going to jump on your ava without him? Ah, well then you definitely need to ...
          3. 528Obrp
            528Obrp April 9 2016 09: 58
            But were there no lunar landings (moreover with a load), primarsion smile ., didn’t there be starts with a load from the moon? and all this almost 50 years ago. What is the point, having the atmosphere, of using this project? Shuttle is yes, but expensive. I agree with you itr
        2. Foofighter
          Foofighter April 9 2016 07: 55
          Wouldn’t it be easier?
          1. Kronos07
            Kronos07 April 9 2016 08: 02
            this is what he wants
            1. Foofighter
              Foofighter April 9 2016 08: 16
              he wants money ... there, next to the space center of the Atlantic Ocean in the video, is it easy to miss him? laughing
            2. The comment was deleted.
          2. Kronos07
            Kronos07 April 9 2016 08: 06
            it's a fuel tank
            1. Foofighter
              Foofighter April 9 2016 08: 18
              not adhered ...
        3. 17085
          17085 April 9 2016 10: 08
          Quote: Kronos07
          Kronos07 (1) Today, 07:27 ↑ New
          The Falcon 9 lower stage return technology is extremely important for the space program, as reuse can significantly reduce the cost of commercial launches.

          What nonsense is this? Cost reduction? Evidence in the studio ...

          On the face, a decrease in the displayed weight due to the fact that you need to carry fuel on the way back.
    2. 17085
      17085 April 9 2016 10: 06
      What a wild offtopic ???
      Well, sat down ... Why ?! This is the last century!
  3. s.melioxin
    s.melioxin April 9 2016 08: 05
    Promising areas of interaction between the parties are the integration of Beidou and GLONASS navigation systems, possible deliveries of RD-180 engines to China, procurement of an electronic component base in China, and joint research projects on the Moon and deep space. As far as one can judge, all projects are at the development stage or at an early stage of implementation. All such complex technical programs require a long coordination, so that the results of joint programs we can only see in a few years.
    To see this in a few years is a very encouraging prediction. The main thing is not decades or centuries. Mutually beneficial partnership, beneficial for their participants. Money was always needed, and now it is needed especially urgently. I hope everything will grow together with us, in a few years.
  4. Pvi1206
    Pvi1206 April 9 2016 08: 55
    Effective managers of Russia sold to China, everything that allowed this country to become one of the leaders in the space industry.
    And now our countries are competitors in this field.
    Modern Russia, unlike China, does not have a space exploration program.
    We work as cabmen.
    Something is certainly done, but haphazardly.
    Therefore, there are no impressive results.
  5. 16112014nk
    16112014nk April 9 2016 11: 18
    The Chinese are great, there is nothing to say. The same cannot be said about Roskosmos, which is better known from scandals about money theft.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets April 9 2016 13: 27
      Quote: 16112014nk
      The Chinese are great, there is nothing to say. The same cannot be said about Roskosmos, which is better known from scandals about money theft.

      The Chinese are already proposing to use Vostochny together.
      1. Odysseus
        Odysseus April 9 2016 13: 46
        Quote: Amurets
        The Chinese are already proposing to use Vostochny together.

        He didn’t hear, he was curious. And why did he need them? They have 4 cosmodromes, plus a fifth to be built. Moreover, they are all further south. They are going to pickle them there))
  6. Jozhkin Cat
    Jozhkin Cat April 9 2016 13: 14
    Well done cho, and we well done and Ukrainians, we have grown a competitor with a potential of one and a half billion people, and the first economy in the world, handsome cho, d .... b ... sad No words, pests of ka ((((
  7. Odysseus
    Odysseus April 9 2016 13: 15
    For the Chinese space program, the expected launch of a new rocket, the Great March 5, will be of fundamental importance. This is the first Chinese heavy rocket, and all the Chinese "huge plans" will depend on the success of these tests. If the rocket works out, then there will be an orbital station and the moon.
    So, let's see.
    It is curious that the PRC chose the Moon, and not Mars (as the USA) as its strategic goal. Plus, the orbiter and satellite constellation.
    As for cooperation with us, there are prospects, or rather, we still have a couple of unrealized Soviet ideas in the collector, but there is no special zeal from the Chinese side (with the exception of the old Chinese chip, buy cheap / steal technology)
    In terms of space, in general, they rely only on themselves.
  8. srha
    srha April 9 2016 14: 54
    Interestingly, very little is said about the main event of the Falcon flight yesterday, but it’s not in the landing of the stage, but in delivery of the BEAM inflatable module to the ISS. The era of tight tins in space begins to end ...
  9. killganoff
    killganoff April 9 2016 17: 00
    Our comrades from the Republic of Kazakhstan made a particularly great contribution to the development of Chinese cosmonautics, transferring an infinite number of products from Baikonur, including the RD-170 engines (LV Energia).
    Maybe the roof of the MIC of the Energia-Buran complex suddenly collapsed to conceal the theft ????
    1. srha
      srha April 10 2016 07: 34
      Quote: killganoff
      Our comrades made a particularly large contribution to the development of Chinese cosmonautics
      But further is unnecessary. I personally saw how your (in the sense of Russia) "comrades" dragged and sold everything that they just could not take! And they beat on the hands of all strangers (one of my distant acquaintances, who interfered with them - twice and to death), including Kazakhs, who for the time being had no access there. Then only they were allowed, and then how many scandals they had to throw ...

      And then, if you think that having received and disassembled the system, you will learn how to do it - check yourself - unsolder the TV, and then assemble it back. Happened?

      I explain that theft is not exactly what underlies the construction of advanced sectors of the economy. They are based on education, infrastructure, advanced technologies, enterprises, design bureaus, scientific schools, economic policy, traditions, etc.

      By the way, why do you rate the technological novelty of Soviet engines so low? Do you think "know how" is not there? But, the Americans cannot repeat the engine, although they are officially selling it to them (that is, with the technical documentation), and the Chinese are building something like that?

      Hee ... So I thought, how is it that if the Kazakhs sold the secrets of the Russians to the Chinese, then why didn’t they weld on the amers?