Military Review

The first guards ships of the Soviet Union

16
The first guards ships of the Soviet Union



They appeared in one of the most difficult periods of the Great Patriotic War - April 3 1942

Russian Marine Guard conducts its history from the first quarter of the 1810th century. The first naval unit of the Russian imperial guard - the Guards crew - was formed only in 110, XNUMX years later than the first land guard units. After the October Revolution, the very notion of the guard was eliminated, and the return of the guard ranks in the Soviet navy again happened a little later than in the army! The first guard units of the ground forces in the USSR appeared on September 18, 1941, and the first guard ships received the title of guard only on April 3, 1942. By order No. 72 of the People's Commissar of the Navy Admiral Nikolai Kuznetsov, the guards became four submarines of the Northern Fleet: D-3 Krasnogvardeets, submarine K-22, M-171 and M-174. The first guards ships from the Red Banner Baltic Fleet were the destroyer Stoykiy, the Marty mine-layer and the Havel minesweeper. And only one warship of the Black Sea Fleet was awarded the guards title, but it was the largest and most powerful ship - the cruiser "Red Caucasus".

In fairness, it must be said that a little earlier, the Marine ranks and naval pilots who had fought hand in hand with the Red Army fighters from the first days of the war received the ranks. The 5 naval rifle brigade, renamed 1942 guards rifle brigade, was awarded the first 71 in January 2 of the Guards rank. On January 8, four more naval units became guards: three Baltic air regiments (the 1 th mine-torpedo and the 5 th and 13 th fighter, after being re-formed into the 1 th guards mine-torpedo and 3 th and 4 th fighter) and one air regiment of the Northern Fleet - 72-th mixed, after the assignment of the title became the 2-th Guards fighter. And 18 March 1942 was awarded the title of the Guards 75 th naval rifle brigade, which became the 3 th Guards rifle brigade

Until the end of the war the number of Guard ships, parts and connections of the Soviet Navy has increased substantially: 18 16 surface ships and submarines, combat boats 13 divisions, two air divisions, 20 regiments, two anti-aircraft artillery regiment, a brigade of marines and marine railway artillery brigade. The last guards unit in the fleet during the 26 war of September 1945 of the year was the 6 th Fighter Regiment, after assigning it was renamed the 22 th Guards Fighter Regiment of the Pacific Fleet.

But no matter how great the merits of the marines and naval pilots, the fleet is first and foremost warships. That is why the birthday of the marine guard in the Soviet Navy is considered to be 3 on April 1942 of the year. And the first Guards ships deserve to briefly but tell about the fate and the battle path of each of them.

Guards submarine D-3 "Red Guard"


The D-3 submarine was the third submarine of the first Soviet project of large submarines - series I. It was laid at the Baltic 5 plant in March 1927 of the year, 14 in November, 1931 of the year entered the sea forces of the Baltic Sea, and 21 in September of 1933, made the transition from Leningrad to Murmansk - to the structure of the Northern military flotilla. In February 1935, the submarine involved in the operation to support the activities of the first drifting polar station North Pole-1, for the first time in the history of the world submarine fleet, made an 30-minute sub-ice voyage. During World War II, the boat made seven combat campaigns and did not return from the eighth. D-3 became the first submarine in the USSR Navy to be awarded the title of Red Banner (the Order of the Red Banner of the Red Guard awarded 17 of January 1942 of the year) and the title of the Guard. According to official data from the Soviet side, the 12 torpedoes recorded 30 sunk ships with a total displacement of 8 28 brt and one damaged by the displacement of 140 brt, to the account of the “Red Guard” who committed 3200 torpedo attacks and fired XNUMX torpedoes.

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This submarine actually repeated the fate of the D-3: the same eight combat campaigns, the last of which ended with the disappearance of the boat, the same entry into service first of the Baltic, and then the Northern Fleet. The boat was laid in Leningrad at the plant number 196 5 in January 1938 of the year according to the project of the XVI series - the largest Soviet submarines of the pre-war period - and after ten months it was launched. 7 August 1940, the boat became part of the Baltic, and October 30 1941, after crossing the White Sea-Baltic Canal - the Northern Fleet. K-22 has 9 sunk ships - transport and auxiliary, as well as warships. 7 February 1943, the submarine for the last time contacted the submarine K-3, with which she made a joint military campaign, and nothing more is known about her.

Guards submarine "M-171"

The “Baby” type XII submarine of the XII series was laid at 196 plant in Leningrad 10 September 1936 of the year, launched into 10 months, and 25 December 1937 of the year became part of the Baltic Fleet under the letter M-87. A year and a half later, 21 June 1939, the boat, having passed the White Sea Canal, reached Murmansk and became part of the Northern Fleet under the designation M-171. It was with this letter that the boat deserved its military glory, having performed 29 combat campaigns during the years of the Great Patriotic War, performed 20 torpedo attacks, launched 38 torpedoes and recorded two credible trophies: German Curryba 29 of the year German transport Curityba (XNUM) brt) and damaged 1942 January 4969, the German transport “Ilona Siemers” (29 brt). The submarine served as part of the Soviet Navy until 1943: in 3245 she returned to the Baltic as an underwater mine layer, in 1960 she switched to the training subclass, and 1945 in June 1950, after 30 years of service, was excluded from the list of Navy ships .

Guards submarine "M-174"


Like the M-171 submarine, the M-174 was laid in Leningrad, but a little later - April 29 1937 of the year, and when bookmarked it received the lettered designation M-91. 7 July 1938 of the year she was launched, and 21 June 1938 of the year she joined the Baltic Fleet. Both “Baby” got to the North at the same time, having made the transition along the White Sea-Baltic Canal from 15 May to 19 June 1939 of the year. The 21 of June 1939 of the year already named M-174 was included in the Northern Fleet, and she managed to make one combat campaign during the Winter War of 1939-40, although without success. During the Great Patriotic War, the boat made 17 combat campaigns, but from the last 14, launched in October 1943, did not return. During service, M-174 launched 3 torpedo attacks and launched 5 torpedoes, recording credibly confirmed German transport Emshörn (4301 brt), sunk 21 in December 1941 of the year.


The submarine that sank the fascist transport approached the base pier. Photo: TASS

Guards squadron "Resistant"

This destroyer was laid in Leningrad, at the plant number XXUMX 190 August 26 of the year on the most massive pre-war project of Soviet destroyers. 1936 December 26 launched it, and on October 1938 18, the “Resistant” entered service and became part of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet. He fought from the very first day of the war, and his participation in the unique operation to evacuate the Soviet garrison of the Hanko Peninsula brought glory to this ship. A detachment of ships for this operation was formed on October 1940 30 of the year, and, among many others, it included “Resistant” and two other first Guards ships in the Baltic - the minzahraditel “Marti” and the minesweeper “Gafel”. But it was at “Resistance” that the squadron commander and operations leader, Vice Admiral Valentin Drozd, whose flag was assigned to the ship by 1941 February 13 of the year, held the flag after the death of the commander. The destroyer served in the Baltic until 1943, the last time - as a target ship.

Guards mine layer "Marty"


This is the oldest among all the first Guards of the Soviet Navy. October 1 1893 was laid at the Danish shipyard as a royal steam yacht “Standart”, and after the launch of March 21 1895, he became the favorite yacht of the last Russian emperor Nicholas II. In 1917, the Centrobalt, the command of revolutionary sailors, was on its board, and after the legendary Ice Campaign from Helsingfors to Kronstadt, the yacht was put into storage. And only in 1936, the ship returned to service: it was converted into a minelayer. The “Marty” war, which received this name in 1938, met 22 June in the Tallinn roadstead, and on the night of June 23 entered the first battle of mines. During the war, "Marty" made 12 combat campaigns, put 3159 mines and shot down 6 enemy planes. He remained in service until the 1961 year, bringing the latest benefit to the fleet as a target ship for rocket firing.


Minelayer "Marty". Photo: wikipedia.org

Guards minesweeper "Gafel"

Another participant of the legendary campaign to Hanko, the minesweeper "Gafel" was laid in Leningrad on October 12 1937 of the year on the 53 project - the most massive project of the base minesweepers of 1930-40. 23 July 1939, he entered service and entered the Baltic Fleet. He participated in the Winter War, met the war in Kronstadt, became famous as an active participant in the evacuation of the defenders of Hanko, trawling until the end of the war and ended his service in the 1 fleet of September 1955.

Guards cruiser "Red Caucasus"


It was laid in Nikolaev in 1913 year as the light cruiser “Admiral Lazarev”, but in 1918 year the construction was interrupted. It resumed only in 1927 year, after the ship was renamed the "Red Caucasus". He entered into service 25 January 1932, becoming the most modern ship of the Soviet fleet at the time - and the last in its composition, which was laid in Tsarist Russia. The cruiser met the war in Sevastopol, and already 23 and 24 June engaged in setting minefields on the approaches to Sevastopol harbor. The "Red Caucasus" participated in the defense of Odessa and Sevastopol, in the Kerch-Feodosiya paratrooper at the end of December 1941. It was in Feodosia 4 on January 1942 of the year that the cruiser sustained heavy damage during the bombing, which put it in for repair for half a year. But already in August, the 1942-th "Red Caucasus" returned to service, and served until 21 in November 1952, when, already disarmed and turned into a target ship, served the last service, taking an anti-ship cruise missile from a Tu-4 bomber. It is symbolic that this happened in the region of Feodosia, and the ship 3 of January 1953 was excluded from the ship lists of the fleet.
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik April 10 2016 07: 57
    +1
    Thank you for the story of the naval guards ..
  2. Amurets
    Amurets April 10 2016 07: 57
    0
    Article plus: Quite interesting, but it would be necessary to indicate the commanders of the ships, under whose command they received this title.
  3. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
    Andrei from Chelyabinsk April 10 2016 09: 31
    +5
    And only one warship of the Black Sea Fleet was awarded the guards title, but it was the largest and most powerful ship - the cruiser "Red Caucasus".

    I believe that for the landings in Feodosia (the first - under field artillery fire, the second - under the bombs of dive bombers), the ship earned the title of Guards. But to call it the largest (if the Black Sea Fleet has the battleship "Parizhskaya Kommuna" and two KRLs that surpassed it in size) and powerful (taking into account the fact that the main caliber of the cruiser (4 -180 mm) was even countably inferior to the newest Black Sea "Molotov" and "Voroshilov", but in fact was incapable of combat due to burnout of the barrels) - this, dear author, is just five with a plus.
    In fairness, it must be said that a little earlier the guard ranks were received by the marines and naval pilots who fought hand in hand with the soldiers of the Red Army from the first days of the war

    I do not dispute the assignment of the Guards to the Marines. The Soviet marines, even according to the Deutsches, are something completely legendary. God forbid to cast some kind of shadow on our land infantry, which Mellenthin, who fought on the Eastern Front, called with purely soldier's directness "one of the pillars of the existing world order" (I, by the way, am quoting literally), but THESE ... THIS ... in general, even by the standards of the Soviet troops (for Russians, death is not a valid reason ...) it was something with something.
    But what for naval aviation ?!
    The K-22 combat account lists 9 sunken ships - transport and auxiliary, as well as warships

    It’s a pity that according to German data, none of these ships was sunk.
    Guards submarine "M-174"

    It’s a completely different matter - for just entering the Linahamari raid. Although how it was possible to miss on standing transport from a distance of a kilometer - it is not clear.
    Guards squadron "Resistant"

    He fought with dignity. But nothing extraordinary is listed for him, as, indeed, for the rest of the ships listed in the article.
  4. PPD
    PPD April 10 2016 09: 50
    +1
    Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk

    The K-22 combat account lists 9 sunken ships - transport and auxiliary, as well as warships

    It is a pity that neither K-1 nor K-3 were appreciated. One champion among Katyushas for recessed mines, another
    on artillery torpedoes. By really sunk, not attributed.
    Without denying the merits and merits of the Red Caucasus, it is worth noting that the honorable right to enter first in Sevastopol in 44g. provided to the Red Crimea. Same to the Guards.
    PS Yes, but 1 transport and 2 motorbots for K-22 are listed. But Norwegian.
    1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
      Andrei from Chelyabinsk April 10 2016 11: 31
      +1
      Quote: PPD
      Yes, and 1 vehicles and 2 motorbots for K-22 are listed. But Norwegian.

      Thank you, I didn’t. And what kind of transport? I would be very grateful if you tell me the name.
      Quote: PPD
      It is a pity that neither K-1 nor K-3 were appreciated.

      This is, as always, the punishment of the innocent and the rewarding of the uninvolved. Although the only torpedo attack of the K-1 seems to be futile, but on the mines fired by it ... yes.
      And K-3, even for one ascent and an artillery attack by the ships chasing it, could safely be given the guard rank. And she won, and one guard (let even redone from the seiner) sank. Here are still not drunk men in the Russian land!
  5. Verdun
    Verdun April 10 2016 10: 08
    -1
    If you do not take into account the German submariners, who developed and successfully applied the tactics of "wolf packs", the actions of the fleets of all other countries that participated in the Second World War look chaotic, if not mediocre. Most likely, due to unsettled views on the tactics and strategy of naval operations. Victories in major naval battles are won rather by chance or because of the obvious mistakes of the losing side. Due to their obvious weakness, the Soviet fleets did not take part in major battles. The largest and most efficient ships were locked in the waters of the Baltic and Black Seas, where their usefulness was highly questionable. I do not question the seamen's personal courage. There was something to reward them for. But the assignment of the title of "guards" to a ship, which in its essence is only an instrument, is a beautiful propaganda move, and not a recognition of real military merits.
    1. PPD
      PPD April 10 2016 10: 32
      +1
      Quote: Verdun
      But the assignment of the title of "guards" to a ship, which in its essence is only an instrument, is a beautiful propaganda move, and not a recognition of real military merits.

      It is absolutely impossible to agree with you! The merits of the same Red Crimea are undeniable.
      And not just him. The absence of major naval battles in the Baltic and the Black Sea is not a reason to question the merits of the fleet, and even more so does not speak of its weaknesses. The Germans bombarded the Baltic with mines, why, if the fleet is weak. They say we will not arrange a naval battle, are you too weak !? Kohl fleet zero on a stick, someone who interfered with the propaganda slogan battleship Tirpitz on the Neva near the Hermitage. And in Murmansk, he never appeared. But the Federation Council did not really differ in strength. The sinking of the timber truck Izhora is about the true power of German weapons. laughing
    2. Vladimirets
      Vladimirets April 10 2016 14: 14
      0
      Quote: Verdun
      due to obvious mistakes of the losing side.

      Someone’s victories are always someone’s mistakes. yes
      Quote: Verdun
      where the benefit of them was very doubtful.

      That is why the ancient Baltic battleships were intensely bombed by German aircraft. wink
      Quote: Verdun
      But conferring the title of "guards" on a ship, which is essentially just an instrument, is a beautiful propaganda move.

      And the associations, formations and military units? By your logic, this is generally just a crowd of soldiers, and not a specific heroic personality. And yes, this is essentially a propaganda move, but there is nothing wrong with that, the rank of a guard imposes certain obligations on a soldier, which greatly affects combat effectiveness.
      1. Verdun
        Verdun April 10 2016 14: 30
        0
        And I did not say that such a propaganda move is bad. There is no war without propaganda. As for the battleships. Yes, their weapons provided undeniable assistance to besieged Leningrad at the initial stage. However, the resource of the main caliber barrels on ships of pre-revolutionary construction was practically exhausted. At the same "Sevastopol", when firing, fragments of liners flew out along with the barrels. The damaged "Marat" had nowhere to go, and the "October Revolution" was carefully camouflaged for a long time and, in order not to break the camouflage, did not open fire. With the tasks of artillery cover of the city, ground batteries could well cope. The purpose of the fleet is somewhat different. Leaving the base in Tallinn, the Baltic fleet found itself in almost complete isolation and could not carry out the tasks assigned to it. And the attacks of German bombers were carried out not only for the sake of achieving strategic and tactical results. For the Germans, propaganda was equally important. Is it no joke to send the "October Revolution" to the bottom!
        1. Vladimirets
          Vladimirets April 10 2016 16: 24
          0
          Quote: Verdun
          The damaged "Marat" had nowhere to go, and the "October Revolution" was carefully camouflaged for a long time and, in order not to break the camouflage, did not open fire.

          For a long time, when is this? September-October, the battleship actively worked along the coast until the Germans could not be stopped. Further throughout the winter, holes were patched.
          Quote: Verdun
          With the tasks of artillery cover of the city could well cope ground batteries.

          It sounds to you as if the battleships simply had nothing to do along the shore. There were not enough ground batteries, none were missing. If the ground batteries could handle it, then the battleships wouldn’t have the point of shooting the main guns.
          Quote: Verdun
          For the Germans, propaganda was equally important. Is it no joke, to send to the bottom of the "October Revolution"!

          According to your logic, "Marat" could not be drowned, why the hell did the Frenchman give up? laughing
          1. Verdun
            Verdun April 10 2016 22: 21
            -1
            "... and as a result of the severe wear of the main gun barrel bores, which reached 59-77%, the command of the fleet used naval artillery only in extreme cases. In 1942, the battleship was involved in counter-battery firing only twice. The firing was carried out by mine-caliber artillerymen." IF Tsvetkov, "Battleship" October Revolution "This is the answer to the first question.
            And at the same time on the second. At first they even had fun by shooting shrapnel from the main caliber at observation balloons. Then it passed.
            The use of the fleet can be considered effective only when it acts on the enemy's communications and conducts active offensive and defensive actions. Conservation of warships at bases is a flawed idea. In the northern fleet, battleships would be much more useful. With "Tirpitz" would hardly have coped, but with "Scheer" - easily. As for "Marat", if you hadn't turned up in time the bank on which you managed to plant it, it would have been at the bottom for sure. And so for almost the entire war there was not a ship, but a coastal battery.
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  7. Verdun
    Verdun April 10 2016 11: 01
    0
    Quote: PPD
    It is absolutely impossible to agree with you! The merits of the same Red Crimea are undeniable.

    You read carefully what others write. Yes, people fought bravely, and that's a fact. But what does iron have to do with it, even the most perfect? Nobody awarded the title of "Guards" to individual machine guns or shovels, did they? And I think there were reasons. And about the Baltic ... Because of the abundance of minefields, it was called "soup with dumplings". And there were no less of our mines than the German ones. It was they, and not the obsolete battleships that had almost exhausted their resources, who prevented the Kriegsmarines from visiting Leningrad. The Germans, alas, were not too afraid of our surface fleet. But our submarines, based in large numbers in the Baltic, had little desire to allow our submarines to access their communications. The result is a high level of losses among submariners of the Baltic Fleet with a small number of victories. Which, of course, is sad.
    1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
      Andrei from Chelyabinsk April 10 2016 16: 01
      0
      Quote: Verdun
      If you do not take into account the German submariners, who developed and successfully applied the tactics of "wolf packs", the actions of the fleets of all other countries that participated in World War II look chaotic

      Huh. Here, for example, a raid on Pearl Harbor and the seizure of vast territories by Japan - welter from welds. And as soon as the Americans then hatched them out of there for so many years?
      Quote: Verdun
      if not to say - mediocre.

      Well, everyone imagines himself a strategist, seeing the battle from the side
      Quote: PPD
      Victories in major naval battles were gained rather by chance or because of obvious mistakes of the losing side

      I dare to ask, and who and what is the mistake in the battle of Matapan? In the battle of the Mariana Islands? Do Savo? In the coral sea? When Leyte? What are the obvious mistakes Doorman made in his last fight?
      Quote: Verdun
      Yes, people fought bravely, and that is a fact. But what does the iron have to do with it, even the most perfect?

      There is no difference in the name of the guard, say, a division, and a ship
      1. Verdun
        Verdun April 10 2016 22: 46
        0
        Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
        Huh. Here, for example, a raid on Pearl Harbor and the seizure of vast territories by Japan - welter from welds. And as soon as the Americans then hatched them out of there for so many years?

        Pearl Harbor is not a question for the Japanese, but for the Americans. With a careful study of the facts, you are more and more inclined to think that this was really Roosevelt's setup, for the sake of the United States entering the war. It sounds cynical, but otherwise it has to be admitted that the military leadership of the base in the Philippines was the only one clinical, which is very doubtful. The beating at Cape Matapan (you cannot call such a battle) is a clear mistake of the technical leadership of the Italian fleet, which did not equip ships with radars in time. Other listed battles are more likely to pile wall to wall than a serious embodiment of tactical and strategic plans. You still say that the battle of the Jutland Islands - the top naval genius.
        And as for the guards ... There is no difference between the guards division and the guards naval crew. And between the division and the ship - there is.
  8. exo
    exo April 10 2016 11: 58
    0
    "This is the oldest among all the first guards ships of the Soviet Navy. On October 1, 1983, it was laid down at the Danish shipyard as the tsarist steam yacht Shtandart" .....
    I think the bookmark year should be fixed :)
    And so-interesting article. Plus
  9. PPD
    PPD April 10 2016 12: 01
    0
    Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk

    Thank you, I didn’t. And what kind of transport? I would be very grateful if you tell me the name.

    December 11, 1941 met 3 motobots 1 on a rope. drowned 2-Alpar and Borgar.
    January 19, 1942-Vaaland (106brt) -this carried mail and products. Then she shot at Mimona, she was sitting on the stones-
    "sunk". True, a month later the same steamer in the same place "sunk" s-101. He was sitting on the stones. laughing
    According to the results of the intercepted negotiations, ours felt that the cargo was a short fur coat for the Germans. Hence the title.
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