2 April 2016, we again heard the alarm bell. He came from Nagorno-Karabakh. Which side first opened fire in Nagorno-Karabakh is difficult to answer today and at the same time very simple. Although officials from both sides accuse each other of escalating the conflict, it is clear who first started this war. And why.
The head of the press service of the Ministry of Defense of Azerbaijan, Vagif Därgahly, in an interview with the central Russian channel by telephone, said that at night on April 2, Armenian troops began shelling Azerbaijani territory. “There are dead and wounded among the local population. In response to the attack by the armed forces of Azerbaijan, the command, measures were taken on preventive strikes. ”
In turn, the press secretary of the Minister of Defense of the Republic of Armenia Artsrun Hovhannisyan stated on April 2 that heavy fighting is being carried out using tanksartillery aviation. “The enemy has already lost two helicopters, two drones and three tanks,” Hovhannisyan said.
The next day, 3 of April, the details of the beginning of the conflict became known, reported by the plenipotentiary representative of the NKR (the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic was formed by 2 September 1991) in Moscow Albert Andryan: “In 02.00, the Azerbaijani army after a massive artillery preparation launched an offensive along the entire front line ".
The journalist-orientalist Vadim Arutyunov, having contacted by telephone with his sources in the NKR, said that the fighting on the morning of April 2 began in two of the seven districts of the republic. “There is a border post of Armenian border guards in the Martuni district. Azerbaijanis wanted to strike at them, and hit the secondary school. Two children were injured there, one 12-year-old schoolboy was killed. The injured children in a state of shock were sent to the hospital in Stepanakert. The soldiers of the defense army of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic gave them a fitting rebuff. 30 people of Azerbaijanis died. They sent a helicopter to pick up the dead, the Armenians knocked out their helicopter. Now Azerbaijanis have relocated to the north, to the Martakert region, ”explained Arutyunov.
Representatives of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic noted that the Azerbaijani side used aviation, heavy artillery and multiple rocket launchers during the attack. Such a major clash occurred for the first time since the cease-fire and the announcement of a truce, i.e. from May 1994 of the year.
Yerevan and Baku have been sharing this land for many years. Even history the two sides divided, pulling historical evidence to their side.
It is believed that the history of Nagorno-Karabakh originates from six caves located in the area of the Vorvan village of Azykh (which means “unripe grapes”). This village, located in 900 meters above sea level, became famous after the remains of an ancient man were found here. The Azerbaijani side immediately took this ancient person to itself and called for renaming the village, completely ignoring the resistance of the local residents. What can we say that the Azerbaijani ideologists immediately tied up a few words and came to the conclusion that the Azerbaijani people started here: the cave “Azokh” became known as “azih”, and this word became the primary basis of the word “Azer”.
It is worth noting that the problem of relations between the two peoples was not solved either in Tsarist or in Soviet Russia. This point on the map of the country was a long ember, capable at any moment with a favorable “ignition” and unfavorable political wind to erupt instantaneously. This happened twice in the 20th century: in 1905-1907 and 1918-1920. And only a skilled external leadership of the third forces could briefly bring the warring parties out of the abyss of bloodshed.
There was no consensus among the Soviet leadership. The correspondence between the plenipotentiary of Soviet Russia in Georgia, Sergei Kirov, the RSFSR foreign commissar Georgy Chicherin, a member of the party’s Central Committee Grigory Ordzhonikidze (overthrown by the government of Armenia and Azerbaijan, created the ZSSR), the chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars Vladimir Lenin, the head of the SNK of Azerbaijan Nariman Narimanov is widely known. (real name Nariman Kerbalai Najaf-ogly), People's Commissar for the Affairs of Nationalities of the RSFSR Joseph Stalin on solving the problem of disputed territories on the border between Armenia th and Azerbaijan. Moreover, in one of his letters, Chicherin proposed to introduce Russian troops into the conflict areas.
After Armenia became a Soviet republic, 1 December 1920, the Azerbaijani government voluntarily renounced its territorial claims, sending a corresponding message that the former borders between the two countries are canceled, and three regions - Zangezur, Nakhchivan and Nagorny Karabakh - are recognized incorporated into the Armenian Socialist Republic.
However, after about seven months, in June 1921, the Azerbaijani leadership, in the person of Narimanov, demanded that Nagorny Karabakh be left as part of Azerbaijan, threatening to restore anti-Soviet groups.
But these threats did not work. A month later, in July, at a special meeting of the Caucasian Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b), it was decided to include Nagorno-Karabakh into Armenia. But the same day Narimanov categorically demanded the next day to postpone the resolution of this issue to Moscow, to the Central Committee meeting. And on the second day he re-convened a meeting of the Caucasus Bureau, at which the first decree was canceled. A new resolution was adopted, the resolution of which sounded as follows: “Based on the need for a national peace between Muslims and Armenians to the economic link between Upper and Lower Karabakh, its permanent link with Azerbaijan, leave Nagorny Karabakh within Az. SSR, giving it a wide regional autonomy with the administrative center in the city of Shusha, which is part of the autonomous region ”(CPA IML, f. 17, op. 13, d. 384, l. 67).
Over the next 70 years, Azerbaijan sought to clear the territory of Nagorno-Karabakh from the ethnic population and settle the area with Azerbaijani migrants.
Nagorno-Karabakh “burned” on the map of the Soviet Union during the years of perestroika, when the largest geopolitical catastrophe of the 20th century took place. It was then that the Soviet citizens learned about the bloody destruction of the Soviet civilian population, it was then that voices began to be heard that Gorbachev did not want to prevent the conflict that started, it was then that details of destruction, atrocities and fierce hatred began to spread throughout the country - a natural apogee of which was a natural man-made disaster. Spitak earthquake.
It seemed that nature itself had fallen on the bloody land, adding even more chaos and death. This temporarily stopped the howling parties. But only for a while. In 1991, the next, even more exacerbated situation occurred.
Historian Swante Cornell wrote: “Of all the Caucasian conflicts, the Karabakh conflict has the greatest strategic and regional significance. This conflict is the only one on the territory of the former Soviet Union in which two independent states are directly involved. Moreover, at the end of the 1990s, the Karabakh conflict contributed to the formation of groups of states opposing each other in and around the Caucasus. ”
In January, 1990, in response to the statement of the Nagorno-Karabakh autonomy about secession from Azerbaijan, unrest began in Baku: a wave of pogroms broke out in the Armenian quarters of Baku. And then - in Sumgait and Kirovabad. Spilled the first blood.
To prevent a massacre, a state of emergency was introduced by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in Azerbaijan.
Meanwhile, on the territory of the Nagorno-Karabakh autonomy between Armenians and Azerbaijanis began shooting.
With the popular front led by Abulfaz Elchibeyev in Baku, the demands on the Armenians living in the republic became sharper. Immediately leave the country - this is the main requirement. With respect to those who did not want to leave their homes, force actions were held. Everywhere panic reigned, people were terribly frightened, fled from their homes with their children at five o'clock in the morning.
The Armenians left the ravaged villages along the mountain paths. For artillery fire, they became a good target. Similar columns of Azerbaijani refugees moved in Baku in the opposite direction.
In the autonomy of Baku, in consultation with Moscow, introduced a state of emergency. The units of the 4 Army stationed in Azerbaijan received an order: to suppress the centers of resistance, to carry out the “Ring” operation.
In early May, the 1991 of the 23 column of the airborne division entered Karabakh. The blocking of the Armenian villages was led by the Azerbaijani military. The capture of one village was led by the Minister of Defense of Azerbaijan.
As a result of the operation “Ring”, the entire Armenian population of the Shaumyan district of Karabakh was deported. From Nagorno-Karabakh in 1990, about 30 Armenian villages were deported.
For the first time in Nagorno-Karabakh, hostage exchange began to be practiced. It has become a profitable business. Shooting went on more and more, people disappeared more and more quickly. The reports were becoming more disturbing. At the end of the summer of 1991, the whole world carefully observed the results of the referendum in Stepanakert, according to which the Armenians unanimously voted for secession from Azerbaijan and for the formation of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. There were voices for entry into Russia. She was looked upon as a savior.
In the meantime, a secret order was already being prepared in Moscow to withdraw armed forces of the Russian army from the conflict zone. This challenge, according to eyewitnesses, was like running away: to the mercy of fate dozens of officers and soldiers were thrown. And then there was an amazing metamorphosis. The Azerbaijanis, the recent allies, were shaking out the families of military personnel, shaking their suitcases on the ground, examining the contents, selecting what they liked, and shoving people like cattle into airplanes.
Orientalist journalist Vadim Arutyunov says that "everything is really simple." Literally not long ago, Aliyev met with the Turkish leader Recep Tayyip Erdogan. The media actively discussed the kiss of Aliyev with Erdogan. And the latter tried to escape, but Aliyev caught his hand, kissed him again, and together they embraced the building.
One of the main causes of aggression is to aggravate the situation in the region. Azerbaijan committed an act of aggression, knowing that Armenia will not be silent. Azerbaijan is a fraternal ally of Turkey. They even have one motto: one nation - two states. Knowing that Armenia is part of the CSTO, naturally, Russia will also intervene, so far, perhaps, not by military means. Naturally, the CSTO forces will be on the side of Armenia. This will be a kind of retaliation for Erdogan Putin.
Secondly, it is necessary to take into account one more important factor. It is known that for two months in Azerbaijan there has been an economic collapse associated with a sharp decline in oil prices and a fall in the national currency, manat: on March 12 of 2016, it collapsed. Because of this, rallies and demonstrations began in the country. Naturally, in order to divert the population from internal problems, it was necessary to begin hostilities. Yes, and Turkey helped. A month and a half ago, the Prime Minister of Turkey flew in and told Aliyev that you could start fighting, “the fraternal Turkish people will support all your undertakings,” Arutyunov said.
And, indeed, supported. In words. TASS reported that Recep Tayyip Erdogan "expressed support and solidarity in connection with the events on the contact line of the troops of Armenia and Azerbaijan."
According to political analyst Ivan Ivannikov, “the national idea of Armenia in the 21st century is to recognize the Armenian Genocide as Turkey in 1915 a year, and Nagorno-Karabakh as part of the territory of modern Armenia. In fact, after the collapse of the USSR, Karabakh is a part of Armenia, but there has not been any legal recognition of this fact, and there is still no such thing. A legal fact of the legal status of the occupied territory and a permanent “sleeping conflict” of a military-political nature arose. The presence of a Russian military base on Armenian territory was a deterrent to the aggression of a well-equipped Azerbaijani army against Armenia. The introduction of sanctions against Russia by the USA, Canada and the European Union in 2014 a year has exhausted the country's economy a little. The United States understands that drawing Russia into new military conflicts will weaken its economy even more and may provoke protests of the population. This is all the more dangerous on the eve of the upcoming parliamentary elections in September 2016. Russia is not ready for protracted military assistance from the DPR, the LPR and more to Armenia in the event of a military conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan. However, Russia cannot leave Armenia in the lurch. In any case, the government of Azerbaijan made a big mistake if it turns out that it was the first to start this war. ”