According to Medvedeva, Boris Chertok died on Friday at 07: 40 in the morning. Colleagues of the academician about the place and time of the farewell ceremony will be reported later.
For many years, Boris Chertok was the head of the preparation and conduct of astronautics academic readings. To many, they are known as the Royal Readings. Until recent days, the outstanding designer remained an employee of RSC Energia and lectured to students.
Alexei Leonov, twice Hero of the USSR, the first person to be in outer space, commenting on the sad news, said: “The last person who connected us to the era of SP Korolev died. With the departure of Boris Evseevich, unfortunately, the era of great domestic cosmic achievements. This is great sadness. Sorry for the person. Kind, intelligent, powerful - because the weak do not live for a hundred years. I offered to make a film about Boris Yevseyevich while he was alive. Unfortunately, they did not have time. With his departure the truthful was lost the witness of the heyday of the great cosmic Skogen state. "
“Together with Korolyov Chertok, the German archives were being sorted out, recreating the V-2 rocket bit by bit in the USSR. This rocket formed the basis of domestic ballistic missiles and the legendary Seven, which is a prototype of the current Soyuz. He participated in the creation of the first artificial satellite Earth, "Salyutov", "Sunrise", "Vostokov", all automatic lunar stations, reusable ships "Buran", - reminded Leonov.
Chertok about his dream and the secret code for Gagarin
The main achievements of the Soviet Union in space exploration are connected with the name of Boris Evseevich. He was always eager to share memories of past events. So, in an interview with the Rossiyskaya Gazeta, given to 7 years ago, Chertok admitted that the flight into space was his dream, revealed the reasons for the loss of the Soviet Union’s “lunar race” to the Americans, spoke about the secret code for Gagarin.
The academician also spoke about the first meeting with Korolev, which took place in Germany in 1945 year. Chertok at that time was the head of the Rab Institute. The main objective of the institute was the restoration of German rocket technology. “Once they called from Berlin:“ Lieutenant Colonel Korolev will come to you. ”I remember seeing his very battered Opel Cadet, I immediately thought:“ A small bird ... ”, Chertok said, smiling. At the same time, he noted that Korolev he conquered him at once. Chertok, describing the character of the Queen, noted that he was never shy in strong expressions, but very quickly departed.
In an interview, Chertok also expressed the opinion that the Soviet Union was not able to send its astronauts first to the Moon, since it refused to ground the first stage of the H-1 launch vehicle. "To carry out the tests, it was necessary to build a very expensive and huge fire stand. It was decided not to build. Therefore, constructive, design, and technological failures appeared on the launches. If ground tests were carried out, they would have manifested even then," the academician explained.
The point in the "Moon Program", he said, was put by three people: Mstislav Keldysh - President of the Academy of Sciences, Sergey Afanasyev - Minister of General Engineering and Dmitry Ustinov - Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU in defense affairs. They decided that after four unsuccessful launches, there was no point in continuing the “moon race”. By that time, Korolev had already died, and Vasily Mishin took the place of the chief designer. Although the developers suggested building a base on the moon, the "trinity" did not agree with them. Therefore, the project was not implemented.
The interview also included the flight of Yuri Gagarin. “Of course, we were very risky going to Gagarin’s launch. True, it should be noted that the Americans followed us showed great courage: they had worse reliability of launching a man into Mercury,” said the academician.
Boris Chertok told the following about the reasons for assigning the secret 125 code to Gagarin: “According to psychologists, a person who happened to be alone with the Universe could have a roof.” Someone was asked to enter a digital lock for the first flight. "125", it was possible to use the power of the manual control system. "
According to Boris Evseevich, this code was sealed in an envelope. “It was assumed that if Gagarin could get an envelope and after reading it would dial the code, then he could take control over his own mind. However, Oleg Ivanovsky, the lead designer of Vostokov, admitted that he had reported before the flight code Gagarin ", - he said.
Journalists at the end of the interview asked Boris Yevseyevich if he ever wanted to be in space himself. He honestly replied that he wanted to, but added with irony that at his age "it would have been a perfectly justifiable risk."
In another interview that Boris Chertok gave to the Russian Space magazine (which was published this spring on the Roskomos website), he regretted that, to date, earthlings in the Universe had not found their comrades in mind.
"I am 99 years old and I am satisfied that I was involved in the events that had historical value. However, it is sad to realize that in the visible space we are alone. The Hubble telescope discovered a large number of exoplanets, but nowhere are there the necessary conditions for the origin of life. Today, the only hope for the satellite of Jupiter is Europe. There, under the ice shell, oceans of water are supposedly located. Perhaps there will be able to find traces of life. However, while the mind is peculiar only to the inhabitant of the planet Earth - man, "said the academician.
Boris Evseevich Chertok. Biography
Boris Evseevich was born in Lodz (Poland) 1 March 1912 Moscow Institute of Energy graduated in 1940. During the period from 1940 to 1945, he worked in the Design Bureau of Chief Designer Viktor Bolkhovitinov.
Chertok in the specials. The commission was sent to Germany in April 1945 of. There, Chertok until January 1947 was the head of a group of Soviet specialists who studied the FAA missiles. Boris Chertok and Aleksei Isaev in the same year, organized in Thuringia (on the Soviet occupation zone) a joint Soviet-German institute "Rabe". The main focus of work was the study and development of control technology for long-range ballistic missiles. On the basis of the institute created a new institute - "Nordhausen". Sergey Korolev was appointed chief engineer of this institute.
Boris Chertok from this time worked closely with Korolev. In 1946, Boris Evseevich was transferred to the post of deputy. Chief Engineer and Head of the Control Systems Department of the Scientific Research Institute-88 (Research Institute N88) of the Ministry of Weapons and Equipment. Chertok in 1950 was appointed deputy head, and in 1951, and head of the control systems department of the OKB-1 research institute-88 (Special Design Bureau N1, today RSC Energia). Korolev was the chief designer.
In 1974, Chertok was appointed deputy. General Designer for Management Systems NPO "Energy". Since 1946, his scientific and engineering activities have been associated with the development and creation of control systems for spacecraft and rockets.
Chertok was the leader in creating the school, which to this day determines the scientific directions, as well as the level of domestic technology for manned space flights.
In 1961, Mr. B. Chertok received the title of Hero of Socialist Labor, was elected member of the USSR Academy of Sciences in the Department of Mechanics and Control Processes in 1968, full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences - in 2000, full member of the International Academy of Astronautics - in 1990.
Chertok's work is marked by a large number of awards. He received two orders of Lenin (1956, 1961), the Order of the October Revolution in 1971, the Order of the Red Banner in 1975, the Red Star in 1945, the IV Degree of Merit for the Fatherland, the Boris Medal in 1996 Petrova RAS, in 1992 - Gold Medal named after Sergei Korolev, RAS.
In addition, Boris Yevseyevich for participation in the creation of the first artificial earth satellites was the winner of the Lenin Prize (1957), for participation in the implementation of the project "Union-Apollo" winner of the USSR State Prize (1976).
Boris Chertok was the author and co-author of more than two hundred scientific papers, among them a number of monographs, most of which were classified for many years. Under his leadership in 1994-1999. A series of books entitled "Rockets and People" was prepared.
At the end of 2011, academician Chertok was awarded the International Prize of Andrew the First-Called "For Faith and Loyalty" for his outstanding contribution to the development and development of rocket and space science and industry in Russia.