Military Review

Anti-aircraft self-propelled installation Flakpanzer IV Wirbelwind (Germany)

31
In early 1943, Nazi Germany launched work on the creation of new anti-aircraft self-propelled guns based on medium tank Panzerkampfwagen IV. The chassis of this machine made it possible to a certain extent to simplify the development and production of new equipment, as well as to ensure the achievement of the required characteristics. During 1943-44, German experts developed several anti-aircraft self-propelled gun projects on a common base and with different weapons. One of the most famous representatives of this family - although not the most numerous - became the self-propelled gun Flakpanzer IV Wirbelwind.


In the new project it was proposed to implement several interesting ideas. The main idea of ​​the project was to use a finished chassis with fairly high performance. The use of a tank chassis gave a number of advantages associated with the unification of various equipment, and also allowed the protection of the crew and weapons against a significant number of threats encountered on the battlefield. It was also proposed to equip the self-propelled gun quad installation with 20-mm automatic guns. Such systems in the towed version showed themselves well in the fight against low-altitude targets and could be good weapons for ZSU.

The project of a new anti-aircraft self-propelled began to develop at the very beginning of 1944 of the year. The project of a combat vehicle based on an existing tank was designated the Flakpanzer IV and the additional name Wirbelwind ("Smerch"). Creating such a machine did not take long. A new project provided for some re-equipment of the base tank and installation of the fighting compartment with new weapons. This approach to the design of the combat vehicle allowed to use as a base for the ZSU both the newly built serial tanks and the existing equipment undergoing repair.


ZSU Wirbelwind in the exposition of the Canadian Museum. Photo of Wikimedia Commons


In accordance with the Wirbelwind project, the Pz.Kpfw.IV tank had to lose the turret, instead of which it was proposed to mount a new similar unit with a different composition of equipment and weapons. Such an alteration of the tank did not require seriously modifying the hull, powerplant, chassis and other elements of the chassis. This made it possible to speed up the process of producing new equipment in the interests of the troops.

During the repair and modernization of the new project, the chassis retained the armor hull, which consisted of sheets of thickness up to 80 mm (depending on version). The reservation made it possible to protect the crew and the internal units from small arms during shelling from all angles, while the frontal projection could withstand the hitting of projectiles of some artillery systems. The layout of the hull was characteristic of the German tanks of the time. In front of the hull there were parts of the transmission, as well as the department of management with the jobs of the driver and the radio operator. The central part of the hull was given under the assembly of the crew compartment, and the engine was located in the stern.

By the time of the start of work on the Smerch project, new modifications of the base tank, differing from previous versions in some elements of the structure and power plant, were received for mass production. So, starting with the modification of Ausf.B, the Pz.Kpfw.IV tanks were completed with Maybach HL 120TRM petrol engines with HP 300 power. With the help of a propeller shaft, passing through the center of the hull, the engine was connected to the transmission of the front location. The main friction, five-speed (in later versions - six-speed) gearbox, a planetary steering mechanism and final drives ensure the rotation of the front drive wheels.

The chassis of the Pz.Kpfw.IV tank and the machines at its base had eight small diameter road wheels on each side. The rollers were connected in pairs on balancers equipped with leaf springs. The drive wheels were located in the front of the hull, guides - in the stern. Depending on the modification, the tank received three or four supporting rollers on board.

Anti-aircraft self-propelled installation Flakpanzer IV Wirbelwind (Germany)
Quad installation 2 cm Flakvierling 38, used in the composition of self-propelled guns. Photo of Wikimedia Commons


The new anti-aircraft self-propelled project meant dismantling the base tank tower with weapons and other units of the existing combat compartment. Instead of the old tower, it was proposed to mount a new similar unit with anti-aircraft weapons on the chase of the hull. Inside the new tower should have been placed quadruple automatic guns and three crew members.

In view of the alleged use of technology at the forefront, the new Wirbelwind project implied the use of an armored tower capable of protecting the calculation of the guns from shelling from any angle, with the exception of the upper hemisphere. Based on the polygonal shape in contact with the shoulder strap, it was proposed to install several armor plates 16 mm thick, which were to form a polygonal tower without a roof. To improve protection and reduce the mass of the structure, the forehead, sides, and other parts of the turret consisted of two armor plates: the lower ones were installed with the collapse outward, while the upper ones leaned inward.

The new type of tower had a rather complicated shape. In front of the front sheets were provided at an angle to each other. They had large vertical slots to move the gun barrels. Relatively wide cheekbones, behind which small sides were located, were connected with the frontal sheets. The stern of the tower consisted of angled long panels and a narrow stern. The proposed design of the tower was to provide the required protection of the crew, as well as a relatively small mass. In addition, the requirements for the size of the units affected the shape of the tower: the armor elements of the tower, regardless of its position, should not have gone beyond the roof of the hull.

In the center of the tower was mounted quad installation 2 cm Flakvierling 38 with 20-mm automatic guns FlaK 38. The new project implied the use of some elements of the base carriage of this system. Thus, the attachments of the guns and their synchronization systems, the sight and the mechanisms of vertical guidance were preserved. It was proposed to perform horizontal alignment by rotating the entire tower with the help of appropriate drives. Initially, it was proposed to rotate the tower with the help of manual drives, which could provide guidance speeds of up to 28 ° per second. Serial "Tornado" late release received manual and hydraulic actuators. The latter increased the speed of rotation in azimuth to 60 ° per second. The gunner was able to fire in any direction with elevation angles from -10 ° to + 90 °.


The layout of the tower. On the sides of the guns are charging, behind - the gunner. Photo Aviarmor.net


Installation Flakvierling 38 was a system based on four automatic guns FlaK 38. The guns had a caliber 20 mm and had to use shells 20x138 mm B of various types. Each of the four guns could do up to 400-450 shots per minute (technical rate of fire), but in practice, the rate of firing of the quad set did not exceed 750-800 shots per minute. The shells left the gun barrels at speeds up to 900 m / s and, depending on the type, could hit targets at ranges up to 2-2,2 km. All four cannons were fueled using separate box magazines on 20 shells.

The gun installation was mounted in the central part of the turret in such a way that inside the armored unit there was some free space for the placement of gunners and ammunition. Thus, the gunner should be located at the stern of the tower, managing the guidance systems and leading fire. Under the sides of the tower placed seats for two loaders. Shelves for stores included in ready-to-use ammunition were placed along the long aft parts of the sides.

The quad unit, located in the tower, made it possible to attack air and ground targets. Despite this, the car retained the additional armament used on the base model tank. In the workplace of the gunner-radio operator, in the front part of the hull on the right, there was a front embrasure with the MG34 machine gun, with which the crew could defend against enemy manpower.

Due to the dense and competent layout of the internal volumes of the ZSU hull, Wirbelwind had to carry a fairly large amount of ammunition. It was possible to transport several dozen stores with a total capacity of over 1300 shells and 3200 cartridges for machine guns.


Construction self-propelled Flakpanzer IV at the factory Ostbau. Photo Aviarmor.net


The crew of the combat vehicle consisted of five people: the driver, radio operator, gunner guns and two loaders. The first two were to be located in the front of the hull, and the workplaces of the other three anti-aircraft gunners were placed in a rotating turret. At the places in the department of management should get through the hatches in the roof of the hull. Access to the gunner and charging places was carried out through the open top of the tower, which also improved visibility in a combat situation.

Due to the characteristic design of the turret, associated with specific requirements, the dimensions of the new combat vehicle generally remained at the level of the base tank. The length was approximately 5,9 m, the width of 2,9 m. At the same time, the height increased noticeably and was 2,76 m. The combat weight of the ZSU was determined at the level of 22 t. With such a mass, the 300-strong engine could provide a specific power of at least 13,6 hp per ton of weight, which allowed to maintain mobility at the level of the tank Pz.Kpfw.IV. The maximum speed reached 40 km / h, the range on the highway was 200 km.

The comparative simplicity of the project and the widest use of finished components allowed the development of the Flakpanzer IV Wirbelwind machine in a relatively short time. The construction of the first prototype also did not take much time. Already in May, the company Ostbau presented the first prototype of a promising anti-aircraft self-propelled gun for testing.

The tests of the first experimental machine clearly showed the correctness of the ideas underlying the project. Used tracked chassis gave the car a fairly high mobility, which allowed the "Tornado" to move along with the tanks, both in columns on the march and in battle formations. The use of a well-developed artillery system with sufficiently high characteristics also promised good combat effectiveness. As a result, the project was considered successful and recommended by the beginning of mass production.


Self-propelled gun at the front. The machine received an improvised masking of scrap materials. Photo Worldwarphotos.info


Shortly after the completion of tests of the first prototype, the Ostbau plant received an order for the serial construction of new self-propelled guns. After adopting the new machine, the existing designations Flakpanzer IV and Wirbelwind, and also received a new Sonderkraftfahrzeug 161 / 4. Also in some sources there are other designations that reflect the types of the base chassis and the main armament.

The first serial ZSU new model was ready in July 1944 year. Soon the first batch of this technology was sent to the front. At about the same time, the Wirbelwind project encountered some difficulties, which largely determined its further fate. In the course of new research and analysis of combat experience, it was found that 20-mm automatic guns, even those assembled in quadruple installations, do not provide the required firepower sufficient to guarantee the solution of the assigned combat missions. Much more promising and effective weapon automatic gun caliber 37 mm looked. By that time, a ZSU with similar weapons existed - 3.7 cm FlaK auf Fahrgestell Panzerkampfwagen IV (sf) or Möbelwagen.

In connection with the appearance of new requirements regarding the firepower of anti-aircraft self-propelled guns, the industry has begun to develop completely new projects of such technology. The existing Smerch did not fully meet the requirements of the military, but its construction continued. In view of the expectations of new self-propelled guns with 37-mm guns, it was decided to leave the existing equipment in production and use it as a temporary solution in anticipation of more advanced systems.

Production of self-propelled Wirbelwind was completed in November 1944 year. In just a few months, at least 86 machines of this type were built on Ostbau. Exact information about the number of built machines is not available: figures from 86 to 106 units are given in different sources. Anyway, the pace and volume of production of new equipment left much to be desired and did not allow for the full re-equipment of ground forces anti-aircraft units.


One of the Wirbelwind self-propelled guns that fought and destroyed on the Western Front. Photo Panzerphotos.com


According to reports, the vast majority of new anti-aircraft self-propelled guns were transferred to units that fought on the Eastern Front. According to different sources, they were given armored vehicles up to 85-90. The remaining equipment, no more than 15-20 units were sent to Western Europe. Detailed information about the combat use of this technology in two theaters of military operations is not available. There are fragmentary data on the successful use of self-propelled guns in repelling enemy raids, as well as on the use of this technique as a means of infantry fire support.

A number of Smerches became trophies of the enemy. So, it is known that several of these machines in the final stages of the war went to the Red Army. The Soviet fighters limitedly applied this technique and spoke of it as a good means for firing at the enemy, entrenched on the upper floors of buildings. Also, a certain amount of ZSU became the trophies of the Allies, who were advancing on the Second Front.

Part of the Flakpanzer IV Wirbelwind self-propelled guns could have survived until the end of World War II, but later almost all of the remaining copies were disposed of as unnecessary. Only two anti-aircraft self-propelled guns of this type have survived to our time. Both cars at the time were taken to America for testing and evaluation. Subsequently, one of them was transferred to the Museum of the Borden Base (Canada), and the other for some time was an exhibit of the museum in the Aberdeen Proving Ground. Later it was transferred to the military history museum in the city of Kiel (Germany), where it is kept to this day.

The fate of the project self-propelled anti-aircraft installation Wirbelwind is very interesting. It was created as the embodiment of a promising and promising proposal concerning the combination of chassis and weaponry. In the early stages, the project received good marks and had a lot of support from the army. However, by the time the tests began, the German military was disappointed in the 20-mm automatic cannons and preferred 37 mm guns to them, resulting in the launch of alternative projects. As a result, it was possible to build only a little more than a hundred ZSU with quad units, which could not have a serious impact on the course of the battles. New projects, in turn, led to the construction of self-propelled guns with increased firepower, but an additional result was the dispersal of forces, which in the end did not allow the army to be equipped with a sufficient amount of necessary equipment.


On the materials of the sites:
http://achtungpanzer.com/
http://aviarmor.net/
http://armor.kiev.ua/
http://t-34.su/
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  1. D-Master
    D-Master April 5 2016 06: 50
    +6
    Very interesting article. German engineers during the war ahead of time by developing entire directions, without which later the modern armed forces would become unthinkable. During the Great Patriotic War, it becomes clear that: artillery on mobile self-propelled chassis will cope with the tasks of protecting troops on the march from enemy aircraft .Traditional anti-aircraft guns are quite effective in the fight against aircraft flying at medium and high altitudes, but are unsuitable for firing at low-flying targets with high speed t, because in this case the plane instantly goes beyond the scope of the shelling. In addition, explosions of shells of large-caliber guns (for example, 76 mm and 85 mm) at low altitudes can cause significant damage to their own troops.
    I think that the Germans created an excellent prototype of the legendary SHILKA. We were very lucky that such machines did not enter the Wehrmacht in large quantities. They would become a real threat to our Air Force, and the use of such anti-infantry equipment as a means of support would make the field operations extremely difficult. Fortunately, history does not know the subjunctive mood.
  2. inkass_98
    inkass_98 April 5 2016 07: 23
    +3
    Shilka's legs seem to grow from here. The idea was great, but the implementation just didn't work out to the fullest.
    1. 1440minutes
      1440minutes April 5 2016 10: 06
      0
      Quote: inkass_98
      Shilka's legs grow, apparently, from here

      Random coincidence of concepts.
      And the AK-47 accidentally with the StG44 is conceptually one-on-one.
      And PM accidentally looks like Walter.
      And much more.
      Just a chain of coincidences.
      1. Ronin62
        Ronin62 April 5 2016 12: 18
        +6
        Quote: 1440minutes
        Random coincidence of concepts.
        And the AK-47 accidentally with the StG44 is conceptually one-on-one.

        The similarity is purely external, the general is only the principle of operation of automation. The internal layout of parts is completely different.
        1. 1440minutes
          1440minutes April 5 2016 18: 15
          -2
          Quote: Ronin62
          The similarity is purely external, general - only the principle of operation of automation

          Well yes. Most importantly, the same ballistics, forgotten. Weapons of the same class are weapons with similar ballistics. And the ways to achieve it can be anything.
          By the way, I do not consider the StG44 and AK-47 brilliant. StG44 is a specialized weapon of panzergrenadiers (tank paratroopers). Maybe in that role it was nothing. But in the role of the infantryman’s main weapon, as in the USSR. it was insanity. Fortunately, this insanity lasted only until the mid-70s, but it cost a lot of money. Therefore, there is nothing to be proud of.
      2. erg
        erg April 5 2016 13: 16
        +7
        And airplanes are so alike. No way the designer of the whole world from someone impudently borrowed. The aliens, probably.
        1. 1440minutes
          1440minutes April 5 2016 18: 19
          -1
          Quote: erg
          And airplanes are so alike.

          Really? And what, biplane fighters are very similar to flying boats?
        2. The comment was deleted.
      3. Cap.Morgan
        Cap.Morgan April 5 2016 18: 37
        +1
        Quote: 1440minutes
        Quote: inkass_98
        Shilka's legs grow, apparently, from here

        Random coincidence of concepts.
        And the AK-47 accidentally with the StG44 is conceptually one-on-one.
        And PM accidentally looks like Walter.
        And much more.
        Just a chain of coincidences.

        Is this, I hope, the irony?
        By accident, Hugo Schmeiser worked in the USSR and von Ardenne accidentally gave the Stalin Prize.
    2. Gray brother
      Gray brother April 5 2016 11: 17
      +5
      Quote: inkass_98
      Shilka's legs seem to grow from here.

      Or from here. ZSU-37 what does not suit you? Development began in 1942.
      1. 1440minutes
        1440minutes April 5 2016 11: 36
        -3
        Quote: Gray Brother
        ZSU-37 what does not suit you?

        Find some similarities between this ZSU and Shilka?
        1. Gray brother
          Gray brother April 5 2016 12: 16
          +1
          Quote: 1440minutes
          Find some similarities between this ZSU and Shilka?

          This is her great-grandfather.
        2. Gray brother
          Gray brother April 5 2016 12: 45
          0
          Quote: 1440minutes
          Find some similarities between this ZSU and Shilka?

          Development of the concept :-)
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. Cap.Morgan
        Cap.Morgan April 5 2016 18: 39
        0
        Not happy with the lack of guns.
        They couldn’t start the gun in the series, so the series did not work.
        1. Gray brother
          Gray brother April 5 2016 20: 11
          0
          Quote: Cap.Morgan
          They couldn’t start the gun in the series, so the series did not work.

          It’s ridiculous. And in the photo, what do you think is the only prototype?
          37 mm automatic anti-aircraft gun mod. 1939 (61-K) (GRAU index - 52-P-167)
          On the basis of 61-K, a family of ship anti-aircraft guns was created, this gun was installed on the first Soviet serial self-propelled anti-aircraft guns on a crawler chassis ZSU-37. 37-mm anti-aircraft guns 61-K were actively used throughout the Great Patriotic War, for a long time were in service with the Soviet Army. In addition to the fight against attack aircraft, fighter-bombers and dive bombers, the 61-K in 1941 were used as anti-tank guns.
    3. Zaurbek
      Zaurbek April 5 2016 15: 10
      +2
      In the USSR there was a wealth of experience in the use of dual, built and quad installations. Take the 4x14,5mm KPVT for example.
      1. 1440minutes
        1440minutes April 5 2016 18: 12
        -1
        Quote: Zaurbek
        In the USSR there was a wealth of experience in the use of dual, built and quad installations.

        Really? And where did he come from? Did the Germans tell you?
    4. Zaurbek
      Zaurbek April 5 2016 15: 10
      +1
      In the USSR there was a wealth of experience in the use of dual, built and quad installations. Take the 4x14,5mm KPVT for example.
  3. igordok
    igordok April 5 2016 07: 30
    +2
    ... trophies of allies advancing on Second front.

    It is clear that the translation error, but how interesting and correctly it turned out.
  4. iouris
    iouris April 5 2016 09: 50
    +1
    Due to the saturation of such air defense means, the ground forces did not particularly need the protection of fighters and the pilots could operate in the "free hunt" mode. It was not so with us.
    1. c3r
      c3r April 5 2016 20: 51
      +1
      What kind of fiction? The method of "free hunting" was used by the Germans only in the presence of air superiority! After the Red Army seized air superiority, free hunting was not used or in very rare cases. The main means of fighting aviation has always been and will be aviation and neither what super-duper air defense will not replace fighters!
  5. AlNikolaich
    AlNikolaich April 5 2016 10: 15
    +2
    the car is certainly interesting, however, not a word about the guidance system! And for the success of such a machine, to combat low-flying goals, an automated target guidance and tracking system is needed. If there is no automation, then the effectiveness depends on the density of the fire. In this case, for success, it is necessary to have not one machine, but several on one site ... And since the release was insignificant, the role of this self-propelled gun for air defense was small.
    1. iouris
      iouris April 5 2016 14: 50
      +3
      Essno, all by hand. However, the angular velocity of the target was not the same. So they hit often.
      By the way, it is strange that the word "Oerlikon" did not sound. There is such a small town in a neutral and prosperous country of Switzerland, in which Hitler was loved as one of their own, and National Socialism was never built.
      1. Anglorussian
        Anglorussian April 5 2016 18: 07
        +1
        Oerlikon is a working suburb of Zurich, its northern outskirts.
  6. mroy
    mroy April 5 2016 10: 32
    +8
    Quote: 1440minutes
    And the AK-47 accidentally with the StG44 is conceptually one-on-one.


    Not tired of repeating the old bike? What does he look like? Is there a trigger, a stock and a store?
    Look in the networks for photos with the disassembly of AK and Sturmgever and see the difference.
    At the same time, it can still disassemble the M16 by searching
    He who has eyes will see.
    And immediately about the intermediate cartridge - it also appeared long before Sturmgever.
    1. 1440minutes
      1440minutes April 5 2016 11: 22
      -6
      Quote: mroy
      Not tired of repeating the old bike? What does he look like? Is there a trigger, a stock and a store?

      Do you understand the meaning of the word "conceptually"? If you understand, then I repeat, conceptually the AK-47 is the StG44. One to one.
      Quote: mroy
      Look in the networks for photos with the disassembly of AK and Sturmgever and see the difference.

      I understood. You DO NOT understand the difference between "conceptually" and "constructively".
      Quote: mroy
      And immediately about the intermediate cartridge - it also appeared long before Sturmgever.

      A weakened rifle cartridge (later it was assigned to a separate category of intermediate cartridges) yes, it appeared long before the MP43 (it will be more accurate).
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA April 5 2016 17: 17
        +3
        Quote: 1440minutes
        Do you understand the meaning of the word "conceptually"? If you understand, then I repeat, conceptually the AK-47 is the StG44. One to one

        And gradually, word for word, you can reach the Fedorov assault rifle. laughing
        1. 1440minutes
          1440minutes April 5 2016 18: 11
          -2
          Quote: Alexey RA
          And gradually, word for word, you can reach the Fedorov assault rifle.

          Can. You can dig deeper, there is where.
          I do not find it necessary to state. The German concept was misunderstood, distorted, as a result of the USSR, this error (weapons on a cartridge of 7,62x39 mm) flew a pretty penny. There is nothing to be proud of, in such cases it is customary for smart people to keep silent with a meaningful look.
          As for the "Fedorov assault rifle", everything was even worse. Moreover, significantly.
          1. cast iron
            cast iron April 6 2016 01: 45
            0
            As a result, in 1949, the USSR adopted the most modern personal small arms at that time. It was with an eye on the AK that the USA hastily developed the M16, naturally improving some of the performance of the full-scale prototype. Ours, in turn, pulled themselves up to the characteristics of the M16 in 1974, changing the caliber of the AK.
            1. 24hours
              24hours April 7 2016 19: 49
              0
              Quote: cast iron
              As a result, in 1949, the USSR adopted the most modern personal small arms at that time.

              Well, as it were already funny. Interested in reading on.
              Quote: cast iron
              It was with an eye on the AK that the USA hastily developed the M16, naturally improving some of the performance of the full-scale prototype.

              A strange statement. The M16 has nothing in common with the AKM. This is just the AK-74 is not a very successful attempt to reproduce the performance characteristics of the M16A1. By the way, especially for "sofa-level experts", the AK-74 has nothing in common with the AKM, except for some external and constructive similarity. These are weapons of different categories.
              Quote: cast iron
              Ours, in turn, pulled themselves up to the characteristics of the M16 in 1974, changing the caliber of the AK.

              And I will repeat it again for the "couch experts". AK-74, this is not an AKM with a small hole in the barrel. This is a different weapon. Something similar to the M16A1, but not up to it for a number of reasons.
              And on AKM, it is slightly similar in design and appearance. And nothing more.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Cap.Morgan
      Cap.Morgan April 5 2016 18: 42
      -5
      Yes, there is a difference in the attachment of the butt.
      And the ramrod is not overthrown, but from below.
      Kalashnikov after his brilliant assault rifle for half a century of work did not invent anything else.
      1. cast iron
        cast iron April 6 2016 01: 46
        +2
        And who developed the PC? Really reptilians from the planet Niburu?
  7. mroy
    mroy April 5 2016 11: 54
    +3
    Quote: 1440minutes
    Do you understand the meaning of the word "conceptually"? If you understand, then I repeat, conceptually the AK-47 is the StG44. One to one.

    I read it inattentively, I beg your pardon. If you mean the concept of an "assault rifle", then there is some truth in this, but then let's remember Fedorov's "machine gun" (although there was still a rifle cartridge). It was he who, in his works, predicted the transition to a decrease in the practical firing range and the resulting decrease in the caliber and size of the cartridge, along with a decrease in the total weight of the weapon.
    Therefore, it will be right to recognize for the Germans the first serial assault rifle in its present form as the main infantry weapon (Fedorov’s machine gun was considered as a means of reinforcement), but the authorship of the concept is still not for them.
    1. 1440minutes
      1440minutes April 5 2016 18: 07
      -1
      Quote: mroy
      but then let's remember Fedorov's "machine gun"

      Recall. But there, due to the specifics of the cartridge, a TTL submachine gun was obtained, not an assault rifle. And although the cartridge of the same class (weakened rifle), it is still the ultimate weapon of different classes.
      Quote: mroy
      although there still was a rifle cartridge

      Don't strain yourself. The height of the sleeve does not play any role. Muzzle energy is important. And it was at the "Fedorov assault rifle" was the StG44 and AK-47 level. Therefore, the cartridge was "weakened rifle". Later, these were called intermediate. Some began to make special shortened sleeves for them. But this did not change the essence.
      Quote: mroy
      It was he who in his works predicted a transition to a decrease in the practical firing range

      Actually, he did not predict anything. The volume of liners in many countries has remained since the time of smoky gunpowder. With its replacement by smokeless, this volume became redundant. But replacing the liner is not an easy task. Therefore, for some time they used large ones. But gradually, with the development of the chemical industry, the volume of sleeves decreased.
      And the eye, as it could aim at an open sight at 400 m, it can. In human physiology, nothing has changed.
      Quote: mroy
      and the resulting reduction in caliber and size of the cartridge along with a decrease in the total weight of the weapon.

      A decrease in the size and weight of the cartridge, as well as a decrease in the caliber of its bullet, is associated with the introduction by the Americans of cartridges with weakly stabilized bullets. Fedorov even next to this has nothing to do. Classic bullets in the caliber of 6,5 mm, this is a mistake that all countries abandoned before 2MB.
      Quote: mroy
      Therefore, it will be right to recognize for the Germans the first serial assault rifle in its modern form as the main infantry weapon

      Therefore, a weapon of the "assault rifle on a classic intermediate cartridge" type should generally be perceived as an annoying curiosity in Russian history. Such weapons were made for a short time, and only in one, not very developed country. Then, in this country, they realized that they were doing something wrong. After that, the "legendary Kalashnikovs" were removed from the armament and amazed by "friends" all over the world. That's the whole story of the silly legend.
      Quote: mroy
      but the authorship of the concept is still not theirs.

      The Germans made their "assault rifles" like the MP, i.e. advanced submachine guns. And only for tank paratroopers (panzergrenadiers). Those. they could also shoot not very far with single fire. As an option.
      The "ingenious idea" to make this squalor the main weapon of the army came to mind only for Soviet generals. Which academies did not finish and did not count money. In the mid-70s, this whim passed, but money was spent on it.
      1. Cap.Morgan
        Cap.Morgan April 5 2016 18: 51
        +3
        Ek you as Kalash uncovered.
        A large reliable machine that works both in the desert and at the pole, is accessible to unprepared militias, beats at 400 meters confidently, and this is the most common battle distance, what else is needed?
        1. 1440minutes
          1440minutes April 5 2016 20: 59
          -3
          Quote: Cap.Morgan
          A large reliable machine that works both in the desert and at the pole, is accessible to unprepared militias, beats at 400 meters confidently, and this is the most common battle distance, what else is needed?

          1. Fell on 300 m (from this and the name, assault, ie weakened army, rifle). And you need, as you rightly noted, at 400.
          2. Absolutely not reliable. But for the level of the USSR, very reliable. You can read it even in the application for its patent. It says so, in English on white, that the machine is not reliable enough.
          3. Simplicity of design, this is a common characteristic of any high-quality army weapons.
          I won’t explain further, history has already dotted all i.
          1. Nobody in the world except the not entirely adequate and completely illiterate USSR did not produce such weapons anymore.
          2. In the 70s, even the USSR came to its senses, this "weapon" was removed from production, and then it was removed from service, and the stocks were given away (shipped on credit) to "friends".
          What other comments could there be? But no, sofa marshals can’t get through. They all know best.
          1. cast iron
            cast iron April 6 2016 01: 55
            +1
            1. What is the problem of getting a single AKM into a 400m tall figure from an open sight with a few shots? Do you think a trained soldier can not do it? ))) Or do you think that it is fundamentally easier to shoot from an FN FAL from an open sight at the same distance? Well, so I will upset you - not a fig is not easier.

            2. From the AKM, you can shoot bursts at distances up to 100m for yourself. From M14 to 100m you will get to anywhere in the queue, but not the goal. Do you need to explain why shooting with a short-range burst is necessary?

            3. Ammunition of AKM and G3 of the same weight, how many rounds will you have, have you already calculated? Have you compared?

            4. 30 rounds in a magazine is 33% better than 20 rounds in a magazine. The fact is reinforced concrete.

            5. The Great West, represented by the United States, immediately changed the .308 caliber as soon as I saw AK-47, "bad" from your point of view, in Vietnam))))))

            And you also consider yourself "educated")) Military expert, damn it)))
            1. 24hours
              24hours April 7 2016 19: 35
              0
              Quote: cast iron
              What is the problem of getting a single AKM into a 400m tall figure from an open sight with a few shots?

              Enough for the shooter to hit the range. The army is a harsher organization. It is not enough for her to hit, she needs to "bring down" the enemy. With this at a distance of 400 m, due to its performance characteristics, the AK-47 copes poorly. Its maximum is 300 m. Therefore, it is not an army, but an assault (i.e. weakened army) rifle.
              Quote: cast iron
              From AKM you can shoot bursts at distances up to 100m for yourself.

              Well, does anyone argue with this? The name MP43, the progenitor of AK-47, is translated as a submachine gun (MP). 100 m, this is the distance of submachine guns. Only advanced PP, with the ability to shoot single at 300 meters. Beyond what the hell did such a PP need to be made the main small arms of the SA, this is a great Soviet secret. One of many.
              Quote: cast iron
              From M14 to 100m you will get to anywhere in the queue, but not the goal.

              From 50 m I’ll get there. This is an automatic ARMY rifle, for her 50 m with automatic fire is enough. Learn the materiel.
              Quote: cast iron
              Ammunition of AKM and G3 of the same weight, how many rounds will you have, have you already calculated?

              I'm not even going to be interested in issues of the tenth degree of importance.
              Quote: cast iron
              30 rounds in a magazine is 33% better than 20 rounds in a magazine. The fact is reinforced concrete.

              Did you come up with this yourself? This is only 33% more. But far from the fact that it is better. Better take a look at how the capacity of the automatic weapons store is selected. Normal, not Soviet.
              Quote: cast iron
              The Great West, represented by the United States, immediately changed the .308 caliber as soon as it saw the AK-47, "bad" from your point of view, in Vietnam)

              Why are you lying? Vietnam was the collapse and the end of just "the great Soviet intermediate cartridge 7,62x39 mm" and weapons on it. Incl. and AK / AKM. As a result of the Vietnam War, all these weapons were put aside and given to the "friends". And the USSR adopted weapons on the 5,45x39 mm cartridge.
              Quote: cast iron
              Military expert, damn it)))

              You are funny. And precisely with its pompous ignorance in the field of shooting. You don’t even know the basic principles.
        2. The comment was deleted.
      2. jet 43
        jet 43 April 5 2016 20: 11
        0
        I can’t tolerate idiots or mowing down 7,62 * 39 and 5,45 * 39 gouno a5,56 * 45 ice then where is the logic when the author claims that 9 * 19PARA good cartridge a7,62 * 25 gauno only 30 meters
        1. 1440minutes
          1440minutes April 5 2016 21: 03
          0
          Quote: jet 43
          I can not stand idiots or mowing under them

          And I also do not like them.
          And I recommend you study. Self-educate on this topic. Much will open up if you understand something and pay less attention to agitation, which has become almost an axiom.
    2. The comment was deleted.
  8. yehat
    yehat April 5 2016 15: 38
    +4
    I consider this clunker to be one of the iconic and unique pepelats of the Germans, defining the face of their army
    the same as Hetzer, tiger-1, ju-87, ganomages or artillery tractors or a motorcycle with a machine gun.
    An engineering solution may not be very outstanding, but overall, it’s very beautiful.
  9. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack April 5 2016 17: 08
    0
    Turret - a piece of cake in German is interesting and the car itself is not bad. thanks for the cycle! waiting for the continuation !!!
  10. Cap.Morgan
    Cap.Morgan April 5 2016 18: 48
    0
    Against IL - 2 is quite suitable.
    Il was good for attacking retreating columns, attacked at low altitudes - and here such a thing - 4 barrels. The downside is of course the expensive tank chassis.
    One could take French or Czech from light cars.
    1. cast iron
      cast iron April 7 2016 01: 20
      0
      Yes, you quit. To get out of this on a fast-coming attack aircraft was akin to a miracle. I can still believe in the effectiveness of self-propelled guns in the amount of several pieces in a small area, but one self-propelled gun with such primitive aiming devices could not provide a significant rebuff to the IL-2 link.
  11. DesToeR
    DesToeR April 5 2016 21: 33
    +1
    Quote: 1440minutes
    I do not find it necessary to state.

    But in general, you don’t like to bring facts - throwing in phrases and ... nothing more.
    Quote: Cap.Morgan
    Kalashnikov after his brilliant assault rifle for half a century of work did not invent anything else.

    What are you? What about the Kalashnikov machine gun, I hope you heard about this? Or are two successful samples not enough?
    Quote: 1440minutes
    But there, due to the specifics of the cartridge according to the performance characteristics, a submachine gun was obtained, rather than an assault rifle

    Another verbiage. So what then to call the M-16 firing a weaker cartridge? Maybe enough to invent your own weapon name system?
    Quote: 1440minutes
    And the eye, as it could aim at an open sight at 400 m, it can. In human physiology, nothing has changed

    The human eye can aim at 1000m, it can hit the target more or less efficiently only up to 300m. The distance of 400m is what you want so much, the realities in battle are different. That is why the Americans are replacing the M-16 rifle with the M-4 carbine.
    Quote: 1440minutes
    Therefore, a weapon of the "assault rifle on a classic intermediate cartridge" type should generally be perceived as an annoying curiosity in Russian history. Such weapons were made for a short time, and only in one, not very developed country. Then, in this country, they realized that they were doing something wrong. After that, the "legendary Kalashnikovs" were removed from the armament and amazed by "friends" all over the world. That's the whole story of the silly legend.

    Not all of them. No need to dissemble. Both the 7,62x39 cartridge and the Kalashnikov assault rifle are produced, used and bought to this day. Including the so-called The "civilized world", and the "light elves" like it very much.
  12. shturman032
    shturman032 April 5 2016 21: 59
    0
    Nakoy there machine gun needed? With such an installation, hundreds of infantry can be mowed. Medium tanks of the F2 or J series seemed to have an electric turret drive, they could also be put into wirbelwind.
  13. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 April 5 2016 23: 23
    +1
    A big plus for the Author for a great article! Clear, concise and professional! drinks

    Quote: D-Master
    I think that the Germans created an excellent prototype of the legendary SHILKA. We were very lucky that such machines did not enter the Wehrmacht in large quantities.
    Yes, but rather, the Germans somehow underestimated them, but overloaded their industry with a bunch of projects ...

    Quote: 1440minutes

    Random coincidence of concepts.
    And the AK-47 accidentally with the StG44 is conceptually one-on-one.

    In the topic about designer Yakovlev, we have a similar dispute.

    Quote: iouris
    Due to the saturation of such air defense means, the ground forces did not particularly need the protection of fighters and the pilots could operate in the "free hunt" mode.
    Yes, it was the Germans in the first half of the war that the saturation of anti-aircraft weapons was the HIGHEST of all the armies of the world. From the middle of the war - the Americans and the British grabbed the baton and went flush.

    Quote: Cap.Morgan

    Kalashnikov after his brilliant assault rifle for half a century of work did not invent anything else.
    This is one of the reasons for the fact that German engineers worked for a reason.

    Quote: shturman032
    With such an installation, hundreds of infantry can be mowed.
    Yes, I remember somewhere I met a mention of how American infantry came out on such a "Wirbelwind", which was in ambush in France. As almost the only survivor said, the company turned out to be a bloody mess ... But its main function is precisely the fight against low-flying attack aircraft and fighter-bombers.
  14. SokolfromRussia
    SokolfromRussia April 6 2016 00: 27
    +2
    Thunderstorm Aviation in WarThunder)))
    Thank you for the article!
    1. Cobra77
      Cobra77 April 6 2016 20: 54
      0
      Only for attack aircraft within a radius of 500-700 meters :)
      For bombers, it’s better than 37mm high-explosive. Type ZSU-37.