Military Review

Alexander Sergeevich Yakovlev. Father of Soviet "Yastrebkov"

108
April 1, 2016 marks the 110th anniversary of the birth of Alexander Sergeyevich Yakovlev, the legendary Soviet aircraft designer, Colonel General aviation, the creator of a whole family of Yak aircraft, the founder of a competitive and efficient design school. Since 1934, the Design Bureau, which will later be called the name of the designer, has been continuously engaged in providing large-scale production and operation of aircraft. In total, more than 70 thousand Yak aircraft of all types were built, including more than 40 thousand combat aircraft during the Great Patriotic War. In the most difficult years for the country, 2/3 of the entire fleet of fighters were precisely the aircraft of Alexander Sergeyevich Yakovlev. It is no coincidence that during the war years the fond name “Hawk” was assigned to the Soviet fighter planes.


The future aircraft designer was born on April 1 1906 in Moscow. His father was Sergei Vasilyevich Yakovlev, a specialty accountant who served as head of the transport department at the Nobel Brothers oil firm. Mother, Nina Vladimirovna Yakovleva, was a housewife. The family had three children: sons Alexander, Vladimir (1909) and daughter Elena (1907). The parents of Alexander Sergeevich had the title of “hereditary honorary citizens”, which in those years was granted by imperial decree to representatives of the clergy and petty-bourgeoisness.

In 1914, Alexander Yakovlev, having successfully passed the entrance exams in Russian language, arithmetic and the law of God, entered the preparatory class of the Strakhov private gymnasium located on Spasskaya Street. In those years, this gymnasium was considered one of the best in Moscow, it was distinguished by well-equipped classrooms and excellent teachers. After the October Revolution, the gymnasium was merged with the women's school, it became a state school, receiving a new name “United Labor School of the 2 grade No. XXUMX” of the Sokolniki district of the capital. He studied the future famous designer with great eagerness. At the same time, the boy’s favorite subjects were история, literature and geography, he always had excellent grades in these subjects, and in physics, mathematics and chemistry, which more suited his future specialty, he basically got fours. Liked Alexander Yakovlev and drawing, which was quite important for the designer. In this subject, encouraged by teachers and his mother, he managed to achieve great success.



During his studies, Alexander Yakovlev was a rather active student, taking part in public school life, was the head of the class, the chairman of the student committee, for some time he was the editor of a school literary and historical journal and a member of the drama circle. I read quite a lot. He read the works of Jules Verne, Herbert Wales, Jack London, Rudyard Kipling and other authors, he loved books on the history of Russia and, of course, on all sorts of techniques. To technology, he showed particular interest. During his school years he even tried to build a perpetual motion machine, attended classes in the radio circle, where he assembled a radio receiver himself. He mastered carpentry, with passion creating models of locomotives, stations, bridges, railway cars. It was the influence of his uncle, the trainer, at that moment Alexander Yakovlev wanted to follow in his footsteps, becoming a railway engineer.

The event, which forever changed his life, occurred in the 1921 year, when according to the scheme and description from the book Yakovlev he assembled a flying glider model with a wing span of two meters. He successfully tested the built glider in the school hall. From this moment begins his aviation career and endless love for aviation, which eventually made him one of the most prominent aviation designers of the 20th century. He was able to achieve worldwide recognition, thanks to the great desire to create new aircraft, which he was able to carry through his entire life. Later, he himself told about this feeling: “When I built the glider, I was overwhelmed by an overwhelming desire to design the aircraft. Later, I wanted to make another one, but better, then a third ... You build a new plane and think: “If only it flew, I don’t need anything else in my life!”, But when a car is born and a new desire begins to fly, create another plane which would be even better, flew faster ... "

Yakovlev retained this desire to create and create new airplanes for a lifetime, while being able to carry along with them the team, turning people into a group of like-minded people. Already in 1921, he found other aeronautics enthusiasts in school, and in 1922, he independently organized an aircraft modeling circle, his first “design bureau”.

Alexander Sergeevich Yakovlev. Father of Soviet "Yastrebkov"


Already in 1924, Alexander Yakovlev created his first full-fledged aircraft - a glider called AVF-10, which managed to receive an award as one of the best Soviet gliders at the all-union competitions held in Koktebel. This glider made its first flight 15 September 1924 of the year. From that moment on, Yakovlev was engaged only in aviation. In 1924, he volunteered to serve in the Red Army, serving in the Air Force Academy named after N. E. Zhukovsky (BBA). Here he was both a simple worker and a mechanic of the flight squad of the academy. In 1927, he designed his first aircraft - AIR-1, the day of the first flight of AIR-1 - 12 in May 1927, is considered the birthday of the Yakovlev Design Bureau. In July of the same year, the first world records of the Soviet Union were set on the AIR-1 aircraft - in terms of distance (1420 km) and duration (15 hours 30 minutes) of flight. For these achievements, Alexander Yakovlev in 1927 was enrolled as a student in the Zhukovsky Air Force Academy out of competition. He continued his studies at the Academy until the 1931 year, while continuing to build light aircraft.

After graduating from the academy in 1931, Yakovlev worked for some time as an engineer at a serial plant, but already in 1932 he built the AIR-6 aircraft, which again attracted the attention of specialists. The aircraft was a tray-type monoplane-parasol of mixed design, distinguished by a closed and quite comfortable cockpit. A special feature of the AIR-6, as well as many of the aircraft of Alexander Sergeevich Yakovlev, was a high mass return, and hence a large flight range. Already in 1933, the AIR-6 aircraft, which was equipped with floats for landing on the water, managed to exceed the official international distance record for seaplanes. And in 1934, several AIR-6 aircraft were able to make a group flight on the route Moscow - Irkutsk - Moscow, which at that time was a great achievement.

Continuing to work on the design of sports aircraft, Alexander Yakovlev created a two-seat sports aircraft AIR-7. The aircraft had a thin wing and a strut monoplane scheme. At the end of the summer of 1932, this machine at the altitude of 1000 meters reached the maximum speed of 332 km / h. For comparison, the armed X-NUMX fighter, built according to a biplane scheme, developed a maximum speed of 5 km / h. The construction of the AIR-286 made it obvious that the monoplane scheme, which gives superiority in flight speed, is more expedient and better suited for combat aircraft. And in 7, the young design team, headed by Alexander Sergeevich, designed and built the UT-1935 training monoplane training monoplane. It was a single-seat aircraft with a standard air-cooled engine that developed the power of the 1 l. with. In the case of installation on the aircraft of the forced engine, which developed the power of 100 l. with. its maximum speed increased to 150 km / h.

Fighter Yak-3


Thanks to the invaluable experience that was gained during the design and construction of training aircraft, the design bureau, which Yakovlev supervised, was able to proceed to the development of fighter aircraft. The first such combat vehicle was And 26, which was significantly different from the aircraft of this class created in other country design bureau. He had a wooden wing, duralumin feathering and welded (from pipes) fuselage frame. Gargroths with skinning were installed to better wrap directly over the tubular frame of the fuselage. Like all aircraft of Alexander Yakovlev, the aircraft And the 26 was distinguished by its low weight and thoughtfulness, one might even say elegance, constructive forms, which became its hallmark. The fighter installed a water cooling engine designed by V. Ya. Klimov, which had a small mass and small dimensions. In the forced mode, the engine developed power in the 1240 hp. - A very decent figure for those years. In serial production this combat aircraft went under the designation Yak-1. At an altitude of 3400 meters, the fighter developed a maximum flight speed of 600 km / h, its armament consisted of an 20-mm cannon and two 7,62-mm machine guns. Creating an aircraft Yak 1 was a great achievement for the entire domestic aircraft.

A little earlier, back in 1939, the design bureau, under the leadership of Yakovlev, designed and built the high-speed bomber Yak-2, and then the Yak-4. The last modification with two water-cooled engines developed a speed of up to 567 km / h, which was the maximum value for military aircraft launched in the Soviet Union at that time. The twin-engine bomber Yak-2 and Yak-4 were built just over 200. They managed to take part in the first battles of the Great Patriotic War, but most of them were lost in the first week of hostilities.

Already during the war years, a large amount of work was done to improve the aerodynamics of the Yak-1 aircraft and rational design, which made it possible to design a fighter with a flight weight of 2650 kg and high maneuverability and speed. This aircraft was no less legendary Yak 3. The flight range of this fighter was 900 km. With a forced engine V. Ya. Klimov, the VK 105PF fighter could reach 660 km / h speed, and with an even more powerful 107 VK engine, it could reach 720 km / h. Upon completion of testing the aircraft with the 107 VC engine, a conclusion was drawn up stating that according to the main flight data in the altitude range from the ground to the practical flight ceiling, the aircraft is the best Soviet and foreign fighter aircraft built. This vehicle began to arrive in combat units from 1943 of the year. It was the most maneuverable and lightweight fighter of the Second World War. It was on the Yak-3 that the French volunteer pilots from the famous Normandy-Neman regiment flew.



Also during the war years, to provide reliable cover for the bomber aviation of the Yakovlev Design Bureau, an escort fighter was designed that had heavier armament and a longer range than the ordinary Yak-1 and Yak-3 fighters. This aircraft was the Yak-9, which was armed with 37-mm cannon and two large-caliber 12,7-mm machine guns. Fighter range reached 1000 km. During the Great Patriotic War, the Yak-9 fighters were also widely used for attacks against ground targets. For example, the Yak-9T were armed with 45-caliber guns. And the appearance of Yak-9D and Yak-9DD aircraft in the Air Force, which had a range of 1400 and 2200 km, respectively, allowed the Soviet troops to support the offensive, which was especially important at the final stage of the war. Over the years of the war, more than 40 thousands of Yak fighters of various models were built. To compare the no less popular Lavochkin fighters, just over 22 thousands were created. Thousands of Soviet pilots fought on the Yak fighters, winning victories over the German aces on the Messerschmitts and Fokkeulfs in the air, which was Aleksandr Sergeevich Yakovlev’s considerable personal contribution.

Until July, 1946, Alexander Sergeevich, managing his design bureau, simultaneously worked as Deputy Commissar of the Aviation Industry for Experimental Aircraft Building and Science, and since March of the same year - Deputy Minister of Aviation Industry for general issues. In July, 1946, due to heavy workload and employment in the KB, he left this position of his own accord. From 1935 to 1956, he was the chief designer of the design bureau, and from 1956 until his retirement in 1984, he served as general designer.

After the end of the Second World War, aircraft were re-equipped with jet technology. The first jet fighter that entered service in the USSR was the Yak-15 fighter. Behind him in the Yakovlev designed the Yak-17UTI, Yak-23, Yak-25 - the first Soviet all-weather interceptor, high-altitude Yak-25RV, and the first Soviet supersonic spy Yak-27R, followed by a family of supersonic aircraft Yak-28, which included and USSR's first supersonic front-line bomber. The scope of the bureau’s activities was also expanding, as amphibious assault vehicles entered the Soviet Army’s arsenal — the Yak-14 glider and the Yak-24 helicopter, which in 1952-1956 held the title of the world's most heavy-duty.

Yak-40 at Stockholm Airport


But Yakovlev and his design bureau became famous not only for military equipment, civil aircraft were also created here. For example, here they gave life to a whole generation of light aircraft: the multi-purpose Yak-12, the Yak-11 and Yak-18 training aircraft, the Yak-30 and Yak-32 training aircraft first in the Soviet Union. From 1960, speaking on the Yak-18P, Yak-18PM, Yak-18PS and Yak-50 aircraft, Soviet pilots many times took the podium at the European and World Aerobatics Championships. Separately, we can mention the passenger aircraft Yak-40, which began transporting passengers in the 1968 year. At that time, it was the only aircraft in the USSR that was certified according to western airworthiness standards and was purchased by the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and other countries. Later, the OKB will also create the 120-seater Yak-42 passenger aircraft, which was distinguished by its high efficiency, this aircraft is still used by Russian airlines.

Separately, we can mention the vertical take-off and landing aircraft (VTOL). In 1967, during the parade in Domodedovo, the first Soviet VTOL aircraft was shown - the Yak-36. From 1976, the Kiev-class cruisers began to receive combat aircraft of vertical and short takeoff and landing of the Yak-38, which also became the world's first carrier-based aircraft of this type.

Alexander Sergeevich Yakovlev won multiple prizes and awards: six Stalin prizes (1941, 1942, 1943, 1946, 1947 and 1948 years), the USSR State Prize (1977 year), the Lenin Prize (1971 year). He was twice a Hero of Socialist Labor, was awarded the Order of Lenin by 10, two Orders of the Red Banner, the Order of the October Revolution, two Orders of the Patriotic War of the 1 degree, the Orders of the Suvorov of the 1 and 2 degrees, the Order of the Red Star, the Orders of the Labor Union of XNUMX and XNUMX, the Orders of the Red Star, the Orders of the Red Star, the Order of Workers of the XNUMX and XNUMX degrees, the Order of the Red Star, the Orders of Workers of the XNUMX and XNUMX, the Orders of the Red Star, the Orders of the Red Star, the Workers of the XNUMX and XNUMX, In addition, he had foreign awards, in particular, the French officer’s cross of the Legion of Honor and the military cross, as well as the Aviation Gold Medal from the FAI (International Aviation Federation).



21 August 1984, at the age of 78 years, Alexander Sergeevich retired. He lived in Moscow, where 22 died on August 1989, at the age of 83, and was buried in the Novodevichy cemetery of the capital. In total, under the direct supervision of this outstanding aviation designer, more than 200 types of aircraft were created, of which more than 100 went into mass production. At various times, 86 of various world records was set on its aircraft design bureaus.

Information sources:
http://planetavvs.ru/construktori/yakovlev-aleksandr-sergeevitch.html
http://www.warheroes.ru/hero/hero.asp?Hero_id=12893
http://www.yak.ru
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  1. Good cat
    Good cat April 1 2016 05: 55
    +8
    In addition, he wrote the book "Notes of an Aircraft Designer". Interesting book.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets April 1 2016 06: 40
      +13
      Quote: Good cat
      In addition, he wrote the book "Notes of an Aircraft Designer". Interesting book.

      In addition to "Notes of an Aircraft Designer", I have in the paper version of the book by A.S. Yakovlev "The Purpose of Life" and "Soviet Airplanes". Published during the author's lifetime in 1980 and 1982.
      1. vladimirw
        vladimirw April 1 2016 12: 52
        +1
        "purpose in life" is a more honest book
        1. moskowit
          moskowit April 1 2016 21: 24
          +3
          And what is interesting, in the 70s, this book was a real bestseller, which was given to read for a short time. And it was called "The Purpose of Life". But seven years ago, I bought this book for 30 rubles in the second-hand book department. Imagine, my dear friends, how priorities have changed ... Who, except those born in the middle of the 20th century, is interested in this book? ....
  2. Bureaucrat
    Bureaucrat April 1 2016 06: 38
    +7
    Great son and pride of his fatherland. However, under Stalin, they did not hold others.
  3. Max repp
    Max repp April 1 2016 07: 03
    +5
    I read his autobiography, thanks for the article
    1. gladcu2
      gladcu2 April 1 2016 19: 33
      +2
      Maksus rep

      What you read is not bad, but pay attention to some details.

      1924. Yakovlev had the opportunity to spend his time on hobbies. What does it mean?

      This means that a person had free time and extra money to spend on something personal, in addition to the time that he spent actually on living.

      And if so, then the question is where?

      I hope it’s not difficult to guess where. This means the state has created this opportunity.

      Can someone boast of anything else like that?
  4. parusnik
    parusnik April 1 2016 07: 26
    +6
    Thank you, good article .. I think many have read his books: "Notes of an Aircraft Designer", "Purpose of Life", "Soviet Aircraft" ...
  5. Old26
    Old26 April 1 2016 08: 01
    +7
    Quote: Good cat
    In addition, he wrote the book "Notes of an Aircraft Designer". Interesting book.

    They read the book. In the library, there was a whole queue behind her, who would read for whom
    1. Amurets
      Amurets April 1 2016 08: 20
      +7
      Quote: Old26
      They read the book. In the library, there was a whole queue behind her, who would read for whom

      Volodya, hello, I stood in line for half a day while I bought mine, and a ticket for a book was given as a prize. I’m not talking about the queue in the library. We had a queue for the Regional Children's Library for a year ahead. And I bought "Purpose of Life" and "Soviet Airplanes" in the deep taiga.
      1. Sergej1972
        Sergej1972 April 1 2016 10: 48
        +8
        In those days, it was often easier to buy a good book in a bookstore in a district center or a large village, unlike large cities.
        1. moskowit
          moskowit April 1 2016 21: 41
          0
          You're right. Being on a business trip in the city of Sortavala, where there was a republican printing house, in a bookstore (the only one in the city), this is the end of the 70's, it was possible to purchase decent books ... I present one of them offhand ...
  6. kvs207
    kvs207 April 1 2016 08: 29
    +6
    In the magazine Model designer, often printed drawings of Jacob with a description and a brief excursion into history. Especially impressed with the Yak-9T with its gun.
    1. Cap.Morgan
      Cap.Morgan April 1 2016 09: 25
      0
      Quote: kvs207
      In the magazine Model designer, often printed drawings of Jacob with a description and a brief excursion into history. Especially impressed with the Yak-9T with its gun.

      How did he impress you?
      1. kvs207
        kvs207 April 1 2016 09: 50
        0
        Naturally, caliber guns.
        1. Cap.Morgan
          Cap.Morgan April 1 2016 10: 02
          0
          Quote: kvs207
          Naturally, caliber guns.

          The caliber pulls weight and recoil, reduces speed, maneuverability, and makes high demands on the strength of the structure. There were problems with durability and power. To maintain speed, we were limited to one 20-mm cannon.
          1. Bureaucrat
            Bureaucrat April 1 2016 11: 50
            +2
            There was also an article in the MK about the Yak-9P. A scout with camera equipment described how they installed two cameras, instead of one, and the area of ​​coverage became larger. It has long been, in childhood.
  7. unknown
    unknown April 1 2016 08: 51
    +7
    The best fighters of the USSR in the Second World War - "Lavochkin".
    Perhaps due to the lack of powerful water-cooled engines, Yakovlev reached a certain maximum, but compared to fighters of other countries, this was a minimum. In addition, even this maximum was achieved at the cost of weak weapons, low survivability, short range. And the scale of serial production is not an indicator. Often, the main role is played not by the characteristics of weapons and equipment, but by manufacturability and cost.
  8. guzik007
    guzik007 April 1 2016 08: 51
    +5
    The person of his era was ambiguous. the best description of his activities is described in the book "On Peacefully Sleeping Airfields"
    1. Cap.Morgan
      Cap.Morgan April 1 2016 09: 57
      +2
      Quote: guzik007
      The person of his era was ambiguous. the best description of his activities is described in the book "On Peacefully Sleeping Airfields"

      Oh, they’re scolding you now.
      Salonin, you know, liberalist))))
  9. Kenneth
    Kenneth April 1 2016 08: 52
    +1
    The usual laudatory article of a very controversial person from a wiki series reports. Weakly disassembled his administrative activities, largely due to which the USSR lost the I-180 and I-185.
    1. Cap.Morgan
      Cap.Morgan April 1 2016 09: 55
      -1
      Quote: Kenneth
      The usual laudatory article of a very controversial person from a wiki series reports. Weakly disassembled his administrative activities, largely due to which the USSR lost the I-180 and I-185.

      Shoved my models
      He took the plant from Lavochkin, exiling the poor fellow in Tbilissi.
      When moving, some locksmith found an experimental radiator in the corner of the workshop.
      Having screwed a new radiator to the air-cooled engine, it was possible to solve the problem of heat removal. So La 5 appeared. So Yakovlev had a hand in the appearance of this airplane.)))))
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA April 1 2016 10: 48
        +2
        Quote: Cap.Morgan
        Shoved my models
        He took the plant from Lavochkin, exiling the poor fellow in Tbilissi.

        In fairness, the LaGG-3 military assembly, even after relief (from the 8th series), was a heavy, clumsy and unforgiving machine (and the lack of competent technicians in parts reduced its performance characteristics even more). It was not for nothing that they constantly tried to turn it into a fighter-bomber (episode 11), then into a tank destroyer (34 episode). And in 1942 its mass production went, rather, by inertia - due to the smoothness of the series.

        If the 66th series appeared earlier, then maybe LaGGs and would live longer in the series. But, as often happens, the system reaches perfection when nobody needs it anymore.
        1. Kenneth
          Kenneth April 1 2016 12: 54
          +1
          Lagg was done until 1944. My favorite plane in World of Warplanes
        2. The comment was deleted.
    2. kvs207
      kvs207 April 1 2016 10: 00
      +2
      And what was good about the I-180?
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA April 1 2016 10: 36
        +4
        Quote: kvs207
        And what was good about the I-180?

        The fact that Yakovlev got him sick, of course! smile

        At the same time, the guardians of the Polikarpov machines usually answer all questions about the timing of engine development and the availability of aluminum in the USSR "if it was necessary, they did it!" And they love to compare the performance characteristics of experienced polikarpov's licked cars with the first La-5, which was a glider of the serial LaGG-3 "military assembly" with a hastily screwed on M-82 (so hastily that the nose was not altered for a new engine, but simply cut off, closing space behind the engine second skin).
        1. Warrior Hamilton
          Warrior Hamilton April 1 2016 12: 06
          +2
          Quote: Alexey RA
          The fact that Yakovlev got him sick, of course!
          -Maybe, all the same, the reason is not in the "demon" Yakovlev, but in a series of various, minor and unpleasant accidents occurring during the tests of this machine, as well as the main thing that Valery Chkalov died on tests of the machine of this series ... the event could cross out not only the career of a designer ...
          1. otter.1
            otter.1 April 1 2016 12: 48
            0
            You think in the right direction, I think the death of Chkalov simply helped to solve a number of administrative tasks for those or other interested parties, but I repeat this, fortunately, the world practice, we did not invent this.
          2. sibiryouk
            sibiryouk April 1 2016 19: 41
            0
            And during the tests of the MIG-31, A.V. Fedotov, the chief pilot of the MIG firm, died. And the plane was made and in the Air Force he served and still serves now!
        2. otter.1
          otter.1 April 1 2016 12: 45
          +1
          Here you get the feeling that you were right there and were present when they were asked questions, and they gave answers looking already in your eyes, turning, singing to the asking side.
      2. Kenneth
        Kenneth April 1 2016 12: 56
        0
        Unification with the manufactured I-16. And here's what the Yak-1 was good
      3. The comment was deleted.
      4. Jipo
        Jipo April 1 2016 16: 39
        +1
        Chkalov died on it and was still happy with the disasters, but on paper at that time had the best characteristics.
    3. Amurets
      Amurets April 1 2016 10: 49
      +3
      Quote: Kenneth
      The usual laudatory article of a very controversial person from a wiki series reports. Weakly disassembled his administrative activities, largely due to which the USSR lost the I-180 and I-185.

      As far as I remember from the articles in MK-I-180 was an unsuccessful machine. Everything was squeezed out of the M-88 engine. Further developments based on the Gnome-Ron license did not lead to anything. They squeezed everything out of the engine, M-89 and M-90 did not go into the series. V. Chkalov, T. Suzi, V. Stepanchenok died on the I-180, for various reasons. Polikarpov put two engines on the new plane: M-82 and M-71. Even with the M-82 I-185 had high characteristics, but for some reason NN Polikarpov promoted the I-185 series with the M-71f engine. According to the reports of MM Gromov, commander of the 1st The VA, where new aircraft were undergoing military tests, the I-185 with the M-82 engine proved to be good, it was necessary to eliminate minor flaws. The I-185 with the M-71f engine passed the test hard, due to constant engine failures. Moreover, Yakovlev, unclear?
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA April 1 2016 11: 46
        +5
        Quote: Amurets
        .Even with the M-82 I-185 had high performance, but for some reason N.N. Polikarpov was promoting the I-185 series with the M-71f engine.

        Perfectionism. smile

        Seriously, with I-185 / M-82 it was not so simple... Yes, the prototypes were superior to the Soviet production fighters of that time. But the problem was that these were just experimental machines, licked to the last screw. During the transition to the series, according to a long-standing unkind tradition, the performance characteristics of the vehicles sank sharply - for example, a serial fighter could lose speed of 30-35 km / h. As a result, the serial I-185 / M-82 would not have significant advantages over the same La-5 (the performance characteristics of which were also improved by "licking" the structure with getting rid of the rudiments of the LaGG-3 and the "tree era" in general). And if a new car does not have an overwhelming advantage in performance characteristics over an already mass-produced one, then no one will launch it into series in the war.

        Polikarpov understood this - and that is why he promoted I-185 / M-71.
        1. Amurets
          Amurets April 1 2016 12: 09
          +3
          Quote: Alexey RA

          Polikarpov understood this - and that is why he promoted I-185 / M-71.

          Yes! I completely agree with you. The production culture was at a low level. I will not give examples, they are useless. On the other hand, you can also understand the production workers, they simply did not give time to prepare the production. This is in the memoirs of many plant managers and main constructors. Immediately a plan. A plan is a law and by any means you must fulfill it.
      2. Cap.Morgan
        Cap.Morgan April 1 2016 12: 45
        0
        Yakovlev of course nothing to do with it.
        He simply was entering the leader and could carry out his decisions. Beneficial to him and his team. And these are funds, salaries, states .... honor and respect.
        This system was generally the norm in the Soviet military-technical nomenclature.
        Many have become victims of such high relations, their names are known to all.
        Of course, Yakovlev had nothing to do with it, such games were accepted, not you, so you. Yakovlev was simply a strong player. Stalin died and Yak disappeared.
        1. Wheel
          Wheel April 1 2016 13: 23
          +3
          Quote: Cap.Morgan
          Stalin died and Yak disappeared.

          Well, yes, of course it disappeared, already several times.
          Yak-25, Yak-27, Yak-28 (the only aircraft not officially accepted for service, released in a series of 1180 pieces and operated from 63 to 94. Administrative resource, not otherwise. laughing )
          1. Cap.Morgan
            Cap.Morgan April 1 2016 19: 23
            0
            The years of the beginning of the production of these machines 54-58.
            Then silence. The resource has ended, several hundred cars have been produced. Compare with the MiG-15,17 ...
        2. gladcu2
          gladcu2 April 1 2016 19: 54
          +2
          Cap morgan

          You are mistaken. It is impossible to impose that time on the modern straightforwardly.

          I.V. Stalin, in the event of a clear need for strategic importance, could contribute to one or another proposal.

          But here are the funds and salaries, this is not to Stalin.

          The Soviet system of remuneration was very complex. To achieve some preferences is almost impossible.
        3. Gamdlislyam
          Gamdlislyam April 2 2016 09: 13
          +3
          Quote: Cap.Morgan
          Yakovlev, of course, had nothing to do with it. He was simply entering the leader and could carry out his decisions. Beneficial to him and his team. And these are funds, salaries, states .... honor and respect.

          Dear colleague Alexander, I am compelled to confuse you. All of the preferences and benefits listed by you were introduced during the first People’s Commissar of the Aviation Industry M. M. Kaganovich, in order to stimulate the design idea and the appearance of new promising weapons.
          But Yakovlev A.S. made efforts to reduce these preferences and benefits, and to eliminate some of them. Simply put, he contributed to the return of the "vertical of power" in the aircraft industry, and especially in the experimental aircraft industry. He covered or reformatted various small design bureaus at aircraft factories into branches of leading design bureaus, which in fact did not do anything except paperwork (creation of unrealizable projects), but enjoyed preferences and benefits (as did the management of the factories where these design bureaus were located).
          That's for this Yakovleva A.S. hated in earnest.
    4. Wheel
      Wheel April 1 2016 11: 14
      +5
      Quote: Kenneth
      Weakly disassembled his administrative activities, largely due to which the USSR lost the I-180 and I-185.

      Oh, how embarrassing the last years have been with Polykarpov fighters!
      Yes, the I-185 was the best fighter created during the war.
      The reason that he did not go into the series is simple to the commonplace - there was no serial engine.
      To expand the production of the crude motor ASH-71 to the detriment of the production of the very popular ASH-82 - the leadership of the country could not and did not go that way.
      Everything else is from the evil one.
      1. otter.1
        otter.1 April 1 2016 12: 54
        +6
        Well, finally, at least someone, otherwise everything "You understand the conspiracy"
        It was because of this that they refused to mass produce the T-44, in the conditions of war it was practically impossible to reconstruct production to produce a new model without prejudice to the current model.
        And that’s all, this one, that one, and tama, and tuta.
      2. Kenneth
        Kenneth April 1 2016 13: 01
        0
        ASH-71 successfully passed state tests.
        1. Wheel
          Wheel April 1 2016 13: 26
          +1
          Quote: Kenneth
          ASH-71 successfully passed state tests.

          Passing state tests and launching into mass production are two big differences.
        2. Amurets
          Amurets April 1 2016 13: 41
          +1
          Quote: Kenneth
          ASH-71 successfully passed state tests.

          Read V Avgustinovich. "Battle for speed". And what problems were even with the less forced and heat-stressed engine M-82 / ASh-82. The ASh-71f did not pass the state tests completely.
        3. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA April 1 2016 14: 08
          +2
          Quote: Kenneth
          ASH-71 successfully passed state tests.

          M-88, too, at one time successfully passed state tests and was put into service. And six months later, it was discontinued for revision, leaving the Ilyushin bombers for six months without engines.
      3. The comment was deleted.
    5. otter.1
      otter.1 April 1 2016 12: 41
      +4
      If you think that in other countries designers are nobly competing, this only means that most of the visitors to this site are engaged in self-deception.
      This is me to the fact that you still need to figure out who more had a hand in rejection of the Polikarpov machines - Yakovlev or Lavochkin.
      Tupolev, too, did not stand on ceremony with young, creatively thinking designers, but this is unfortunately a world practice, we are not alone here.
      So I think these people should be treated simply with respect, and not delved into their "closets". Everyone has so much to find that "Foma won't turn a bolt."
      And about which plane is better ... Well, for an ordinary pilot, definitely Yak, but for a sophisticated pilot., ACA I think La. It’s like a nagging comparison of which tank was better, Panther or T-34, well, very similar.
  10. iouris
    iouris April 1 2016 10: 33
    0
    The personality of A.S. Yakovlev is extremely ambiguous, if only due to the contradictions of the era. A.S. Yakovlev is more than an aircraft designer. By virtue of his position, he could influence the fate of colleagues who worked in "sharashki" and the results of the competition between design bureaus. The author limited himself to presenting the known facts of the official biography. It would be useful to dilute the article with alternative opinions about the social and political activities and designs of A.S. Yakovlev, since he played a significant role in the aviation industry in the pre-war and war period. It is significant that after the war the design bureau sharply changed its position: the Yak-25, Yak-28 (both variants) and the Yak-38 cannot be called successful aircraft.
    The book "The Purpose of Life" ("Notes of an Aircraft Designer") is the version of the interested person, it only lifts the veil.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets April 1 2016 11: 13
      +2
      Quote: iouris
      The personality of A.S. Yakovlev is extremely ambiguous, if only because of the contradictions of the era. A.S. Yakovlev more than an aircraft designer.

      Yes! I agree with this, as I agree with the fact that Tupolev, when he became the head of the SUAI, made it difficult for competitors to access the TsAGI. Purge aircraft models, if they were not from Tupolev Design Bureau, were delayed as much as possible.
      Quote: iouris
      By virtue of his position, he could influence the fate of colleagues who worked in "sharashki" and the results of the competition between design bureaus.

      Yakovlev could not influence the fate of his colleagues in sharashka; it was the estate of L.P. Beria; he didn’t let anyone in. According to Shakhurin's memoirs, Yakovlev was engaged in pilot aircraft construction and could only influence the distribution of orders for experimental work. he became deputy commissar for general issues, but he could somehow influence Stalin’s opinion on certain issues in aviation. Do not forget that Stalin knew and loved aviation and made decisions on aviation issues. Not only A.S. writes about this .Yakovlev, but also Shakhurin and other aviation designers of the USSR.
      1. iouris
        iouris April 1 2016 12: 16
        +2
        I won’t argue. Stalin also understood literature. Only Stalin knew why Yakovlev was in that position, and Fadeev in the other. However, it cannot be said that he did not depend on these two.
        As a criterion for the moral climate in the community of general designers, one could define their general attitude towards Roberto Bartini. Here you can rely on the memories of M.P. Simonov, who personally knew Bartini and all this "kitchen".
        Competition, of course, is a good thing, but the competition between the generals in the USSR had its own unpleasant "coupling", which influenced the development of aviation in the USSR. I think Yakovlev was directly related to this.
        1. Amurets
          Amurets April 1 2016 12: 51
          +1
          Quote: iouris
          Competition, of course, is a good thing, but the competition between generals in the USSR had its own unpleasant "specifics" that influenced the development of aviation in the USSR. I think Yakovlev was directly related to this.

          Well, it started back then when Yakovlev was a gymnasium student. Recall what sticks Gakkel put in the wheels. And Yakovlev had to go through this when he had to fight for his design bureau and his factory. So there is nothing surprising here.
    2. Andrey NM
      Andrey NM April 1 2016 12: 17
      +1
      I completely agree with the ambiguity. But nowhere is it advertised why after the war he so quietly left the post of deputy people's commissar. And after all, he does not have so many successful planes. Yaki-1,7,9,3 are good planes, but this is a development of a sports theme, they are lightened to the maximum. There was an attempt to supply the M-82 air-cooled engine, but the strength of the airframe could not be done, only after "halving" the M-82 was it possible to put it on the Yak-3 airframe, resulting in the Yak-11. Post-war aircraft were not operated for long, but I saw how the Yak-38 fell during landing.
      Pokryshkin’s memoirs are revealing, where he describes his meetings with Yakovlev and Lavochkin. The attitude is absolutely the opposite. If Yakovlev didn’t even listen to him, Pokryshkin wrote that he didn’t even turn to him, sitting by the fireplace. Pokryshkin expressed his point of view, stood and left. Lavochkin also questioned in detail, wrote down details, etc.
      I have Yakovlev's books ("Notes of an Aircraft Designer", "The Purpose of Life" and "Soviet Aircraft"), but everything is so smoothly combed, and the characteristics of German aircraft are generally incomprehensible, you look at the plates, ours are head and shoulders above them.
      1. DimerVladimer
        DimerVladimer April 1 2016 13: 06
        +1
        Quote: Andrey NM
        And after all, he has not so many successful aircraft. Yaki-1,7,9,3 - good aircraft, but this is the development of a sports theme, facilitated to the maximum


        Well, don’t tell me - quite successful, they were built in a large series, the Yak-9 was very massive.
        There were, of course, inherent disadvantages: low survivability, lack of armored glass, relatively weak armament (which made it difficult to destroy the enemy with one attack), small ammunition, short flight range (except for the Yak-9D) - this had to be sacrificed to ensure low weight and, accordingly, to obtain high maneuverability and decent speed with a relatively weak engine. On the other hand, it is easy to operate, good climb rate, small turning radius, well dived in contrast to the "frontal" La-5 La-7 with air-cooled motors.
        In general, Yakovlev’s planes were very good.
        1. Andrey NM
          Andrey NM April 1 2016 20: 12
          +2
          Well, don’t tell me - quite successful, they were built in a large series, the Yak-9 was very massive.

          Did I say that the Yaki-1,3,7,9 are unsuccessful? In fairness, I must say that Lavochkin also produced large series of only LAGGi, La-5,7,9,11, i.e. actually derivatives of the same model, as well as Yakovlev cars. True, Lavochkin died quite early.
        2. Andrey NM
          Andrey NM April 1 2016 20: 39
          +1
          Here, I took out Yakovlev's book "Soviet Airplanes" from the shelf. There is a chapter on foreign aviation. And this is what he writes about Messers: "Each of the modifications of the Messerschmitt: 109F, 109G, 109G2, 109G4 and others, to some extent improved one or another tactical quality of the aircraft. In the end, the lightweight, excellent in its original form, the Messerschmitt-109 fighter grew in weight almost up to 3,5 tons and lost maneuverability. Despite the increase in engine power and armament, Messerschmitt did not manage to get any advantages over our Yak and La aircraft. " About Fokke-Wulf-190 about the same. The maximum speed for Messer is 570 km / h, for FV-190 - 604 km / h. Messers produced 33000 units, 190s - 20000 units. What can I say?
      2. Cap.Morgan
        Cap.Morgan April 1 2016 13: 08
        -1
        For good reason, the Yak-1,7,3 and 9 are the same vehicle, slightly modernized. Another "lantern", duralumin instead of wood ....
        In the West, the modification was indicated by a number after the number. Me 109 E, F, G ... e.g.
    3. Foofighter
      Foofighter April 5 2016 01: 12
      0
      Did you read the article at all? The only design bureaus that did the full range were fighters, bombers, passenger planes, helicopters and VTOL, the latter did just one more English, and then only subsonic.
  11. Chazoy
    Chazoy April 1 2016 11: 08
    +3
    But there wasn’t another 30 years old, and he already headed the Design Bureau ... Deputy Commissar - at the age of 40 ... A characteristic feature in the Stalin era: they put decent people in important positions, regardless of age and merit in the past, which is probably why this era is the time of the highest growth of our state.
    1. Bashibuzuk
      Bashibuzuk April 1 2016 11: 40
      +4
      "..therefore, this era is the time of the highest growth of our state."
      And at the same time - and all that bouquet, which is usually drawn to the era of Stalin.
      ...
      Even in the comments slips so - that Yakovlev, Tupolev very widely used the "administrative resource".
      And the younger the comrade, the more tempting to use the "resource".
      Here you don't even have to blame anyone - "..young, it's time for simple desires!" (Bestuzhev, Chancellor, "Midshipmen, forward")
      As they say - there is no person, no problem.
      ..
      Maybe that's why it’s especially violent, or not really ...
      So that they do neither harm themselves nor others?
      ...
      Airfors.ru website has memoirs of a pilot; now I don’t remember the name who flew in the North with a 37 mm cannon.
      So with the help of this gun, he drowned some kind of German live. They did not believe him. No confirmation has yet arrived.
      So he wrote about other cannons, the 45th, in my opinion, mounted on a fighter.
      Humorously so ... writes, I fly, speed -500. Shot. The car seemed to stop in the air at a speed of 400. Again it is gaining speed. The next shot is the same again.
      Well, how to fly on such a fighter?
      So, in addition to just flying ... you also need to twist the aerobatics.
      If suddenly the hawk does not fall apart. On the fourth shot.
      1. Andrey NM
        Andrey NM April 1 2016 12: 25
        +4
        Major General Nikolai Gerasimovich Golodnikov wrote about the liveba, though he flew on Cobra with a 37 mm cannon.
        1. Bashibuzuk
          Bashibuzuk April 1 2016 12: 26
          +1
          Exactly, Golodnikov, remembered.
          Thank you for refreshing your memory.
          For ... sclerosis is present. Already.
      2. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA April 1 2016 12: 57
        +2
        Quote: Bashibuzuk
        So, in addition to just flying ... you also need to twist the aerobatics.
        If suddenly the hawk does not fall apart. On the fourth shot.

        And a lot of hawks fell apart?

        Yak-9T and Yak-9K are not mass combat vehicles, but a kind of air "tanks of high-quality reinforcement" for working in conjunction with mass fighters with their 20-23 mm.
        1) the Yak-9T aircraft is a fighter necessary for the spacecraft air force;

        2) when forming parts of fighter aviation, it is advisable to make the regiments mixed, comprising 30 ... 50% of Yak aircraft with conventional weapons and 70 ... 50% of aircraft with a 37 mm gun;

        3) it is advisable to use Yak-9T aircraft to equip units with flight personnel that are well versed in aerial shooting. A pilot flying a Yak-9T must be a kind of air sniper and be able to hit the enemy for sure - from the first shot.

        Quote: Bashibuzuk
        "..therefore, this era is the time of the highest growth of our state."
        And at the same time - and all that bouquet, which is usually drawn to the era of Stalin.
        ...
        Even in the comments slips so - that Yakovlev, Tupolev very widely used the "administrative resource".
        And the younger the comrade, the more tempting to use the "resource".

        He-he-he ... one might think that the use of administrative resources in the competition of the design bureau is an exclusively Soviet method. Over the hillock, Northrop with his already built "wings" and Strukov ("Chase Aircraft", "Fairchild") with his serial C-123 transport aircraft, which after a series of modifications began to dangerously approach the C-130 niche, were driven in the same way.
    2. iouris
      iouris April 1 2016 12: 28
      +1
      I suspect that during this period, the main content of the work in some design bureaus was the urgent adaptation of foreign designs to production capabilities. Stalin was a politician, and a politician creates an apparatus and moves cadres according to the principle of personal loyalty, diligence, taking into account the time factor. The personal ambitions of Tupolev or Polikarpov hindered him, so they acted according to the principle "the best is the enemy of the good."
      Some of those put forward by Stalin really turned out to be at the level of the requirements of the time and even, like DF Ustinov or AN Kosygin, in the future became "Atlanteans" on which the system was supported.
      1. Cap.Morgan
        Cap.Morgan April 1 2016 13: 10
        0
        Gromyko more ...
      2. Amurets
        Amurets April 1 2016 13: 24
        +2
        Quote: iouris
        I suspect that during this period the main content of work in some design bureaus was the urgent adaptation of foreign designs to the possibilities of production.

        Do not suspect! You have expressed the correct thought. Besides the Kalep engines; M-5 and MG-31 aircraft engines of our own design, we did not have them. Licenses were purchased for liquid-cooled engines from BMW firms; Hispano-Suiza for air from Wright firms; Gnome-Rhone; Bristol. Attempts to buy licenses for Rolls-Royce engines failed. Do not be offended that the links will be for specialists; PI Orlov. "Design and calculation of parts of aircraft engine parts."! 940 year of publication. Aircraft engines of foreign countries. 1939 year of publication. There were constant problems with alloying materials. There was not enough high-quality steels for crankshafts and camshafts, valve steels and much more. This was written by Shakhurin, Tevosyan, and a number of other leaders of the country of that time.
        1. iouris
          iouris April 1 2016 21: 53
          -1
          Engines - of course. Probably, only by the end of the 1980s we had completely domestic developments. Obviously, Pe-2, -3 is practically Bf-110. You can find foreign parallels for almost every type of aircraft developed in the USSR. This also applies to cars. (Note, I am not saying that these are copies). In this sense, it is interesting whether the Yak-1, LaGG-1, and MiG-1 have a backstory. By the way, did you try to copy the Bf-109?
          1. Amurets
            Amurets April 2 2016 00: 13
            0
            Quote: iouris
            By the way, did you try to copy the Bf-109?

            No! But the work of Messerschmidt gave impetus to work on fighters with liquid-cooled engines. By the way, Polikarpov was the first designer to put Ispano-Suizu on a fighter in the USSR. One of the main problems was the lack of aluminum in the USSR. Therefore, even in heavy aircraft, wherever possible, they tried to use wood. And inverted engines were not produced in the USSR. And the Bf-109 was an all-metal machine.
      3. Jipo
        Jipo April 1 2016 16: 44
        +1
        Tupolev why complain, nobody clamped his planes, did what he wanted, even in a sharazhka.
        1. Cap.Morgan
          Cap.Morgan April 1 2016 19: 35
          -1
          Quote: JIPO
          Tupolev why complain, nobody clamped his planes, did what he wanted, even in a sharazhka.

          Of course, why complain, I was in prison, and I am not happy with anything else.
  12. DimerVladimer
    DimerVladimer April 1 2016 12: 49
    0
    Fuller in the memoirs Yakovlev, Alexander Sergeevich
    "The purpose of life"
    http://militera.lib.ru/memo/russian/yakovlev-as/index.html
    very informative.
  13. Jipo
    Jipo April 1 2016 16: 42
    +1
    Did the Yak-3 fly more than 600 km? An article of 900 km is written.
  14. Kostya Andreev
    Kostya Andreev April 1 2016 19: 35
    +1
    with all due respect to Yakovlev, the article is an advertisement. I learned something new for myself, that the Yak-3 with a range of 900 km, and the Yak-9 T had two large-caliber machine guns, but so on by the little things of other interesting things.
    The critics of Polikarpov who recall the dead testers need to recall the testers of the dead at Yakovlev, Mikoyan, and others. They have such a job.
    With all the love and admiration for the I-185, it should not be allowed into the series during the war, because you can’t take risks.
    Yakovlev, the personality is ambiguous and talented as a designer (in the presence of a weak motor to do on a world level) and as a writer, his book is easy to read.
  15. magician
    magician April 1 2016 19: 59
    +1
    Glory to our designers! Broke the Luftwaffe ridge! He flew on civilian yaks 40 and 42, 42 is generally super! The mechanization of the wing is very saturated.
  16. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 April 1 2016 20: 39
    +1
    Quote: Bureaucrat
    However, under Stalin, they did not hold others.

    Hold it up? That is why Lev Mehlis immediately came to mind, and for no straight the whole line is being built ... laughing

    Quote: kvs207
    Particularly impressive was the Yak-9T with its gun.
    "Large trunks" as it turned out, is not good. For example, the Germans even put a 88mm cannon on the Ju-75, but nothing good came of it. fellow

    Quote: gladcu2
    But tell me. Why are the Yak climb rates lower than the Germans and Britons in warthunder?
    Which SPECIFIC Yak, and specifically which German or British? Soviet aircraft generally traditionally differed in non-high engines.

    Quote: gladcu2
    But here are the funds and salaries, this is not to Stalin.
    The Soviet system of remuneration was very complex. To achieve some preferences is almost impossible.
    Oh oh. And to whom?

    Quote: Andrey NM
    If Yakovlev didn’t even listen to him, Pokryshkin wrote that he didn’t even turn to him, sitting by the fireplace. Pokryshkin expressed his point of view, stood and left.
    Maybe the problem is that Pokryshkin flew on Lavochin's planes and then Airacobrah? Introducing the oil painting - Erich Hartman comes in to Kurt Tank - "Well, like, hey, I fly here on Messers, of course, but I want to responsibly declare that your FockeWulfs are a dull g ... but!" wassat

    Quote: wizard
    Glory to our designers! Broke the Luftwaffe ridge!
    Uh-huh. Despite the fact that the most effective were the American "Airacobras" and they simply prayed to get American strategic bomber.

    Quote: Amurets
    For liquid cooling engines, licenses were purchased from BMW firms; Spano-Suiza on air at Wright firms; Gnome-Ron; Bristol. Attempts to buy a license for Rolls-Royce engines failed
    In the 30s in Europe, Soviet planes generally preferred to be named after American models, because there were too many licenses or "ripped off".
    1. iouris
      iouris April 1 2016 21: 59
      0
      Quote: Warrior2015
      the most effective were American "Airacobras"

      In the United States, pilots considered the R-39 to be an extremely unsuccessful aircraft due to its propensity for a flat corkscrew.
      To whom the detailed explanation of all these inconsistencies in aircraft ratings is interesting - I recommend: Yu.I. MUKHIN. ASY AND ADVANCE.
      1. Amurets
        Amurets April 2 2016 00: 36
        +1
        Quote: iouris
        In the United States, pilots considered the R-39 to be an extremely unsuccessful aircraft due to its propensity for a flat corkscrew.
        To whom the detailed explanation of all these inconsistencies in aircraft ratings is interesting - I recommend: Yu.I. MUKHIN. ASY AND ADVANCE.

        More qualified, but the same opinion: II Shelest. "I am flying after a dream. It tells how our testers AG Kochekov and FP Suprun flew to the USA, to the Bell company, for testing." King Cobra "on the same issues. It should not be forgotten that the Cobra crippled or killed the pilots who left her with his stabilizer.
        1. Bashibuzuk
          Bashibuzuk April 2 2016 13: 19
          0
          The same material is also available on affors.ru.ru website airforce.ru
          Pokryshkin has the idea that the Cobra extremely easily fell into a tailspin. Flat.
          Everyone flying on the Cobras.
          ...
          At the same time, they have a well-established opinion that in those regimes that the Cobra manuals prescribed - the plane was NO.
          What American pilots are talking about directly.
          Therefore ... such a guano - was stained with Russian. They pay with gold ... gold .. Aristarchus, figure it out.
          And our pilots were much more concerned about how to get under the tribunal.
          And used abnormal Cobra operating modes. Engines in particular.
          Moreover, the staffing could be forgotten immediately - in connection with the peculiarities of the material and technical supply of troops.
          Gasoline was not that system ... and machine guns - not B100 .... I exaggerate.
          ...
          Reading the memoirs of the pilots, you might think that they spent all their activity on the same plane ... as they sat on it, so they went to receive the Stars from it.
          Actually ... the plane lived in few battles. The machine died a fly.
          Because no one spared her.
          And the airworthiness standards were very strict.
          ...
          Draw conclusions.
          1. Timofey Astakhov
            Timofey Astakhov 4 October 2019 23: 00
            0
            "They pay in gold ... in gold" listen, will you have enough of this crap? Lend-Lease supplies were free of charge. Do not disgrace
  17. tolancop
    tolancop April 1 2016 21: 32
    +1
    The article is not bad. And here’s the title I’ll tell you frankly - FUCKED !!
    Fighters "hawks" began to be called when Yak'ami still did not smell. At least with the I-16 went (Polikarpov - the KING of fighters) http://hobbyport.ru/avia/i_16_mk6807.htm. So, that Yakovlev is not suitable for the role of father.
    In the light of the above phrase "It is no coincidence that during the war years for Soviet fighter planes the everyday affectionate name" Yastrebok "was fixed" is an obvious stretch.
    I believe that Yakovlev did not claim his "paternity" either. Incl. whatever one may say, but the title is a silly invention of the author.
  18. tolancop
    tolancop April 1 2016 22: 00
    +3
    Following up. I read it again. Opinion about the article changed for much worse.
    "Also, already during the war years, to provide reliable cover for bomber aviation at the Yakovlev Design Bureau, an escort fighter was designed, which had heavier weapons and a longer flight range than ordinary Yak-1 and Yak-3 fighters. This aircraft was the Yak-9 ...", It should be understood that the Yak-9 appeared LATER than the Yak-3, but this is not so. Yak-9 - 1942, Yak-3 -1943. Directories are available !!! "Yak-9, which was armed with a 37-mm cannon and two large-caliber 12,7-mm machine guns. The fighter's flight range reached 1000 km. During the Great Patriotic War, Yak-9 fighters were widely used for attacks on ground targets. For example, vehicles. Yak-9Ts were armed with 45mm cannons ... "
    Another pack of mistakes. The Yak-9 was armed with a 20 mm cannon and one 12.7 mm machine gun (2 had a Yak-3).
    The 37 mm cannon was on the Yak-9T, which the author armed with the "forty-five", which in reality was on the Yak-9K.

    "..And the appearance of the Yak-9D and Yak-9DD aircraft in the Air Force, with a flight range of 1400 and 2200 km, respectively, made it possible to provide support for the Soviet troops in the offensive, which was especially important at the final stage of the war ..." Another wonder-wondrous. For support of troops over 1000 km DO NOT FLY - long, expensive and expensive. This range is needed to escort FAR bombers bombing deep rear areas.

    IMHO, the author is another graffomaniac who does not own the material at all, at least in a minimal amount. Respect for the reader, whom the author generously "fills" with his inventions, is out of the question.
  19. dmmyak40
    dmmyak40 April 1 2016 22: 19
    +2
    My father flew almost all his flying life in the Yak-40. I was lucky enough to sit at the controls of this wonderful aircraft more than once. And let it be jokingly called "butt", "stub", "cross", teal or "kerosene fighter", it will remain for me the most beautiful aircraft in the world, and the sound of its engines - the launcher of the AI-9 and the main AI-25 will remain the most beautiful melody in life. Remember: "The order of launch is 4, 1,2, 3 ....
    1. iouris
      iouris April 2 2016 17: 55
      0
      The Yak-40 is a very good aircraft, but it appeared on the eve of the first oil crisis. This determined his difficult fate.
  20. tolancop
    tolancop April 2 2016 09: 39
    0
    Quote: Warrior2015
    Quote: Bureaucrat
    However, under Stalin, they did not hold others.

    Hold it up? That is why Lev Mehlis immediately came to mind, and for no straight the whole line is being built ... laughing..

    And what do you know CORRECTLY about L. Mehlis? I'll say about myself right away - nothing. But I fully admit that in a certain position and in a certain capacity, the same Mehlis was quite useful. And indirect evidence (the most reliable, by the way, since if you want to "correct history", direct evidence rules, forgetting or not being able to change indirect evidence).

    Quote: Warrior2015
    Quote: kvs207
    Particularly impressive was the Yak-9T with its gun.
    "Large trunks" as it turned out, is not good. For example, the Germans even put a 88mm cannon on the Ju-75, but nothing good came of it. fellow

    The Germans did not do anything good with a self-loading rifle, but our SVT-40 was a welcome trophy for them. So, the fact that the Germans "did not work out" is not an indicator. I met statistics on the equipment of fighter regiments armed with Yak. By the end of the war, about a third of the Yaks in the regiments were Yak-9T. Is it too much for a bad sample? Large caliber imposed certain restrictions, but this is a matter of the competent use of the POSSIBILITIES of the weapon, and not the viciousness of the idea. A hammer is needed for a nail, and a screwdriver for a screw.

    Quote: Warrior2015
    Quote: wizard
    Glory to our designers! Broke the Luftwaffe ridge!
    Uh-huh. Despite the fact that the most effective were the American "Airacobras" and they simply prayed to get American strategic bomber.

    I recommend that you familiarize yourself with the list of development work on the Cobra, carried out based on the results of their flight tests and operation in the USSR.
    So, our specialists have firmly put their hands to the fact that "Cobra" has become what it has become.
    There are big questions about "the most effective were Aircobras". Who were they considered? Technicians, pilots, headquarters? Which direction?
    The plane was good, there are no words, only there is no need to make an icon out of it. As well as from Pokryshkin, Kozhedub and others. They were great, but ordinary pilots took the war out on their hump.
    1. iouris
      iouris April 2 2016 17: 48
      0
      Quote: tolancop
      from Pokryshkin, Kozhedub and others. They were great, but ordinary pilots took the war out on their hump.

      There is nothing more wrong with this version. The fact is that according to the modern version of the Pareto law ("20 to 80"), 95% of everything is nonsense, and 90% is complete nonsense. Thus, it is very likely that 5..10% of pilots are able to give 90 ... 95% of the result. In addition, it is generally recognized and of paramount importance that the Soviet aces pilots greatly changed the tactics of air battles, ensured the effective organization of combat operations by fighter aircraft, overcoming the resistance of the "top", which was unsafe. During the war, they taught "ordinary pilots", turned them into real aces, and gave them knowledge and experience for free (!).
      With this in mind, it seems extremely unfair that our aces were not awarded the scientific degrees and academic degrees, which it more than deserves.
  21. Kagulin
    Kagulin April 2 2016 11: 00
    +1
    Answer to the journalist: Yakovlev was not a designer of hawks, but of fighters. It’s not about poetry here. And then Polikarpov, who? If Yakovlev is a father? Grandfather, or what? But before you write something, you need to think.
  22. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 April 2 2016 18: 06
    0
    Quote: Bashibuzuk
    manuals for Cobra - the plane was NO.
    What American pilots are talking about directly. Therefore ... such a guano - was stained with Russian.
    Well, in general, the Soviet representatives themselves chose those types of cars that were supplied to the USSR. This is the question of "shake off". Secondly, a very high-quality front-line fighter. What, Hellcats were needed for the Soviet-German front?!?

    Quote: Bashibuzuk

    Actually ... the plane lived in few battles. The machine died a fly.
    Because no one spared her.
    This is not true. You are clearly confusing the attitude towards cars in the West European Air Force — that of the Anglo-Saxons, that of the Germans — and in the Air Force of the Red Army. Why do you think Soviet pilots were pulling down downed planes? Why did they often die in them, trying to stretch or land the plane on their belly? instead of just throwing yourself with a parachute and forget about the typewriter?

    Quote: tolancop
    For the support of troops for 1000 km DO NOT FLY - for a long, expensive and expensive. This range is needed to escort FAR bombers bombing deep rear areas.
    Well, this is by the standards of the Soviet Air Force. Many other armies had different standards. yes

    Quote: tolancop
    So, the fact that the Germans "did not work out" is not an indicator.
    Well, the Germans considered the Ju-87 with TWO 37-mm cannons in underwing gondolas to be the most effective tank destroyer. With such an armament, the "bast shoe" flew a little better than a log! However, they somehow flew and successfully existed right up to the winter of 45! And what - to consider that they are super genius in this regard?
  23. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 April 3 2016 21: 58
    0
    Quote: Aspeed
    X-NUMX-mm projectile even the T-37 could penetrate unless in the stern or grille MTO when hit at angles close to 34.

    Hmm, well, actually few people know that these cannons loaded shells with tungsten cores with amazing armor-piercing.

    Quote: Aspeed
    Well, the cobras were considered not the most effective in general, but the most effective of what the allies put on 43.
    A very large number of guards regiments flew on them, and a huge proportion of Soviet aces flew also on the P-39. A very powerful universal aircraft with high survivability, visibility, and most importantly - excellent long-distance radio communications thanks to Amer walkie-talkies (unlike all other Soviet aircraft).

    Quote: Aspeed
    It says only about typical European Nazism. Classic malice, I would say :) They have Mosin - Nagan, and Makarov - Walter, and AK - Sturmgever :)
    Rather, it is more correct to say, not Nazism (i.e., National Socialism, the political movement), but snobbery (character traits, mentality). But regarding Kalashnikov and Stg-44 stormtrooper - the question is very controversial. For example, few people know that from 1946 to 1952 the year Hugo Schmeisser worked in the USSR, and here is a coincidence, at the same Izhevsk plant, where the young locksmith inventor Kalashnikov ...
  24. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 April 5 2016 00: 42
    0
    Quote: Aspeed
    It is for these reasons that the USSR quietly switched to PTABs. I filled up the 15 strip on the 70 PTABs - and all the tanks in it were covered.

    The USSR did not use shells with tungsten cores due not only to their absence, but to a general lack of understanding of their nature. The first Soviet shells of this type ..... appeared already in 1976 g! laughing
    And PTABs - let’s say so, their effectiveness is greatly exaggerated. AM ampoules were more effective - but here's the problem, the allies in response to German protests asked the USSR not to use them so that the war would not go into the chemical stage. Well, the most effective weapon Il2- turned out to be ... 37mm guns! those. the same as the Germans used! but their use required good pilots. request

    Quote: Aspeed
    Racism, wild barbarism - a characteristic feature for Europeans since those times when they were barbarians in animal skins.
    Unfortunately, most peoples on Earth suffer from this, because it is an endemic European disease - a deep delusion. wink

    Quote: Aspeed
    Well, about the fact that between AK and Sturmgevere only the shape of the front sight is common, I suppose, it’s not worth it :)
    There is too much in common to say that this is just a coincidence. Like Soviet missiles, Soviet armored personnel carriers, and much more. If the Yankees actively used the technical achievements of the Germans, then why not admit that we also used? This problem has been going on since the USSR ...
    1. Foofighter
      Foofighter April 5 2016 02: 17
      -1
      Quote: Warrior2015
      There is too much in common

      I wonder what exactly? As well as in... laughing A form from Hugo Boss does not press?
      1. Foofighter
        Foofighter April 5 2016 03: 13
        0
        And yet - how can you get for years in armor German sub-caliber shells from tungsten supplied to Nazi Germany from the Zionist USA under "Lend-Lease", and not want the same? Probably all the same does not press ...
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. The comment was deleted.
  25. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 April 5 2016 22: 43
    0
    Quote: Aspeed
    How does the "nature" of a tungsten core fundamentally differ from the nature of any other carbide core of a projectile? What is tungsten, what is uranium, but any?

    Probably something is still different if the USSR switched to tungsten cores in 70, and still use it? wink But there are two obvious advantages - it’s simplified: the tip’s self-sharpening in the process of breaking through the armor + the multiplicity of fragments after breaking through (which refutes the fact of too little armor impact).

    Regarding the degree of aiming, the Soviet attack aircraft never had such aiming accuracy as that of the Ju-87, highly trained pilots who placed bombs in a circle with a diameter of 2 meters, and we won’t even talk about guns.

    Moreover, both subcaliber tungsten and HEAT shells were news for the Red Army in 1941. Just as a fact, I remind you that the first cumulative "armor-burning" projectile appeared in the Red Army only in May 1942, and such projectiles appeared in large quantities and for many calibers only since May 1943! And here's a coincidence request - The tank successes of the Wehrmacht are over!

    Oh, okay, we have to curl up, otherwise the tank srach loomed on the horizon ... stop

    Quote: Aspeed
    Already blown away by the wind anywhere, the efficiency was not too high. PTAB punched and destroyed any German tank.
    The main condition was nevertheless that the Anglo-Saxons threatened to break the allied agreement and stop lend-lease if the USSR used chemical weapons in the war against Germany (for example, therefore, they abandoned the termite filling of shells for the Katyushas - after they switched to the usual high-explosive effect).


    Quote: FooFighter
    German missiles were very low-tech, so no.
    Soviet designers of the first Russian missiles strongly disagree with you! lol And more about low-tech - well, the British have suffered a lot from these "low-tech products."
    1. Foofighter
      Foofighter April 5 2016 23: 27
      0
      They told you this themselves, as well as about technology? The British - not much, the Americans did not suffer at all.

      Repeat:
      Quote: FooFighter
      And yet - how can you get for years in armor German sub-caliber shells from tungsten supplied to Nazi Germany from the Zionist USA under "Lend-Lease", and not want the same? Probably all the same does not press ...


      German tank successes had recently relaxed even in March 1945 in Hungary.
    2. Gamdlislyam
      Gamdlislyam April 9 2016 12: 36
      0
      Quote: Warrior2015
      The main condition was nevertheless that the Anglo-Saxons threatened to break the allied agreement and stop lend-lease if the USSR used chemical weapons in the war against Germany (for example, therefore, they abandoned the termite filling of shells for the Katyushas - after they switched to the usual high-explosive effect).

      Quote: Warrior2015
      And PTABs - let’s say so, their effectiveness is greatly exaggerated. AM ampoules were more effective - but here's the problem, the allies in response to German protests asked the USSR not to use them so that the war would not go into the chemical stage. Well, the most effective weapons of IL2- were ...

      Dear colleague Sergey, ERSs were not produced with thermal filling either for Katyushas or for aircraft. The thermal effect came from the fact that the body of the powder engine heated up during operation (in flight) to 800-900 degrees. This is the first thing.
      The second one. Thermal shells and AM ampoules, like flamethrowers, have never belonged to chemical weapons. They used fuel (spontaneous or ignited) substance, some of our Western (Anglo-Saxon) allies called napalm. But the Anglo-Saxons used containers with napalm and flamethrowers actively in the war with Germany and Japan, as well as other ammunition with a thermal effect, until the end of WW2, and then in other armed conflicts to this day.
      The third. Yes, the Anglo-Saxons delivered an ultimatum about not using chemical weapons, but not the USSR, but Germany, after it used (occasionally, in a small amount) chemical munitions on the Soviet-German front in 1942.
    3. Gamdlislyam
      Gamdlislyam April 9 2016 13: 07
      0
      Quote: Warrior2015
      Regarding the degree of aiming, the Soviet attack aircraft never had such aiming accuracy as that of the Ju-87, highly trained pilots who placed bombs in a circle with a diameter of 2 meters, and we won’t even talk about guns.

      Dear colleague Sergey, you are a little mistaken. The work of the Ju-87 pilots was rated as "excellent" in the Luftwaffe if they placed a bomb in a dive in a circle with a diameter of 25 meters.
  26. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 April 6 2016 14: 00
    -1
    Quote: FooFighter
    The British - not much, the Americans did not suffer at all.

    Mr. Churchill has vigorously protested your words!
    "This new form of attack laid the burden on the inhabitants of London, perhaps even heavier than the air raids 1940 and 1941 years. The state of suspense and tension became longer. Neither the approach of the day, nor the cloudiness brought comfort ... The blind power of this projectile inspired a person on earth with a feeling of helplessness ”


    Quote: Aspeed
    but wasn’t this the moment when the T4 appeared in large numbers with the additional forehead and T6? Maybe expensive cumulative and sub-caliber up to this point just weren’t needed - just because of the lack of goals?

    Here everything is clearly painted:
    "... But despite the fact that the development of the projectile ended in the spring of 1942, its large-scale production was started only in 1943. This was due to the fact that the technology of manufacturing cores from a powder material by pressing, developed under the leadership of V. Riskin, G Levin and M. Medvedev, was worked out only by the middle of 1942, within the framework of which engineer V. Semchenko developed simple molds, and also due to the appearance in the beginning of 1943 on the front of the German tanks "Tiger" and Pz. IV Ausf G with reinforced frontal armor, invulnerable to a 45-mm armor-piercing projectile ... " Those. The FIRST place is precisely the IMPOSSIBILITY of PRODUCTION, and only the SECOND is the appearance of heavy tanks by the Germans.

    Quote: Aspeed
    Yes, but the Americans use uranium cores. And ours - no, do not see much point. It probably follows from this that ours still do not know the magical properties of a depleted uranium core? :)
    The real problem is uranium cores betterthan from tungsten.

    Because The above pluses for the uranium shell also add internal ignition and explosion inside the reserved space, which GUARANTEES the destruction of the tank crew.

    The only drawback is that uranium shells "do not live" for a long time, the shelf life is about 15 years, then the decay process goes on.

    Quote: Aspeed
    How many bombs did they drop on the battleship Marat? And how many hits were there?
    There were a lot of hits. That's why he is a battleship with high survivability. And yet - look at the monstrous density of anti-aircraft guns around the harbor, it is strange that in general the Germans have at least someone far from their targets.
    1. Foofighter
      Foofighter April 7 2016 04: 08
      0
      Mr. Churchill was a politician, and the whole British fleet was afraid of one battleship in a quiet Norwegian harbor.
      Of course "heavy" after all, after Hamburg, these missiles also fell anywhere and not at factories, train stations and docks as in 1940.
  27. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 April 7 2016 13: 29
    -1
    Quote: Aspeed
    But in fact - in the 42 year, in the spring, the first T4 with enhanced armor appear,
    In fact, for the first time during the Battle of Moscow, the Red Army captured German HEAT shells and armor-piercing shells with tungsten cores. Therefore, research began urgently and at the same time materials were transferred to the allies, and they urgently requested help in development.

    Quote: Aspeed
    By the way. The half-life of depleted uranium, that is, uranium –238, 4,5 billion years.
    15 years is the warranty period for storing shells with uranium cores in the warehouses of the US Army. I think it’s not just that they chose this term, there actually some processes begin in the material.

    Quote: Aspeed
    By the huge battleship. Where is this miraculous megawatt, with a hit in the 2-meter circle?

    Do you seriously understand the difference between tests in a calm environment at the training ground and attacks with a terrifying density of anti-aircraft fire and counteraction of the district air force? wink And the fact that the Soviet pilots of stormtroopers and in a calm atmosphere at the training ground could not get - this is probably the problem of the Soviet pilots themselves, is not it? I recall that the concentration of air defense in the area of ​​the Baltic Fleet was apparently the largest of the available in the USSR and it is strange that in general someone was far away.

    And so, for comparison - the Soviet pilots shortly before that, flying huge "shoals" in Helsinki, could not achieve any serious percentage of hits on the WHOLE CAPITAL of Finland. The area of ​​the city and the area of ​​the battleship are generally comparable things, are they? request

    Quote: FooFighter
    and the whole British fleet was afraid of one battleship in a quiet Norwegian harbor.
    The entire British fleet was not at all afraid of anyone - one German battleship was sunk by it, and the second was driven into a distant bay, where it was immobilized by air raids. I also remind you that England, despite the losses, actually won the "Battle of the Atlantic". Was she also afraid of the German fleet? repeat


    Quote: FooFighter
    Of course "heavy" after all, after Hamburg, these missiles also fell anywhere and not at factories, train stations and docks as in 1940.
    I recall that a little higher you argued that the action of the German Fau was negligible. I am glad that I was able to convince you. wink
    1. Foofighter
      Foofighter April 8 2016 02: 41
      0
      And so they fed him or sometimes canceled entire Arctic convoys so that they would not reach the USSR. He was immobilized by a Soviet submarine, finished off by the British Air Force, when it became completely indecent to take care of it, and the need for it fell away ...

      Failed - insignificant. Not that cast weight of conventional explosives and no accuracy.
  28. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 April 7 2016 19: 12
    0
    Quote: Aspeed
    so what were the cores of the F-34 cannon shells made of? :)
    Well, enlighten us with the outstanding achievement of Soviet engineering! wink

    Quote: Aspeed
    So the warranty period of shells or cores? And in what specific material do these very processes begin? :) Here I have cartridges, for a shotgun - a year or two and recommend not to shoot them.

    But the jester knows him, because it really can be true for shells in general. sad Although the article where I read about it, it was said about the processes in the uranium cores.

    Quote: Aspeed
    small arms were categorically ineffective against the ground.
    I am making one amendment - to the Soviet Air Force. And this is important - because the low-speed and weakly armored Ju-87 in the "Rudel Squadron" and apparently even other units did fly on the Soviet-German front right up to the spring of 45, when theoretically they should have been shot down a long time ago! request Moreover, this is confirmed by both German and Soviet sources! (The last attack of "Stuks" was recorded by Soviet troops precisely in April 1945!) But somehow they flew and performed tasks relatively successfully!