Military Review

Ants are not an apostle

Anti-rebel specialist twice returned from retirement

Those who were called yesterday as stranglers of freedom, executioners and royal satrap are remembered today with a kind word. One of these is Mikhail Nikolaevich Muravyov, known to the older generation from school textbooks. stories as a hangman.

Ants are not an apostleHis youth was typical of his time. Born in the capital. Since childhood, fond of military and exact sciences, showing a fair ability. He participated in the Patriotic War. In the battle of Borodino received a heavy wound in the leg, after which all his life was limping. For that fight, he was awarded the Order of St. Vladimir 4 degree with a bow. He returned to the army, took part in the foreign campaign. Having retired due to health reasons, he settled in Smolensk Province. During a two-year crop shortage, he opened a charity canteen at his own expense and organized an appeal by local nobles to the Minister of the Interior, Count Kochubei, asking for help from the peasants.

In his youth, along with his older brothers Alexander and Nikolai - the future military governor of the Caucasus, he was fond of liberal ideas, was close to the Decembrists. In January, 1826 was arrested, was under investigation, but was soon acquitted and returned to the army by personal order of the sovereign.

He submitted to the emperor a note “on the improvement of local administrative and judicial institutions and the elimination of bribery in them”, with which Nicholas I led a decisive struggle, after which he was transferred to the Ministry of Internal Affairs. And soon he was appointed governor of Vitebsk, then the Mogilev province, where, becoming a convinced conservative by that time, he actively fought against Catholicism and gentry influence. The rebellion in Poland that flared up in 1830 strengthened Muravyov in his view of the main threats. At the same time, he holds the position of quartermaster-general and chief of police in charge of the commander-in-chief of the Reserve Army, and takes part in the defeat of the bulldozer in the Vitebsk, Minsk and Vilna provinces.

Of those that hang

At the height of the mutiny, Muravyov is appointed by the Grodno civil governor and is soon made a major general. By that time, he had earned the reputation of an uncompromising sedition fighter, a strict administrator. Referring to the Siberia of the participants in the uprising, despite the pedigrees, closes the free-thinking schools and churches, does not disdain to impose death sentences. On the other hand, it shows concern about the state in the fairly polonized region of Russian culture, language, spirit, cares about the needs of the Orthodox Church, supporting the initiatives of the local metropolitan.

And in St. Petersburg, Muravyev has more and more enemies from among liberals and polonofilov. They intrigue against the loyal servant of the emperor, and he eventually transfers the general to Kursk. The successes achieved here in the fight against arrears and bureaucracy draw the attention of the sovereign, and Muravyov is called to the capital, where he alternately occupies the positions of director of the Tax and Fees Department, Senator, Governor of the Land Survey Building. Receives the civil rank of Privy Councilor, and then - the rank of lieutenant general. From 1 (13) January 1850, Muravyov is a member of the Council of State.

Soon after Alexander II assumed the throne, he received another military rank and was appointed Minister of State Property. I remember his contemporaries with integrity and integrity. Being in a respectable age and high ranks, he disguised himself as a simple man in the street to go through the market, public places, extracting information about the unscrupulousness of bureaucrats and other outrages, which made fear of the scammers: And when the glamorous foes tried to cheat him, being interested in the spicy details of the Decembrist period of life, he answered without embarrassment: “I am not one of those Muravyevs whom they hang. I am one of those who hang themselves. ”

Tsar Liberator and Conservative General

However, Alexander II did not like Muravyev. The general, in spite of the tsar-liberator, was in favor of a gradual change in the serf system, for which in liberal circles close to the monarch, he received the stigma “Conservative”. The tension in the relationship reached its climax by the year 1861. The result is retirement.

But in it the Ants did not stay long. In 1863, another rebellion broke out in Poland, ambiguously perceived not only in Europe, but also in Russia. For example, the London sideman Herzen on the pages of the Kolokol published by him called upon the Russian officers “to go on trial to the convict companies, to be shot, raised on bayonets, but not to raise weapons against the Poles. " The rebellion was promoted by the very liberal policy of the governor in the kingdom of Poland, Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich and the Vilna governor-general Vladimir Nazimov. Both were slow with the introduction of the state of emergency. Frightened by the scale of the rebellion, which spread to the western regions of Russia, the emperor recalled loyal subjects who could act decisively. At an audience about his appointment to the post of Vilna, Grodno and Minsk Governor-General, Commander of the Vilna Military District with the authority of the commander of the separate corps Muravyov said: "I am happy to sacrifice myself for the benefit and benefit of Russia."

Despite his 66, he cheerfully got down to business, starting with personnel changes. Muravyev’s approach was that the harder he takes on the suppression, the sooner and with a smaller number of victims will solve the problem. According to his order, the estates of Polish landowners, who were noticed in the active support of the rebels, were selected in favor of the state. As a result of these actions, it was possible to deprive the rebels of monetary support.

Muravyov also used intimidation - public executions, which, however, were subjected only to implacable and guilty of murder. A total of 128 people were hanged, from 8200 to 12 500 were sent to exile, prison companies or to hard labor. Approximately from 77 of thousands of insurgents, only 16 percent were subjected to criminal punishments of various kinds. However, the rebels executed several hundred civilians, 1174 Russian soldiers and officers were killed or were missing.

Successes Muravyev, despite the flow of criticism from the liberal Petersburg salons, made a big impression in Russia. Showered with blessings, among which is the count title with the right to be called Muravyov-Vilensky, he submits his resignation in full awareness of the duty performed.

As it turned out not for long. In April, 1866 th at Alexander committed an attempt. The shooter - student Karakozov detained. The investigation was entrusted to Count Muravyov-Vilensky. Gravely ill 70-year-old man with honor performs the last royal assignment: a terrorist was sentenced to be hanged. Several officials indirectly guilty of the terrorist act lost their posts. Before the execution of the sentence, Muravyov did not live a few days, having passed away on August 31 (September 12) of the year 1866. He was buried at Lazarevsky cemetery. Alexander II escorted his subject to the grave.

Herzen responded about the death of the graph in his style: “The vampire who fell away from the chest of Russia suffocated”. Fedor Tyutchev responded with an epitaph:

On his grave cover
We instead of all wreaths
put the words simple:
He didn’t have many enemies
When not yours, Russia.
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  1. Pre-cat
    Pre-cat April 9 2016 06: 43
    It was remembered by contemporaries for integrity and integrity. how such people are needed in power now!
    1. martin-159
      martin-159 April 9 2016 08: 51
      But do the authorities need such people?
      1. Schultz
        Schultz April 9 2016 15: 07
        The kingdom of heaven is a warrior Mikhail, the defender of the Russian land from the evil wiles of the Lyakhsky adversaries. The trouble is that in our time such heroes do not live long - they are destined for the fate of Akhromeev, Achalov, Rokhlin, Ilyukhin and further on the 93 year memory list.
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. Ivan Ivanych
        Ivan Ivanych April 9 2016 19: 53
        it is a question or a statement?
      4. Akuzenka
        Akuzenka April 13 2016 18: 16
        The authorities - yes, the agents of influence, sloppies and other trash in power - no.
        1. Warrior2015
          Warrior2015 April 13 2016 18: 49
          Quote: AKuzenka
          The authorities - yes, the agents of influence, sloppies and other trash in power - no.

          This is a long-standing problem of management - "where to get qualified and honest personnel, if every trash often crawls upstairs?"
    2. Imperialkolorad
      Imperialkolorad April 9 2016 09: 25
      Quote: The cat is half-educated
      I was remembered by contemporaries for their integrity and integrity as such people in power are needed now!

      They are not just needed, but vital.
      1. almost demobil
        almost demobil April 9 2016 12: 30
        But Herzen is still a liberal belolentochnik! sad
        1. Nikodimov
          Nikodimov April 9 2016 17: 38
          I don’t remember exactly, I quote a classic from memory:
          "Xep price
          Herzen's house!
          Usually wall decals throws ...
          With this - I AGREE!
          V. Mayakovsky "
    3. Lexa-149
      Lexa-149 April 10 2016 20: 35
      And now, and always!
  2. X Y Z
    X Y Z April 9 2016 06: 45
    Thank you for the honest article restoring the memory of a worthy person and patriot, who, despite the persecution, to the stream of lies, simply performed his duty to God, the king and the Motherland. And let this prefix "hangman", with which they tried to humiliate his honor, remain on the conscience of local liberals and Poles. For us, he will remain one of the heroes of the Patriotic War of 1812 and an intelligent, honest, active general who sincerely loves his Fatherland.
    1. Revolver
      Revolver April 9 2016 06: 56
      Quote: XYZ
      And let this prefix "hangman", with which they tried to humiliate his honor, remain on the conscience of local liberals and Poles.

      As well as the "Stolypin tie". If anything went wrong with hanging, it was that too little was used.
  3. Egor123
    Egor123 April 9 2016 06: 47
    These are the kind of people Russia should know! And not Lenin and Trotsky ...
    1. zennon
      zennon April 9 2016 11: 28
      Quote: Egor123
      These are the kind of people Russia should know! And not Lenin and Trotsky ...

      What woke Herzen? Liberast of his time. In London, he sat out, yapping from there ... Nothing changes!
  4. semirek
    semirek April 9 2016 07: 02
    A true servant of sovereigns!
  5. parusnik
    parusnik April 9 2016 07: 51
    Vasily Rozanov wrote that "his (Muravyov's) cruelty is a pure myth, invented by him." There is a well-known anecdote due to which Muravyov got the nickname "Hangman": after the suppression of the Polish rebellion of 1831, in which he actively participated, when one of the Grodno townspeople asked if the new governor was "a relative of my former acquaintance Sergei Muravyov-Apostol, who was hanged in 1826? ", Muravyov replied:" Tell this lyakh that I am not one of those Muravyovs who were hanged, but one that hangs "... Russian writer and public figure Ivan Kornilov wrote:
    The name of M.N. Muravyov, dear to true Russian people, who restored the dignity and honor of the Russian name in the Northwest Territory in 1863 and aroused Russian cultural life in the ancient Orthodox region, was the subject of malice and black slander for all enemies of Russia ... Unforgivable that Russian historians neglected their moral duty and ignored the study of the largest event of the past century - created by M.N. Muravyov and unfortunately lived less than five years, the Russian national-state system of governance of Western Russia and Lithuania ...
  6. Korsar4
    Korsar4 April 9 2016 08: 37
    Tyutchev did not scatter words.
  7. cayman gene
    cayman gene April 9 2016 08: 45
    such a guy to our liberals and embezzlers as educators, so that a hemp tie would always loom in their sight.
  8. Aleksander
    Aleksander April 9 2016 10: 24
    Muravyov’s approach was that the tougher he will take up the suppression, the sooner and with fewer victims will solve the problem

    This is the root of the solution to the problems associated with the "liberal-" liberation "riots: to suppress harshly, but also legally: for the state with the least losses, and for the criminals themselves, with small ones.
    The general was wonderful and, most importantly, Governor!
  9. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter April 9 2016 10: 44
    his example is a science for others ... You can’t be aloof with those who plunge the country into chaos and ruin, no matter what slogans they hide behind.
  10. ovod84
    ovod84 April 9 2016 11: 22
    Thank you, I did not know much about him. Such honest people are always necessary for the state
  11. Bow
    Bow April 9 2016 14: 14
    For example, the London sidekick Herzen, on the pages of the Bell published by him, called on Russian officers to "go to court in prison companies, be shot, raised with bayonets, but not raise weapons against the Poles"

    yo-mayo .. ept .. 1 in 1 ..... nothing changes ... yo-mayo ...
  12. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 April 9 2016 18: 44
    In general, the article is good, even CORRECT, although it was not written for VO, but only a reprint.

    But there are a few clarifying points.

    The rebellion that broke out in 1830 in Poland strengthened Muravyov in his view of the main threats.
    I wonder about what? Just in parallel, Russia was at war with Turkey, with Persia and was seized by the first strong cholera epidemic.

    takes part in the defeat of the Busoters in the Vitebsk, Minsk and Vilna provinces.
    The Russian empire could only with great difficulty and straining a lot of forces to crush the Polish rebellion 1830-31 gg. I would not even speak dismissively about such expressions - this drops the dignity of the Russian troops who defeated a strong and courageous enemy.

    Of the approximately 77 thousands of rebels, only 16 percent were subjected to criminal penalties of various kinds.
    The author is clearly mistaken - in the 1863 year the Poles had neither so many troops, nor so many simply participants in the rebellion. He clearly confused 1830 with the year when really all of Poland rose against us. But the uprising of the 1863-64 years - these were just petty semi-partisan actions by a handful of gentry, the masses of Poles (apparently remembering well the lesson of the 1831 of the year) did not support the rebels at all this time.
  13. Igor K-grad
    Igor K-grad April 11 2016 01: 31
    As far as I remember from one work on the history of the Northwest Territory in the 1860s, 67 Polish "revolutionaries" and their supporters were executed directly with the approval of Muravyov-Amursky. And almost everything is justified. On the other hand, up to 3 thousand people died at the hands of the revolutionary Polish "executors". And the problem of the Polish-gentry uprising Muravyov solved quite simply: he was not afraid to create patrols from Belarusian, Lithuanian and Latgalian peasants and arm them. After that, local (tutai) peasants caught the overexcited Polish paniches like they smoke.
  14. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 April 11 2016 16: 36
    Quote: Igor K-grad
    directly with the approval of Muravyov-Amursky, 67 Polish "revolutionaries" and their supporters were executed.

    Well, by the decisions of the military-field courts, many more were shot and hanged, make no mistake, our ancestors were not kind and defenseless sheep. Apparently, this is the number of those rebels, over whom there were "normal" trials.

    Quote: Igor K-grad
    he was not afraid to create patrols from Belarusian, Lithuanian and Latgalian peasants and arm them.
    But not only - after the killings of solitary soldiers or small groups of Russians, collective responsibility was still introduced and the tsarist administration announced that the whole community would be punished on the territory of which the church was killed or desecrated.

    Those. on the one hand, there is more confidence in the loyal part of the population of the former Rzeczpospolita, on the other hand, there is more tightening. And of course the lessons of 1830-31. "went for good", did not support the people of the Polonophile rebels-nationalists.