Military Review

Century error fee

47
Hitler seemed closer and more understandable to “Western democracies,” and his clash with the Soviet Union was an ideal option.


75 years separate us from the tragic date - 22 June 1941. This is the day of the beginning of the most bloody war in the world storiesthat cost the peoples of our country huge losses and losses. The Soviet Union has become smaller for 26 600 000 citizens. Among the victims of the 13,7 war, a million civilians constitute. Of these, 7,4 million were deliberately exterminated by the invaders, 2,2 million died at work in Germany, 4,1 million died from starvation in the occupation. The situation on the eve of the Great Patriotic War is very similar to the current one in relation to the Russian Federation - a collective conspiracy.

The total irretrievable losses of the Red Army amounted to 11 944 100 people, including killed - 6 885 000, missing, captured - 4 559 000. In the USSR, 1710 cities were destroyed, more than 70 thousands of villages, 32 thousands of factories and plants, 98 thousands of collective farms looted.

The essence and consequences of this war, its place and role in history turned out to be so significant that it organically entered the popular consciousness as Great. What are the lessons of her initial period?

Clouds over Europe


Political goals and content immediately made the Patriotic War, because the independence of the Motherland was at stake, and all the peoples of the Soviet Union defended the Fatherland, their historical choice. The war became popular because there was no family that it would not scorch, and the Victory was achieved in blood and then tens of millions of Soviet people who heroically fought with the enemy at the front and worked selflessly in the rear.

The war of the USSR against fascist Germany and its allies was extremely fair. The defeat inevitably entailed not only the disappearance of the Soviet system, but also the death of statehood that had existed on the territory of historical Russia for centuries. The peoples of the USSR were threatened with physical destruction.

The ideology of patriotism has always rallied us and was crucial in the fight against the enemy. So it was, is and will be. Unfortunately, after the destruction of the USSR, the spiritual life of many of its peoples distorted the growing trend of falsifying our common past. And this is not the only problem. Today, the sad reality is that many young citizens of Russia know little about the military history of their homeland.

But in spite of everything, the historical memory of the people retained the Great Patriotic War as a nationwide feat, and its results and consequences - as outstanding events. This assessment is based on numerous objective and subjective circumstances. Here is the “small story” of each family, and the “big story” of the whole country.

In the past two decades, we and abroad have gained a lot of publications aimed at understanding this or that problem of war, its strategic, operational, tactical, political, spiritual and moral aspects. In a number of works, gaps in the coverage of well-known and little-studied sides of the Great Patriotic and World War II, as well as individual events were successfully filled, weighted and accurate estimates were given. But not without extremes. In pursuit of imaginary novelty and sensationalism, a departure from the historical truth is allowed, facts are misinterpreted for the sake of conjuncture.

The study of the history of the Great Patriotic War as the most important part of the Second World War is impossible outside the context of the complex processes of the previous quarter of a century. At this time, the geopolitical situation in the world has changed dramatically. Three huge empires collapsed: Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman and Russian, new states emerged. The balance of forces in the international arena became fundamentally different, but neither the First World War itself, nor the peace agreements that followed it resolved the problems that led to the outbreak of a global conflict. Moreover, the foundations of new, even deeper and hidden contradictions were laid. In this sense, the assessment, which the French Marshal Ferdinand Foch gave the situation in 1919, cannot be called anything but prophetic: “This is not the world. This is a truce for 20 years. ”

After the revolution of 1917 in Russia in October, new ones were added to the “customary” traditional contradictions between the leading industrial powers: between the capitalist system and the socialist state. They became the cause of the international isolation of the Soviet Union, forced to develop in conditions of constant military threat. By the very fact of its existence, the USSR represented a danger to the old world, which was also experiencing a systemic internal crisis. In this regard, the Bolshevik expectations of the "world revolution" were based on real objective and subjective premises. As for the limited support that the Soviet Communists through the Comintern rendered like-minded people in the Western countries, it was not only a consequence of ideological convictions, but also an attempt to escape from a hostile, deadly environment. As you know, these hopes were not justified, the world revolution did not happen.

At the end of the First World Idea, the revival of nations found fertile ground in the so-called defeated countries. The society of these states saw a way out of the crisis in the ideology of fascism. So, in 1922, the fascists led by Mussolini came to power in Italy. In 1933, the leader of the German National Socialists, Hitler, who created the most cruel version of fascism, was appointed chancellor. A year later, he concentrated in his hands the full power and began active preparations for a big war. The semantic core of his ideology was the vicious conception of the division of humanity into fully-qualified and fully-entitled races, and those whose destiny is death or enslavement.

Militant nationalism found many supporters both in Europe and abroad. Fascist coups occurred in Hungary (March 1 1920), Bulgaria (June 9 1923 th), Spain (September 13 1923 th), Portugal and Poland (May 1926 th). Even in the United States, Great Britain and France, influential nationalist parties and organizations emerged, headed by politicians who favored Hitler. The loud assassinations of Yugoslav King Alexander, French Foreign Minister Bart, Austrian Chancellor Dolfus, Romanian Prime Minister Duki were visible evidence of the rapid destabilization of the political situation in Europe.

With appeals to destroy the USSR, Hitler spoke from the very beginning of his political career. In his book “My Struggle”, the first edition of which was published as early as 1925, he stated that the main foreign policy goal of the National Socialists was to conquer and settle the vast lands in Eastern Europe by the Germans, only this would provide Germany with the status of a power capable of entering in the struggle for world domination.

Hitler argued that the vast Russian empire allegedly existed solely due to the presence in it of "state-forming German elements among inferior races", that without the "German core" lost during the revolutionary events at the end of the First World War, it was already ripe for disintegration. Shortly before the Nazis seized power in Germany, he said: “All Russia must be divided into its component parts. These components are the natural imperial territory of Germany. ”

Prelude "Barbarossa"


After the appointment of 30 in January 1933 of the year by Hitler Reich Chancellor, the preparation for the destruction of the USSR became the main direction of the internal and foreign policy of the Third Reich. Already February 3 in a closed meeting with representatives of the Reichswehr high command, Hitler announced that his government intends to "eradicate Marxism", establish "a strictly authoritarian regime" and introduce universal military service. This is in the field of domestic policy. And in the foreign - to achieve the abolition of the Versailles Peace Treaty, to find allies, to prepare for "the seizure of the new living space in the East and its ruthless Germanization."

In the pre-war years, England and France demonstrated a willingness to give up someone else’s, but not their own, in order to preserve the illusion of peace in Europe. The United States preferred to stand aside for the time being. The West wanted at least to gain time for organizing its own defense and, if possible, with the help of Germany to solve the problem of neutralizing the USSR.

In turn, Hitler tried to achieve his goals, dividing opponents and breaking them in parts. He used distrust in the West, even hatred of the Soviet Union. France and Britain were frightened by the revolutionary rhetoric of the Comintern, as well as by the assistance that the USSR provided to the Spanish Republicans, the Kuomintang China, and left forces in general. Hitler seemed closer and more understandable to the “Western democracies,” his clash with the Soviet Union looked in their eyes as an ideal option, the realization of which they strongly promoted. For this mistake the world had to pay a huge price.

The breakdown of forces for the fascists was the Spanish Civil War (July 1936-th - April 1939-th). The victory of the rebels under the leadership of General Franco accelerated the maturing of a general war. It was the fear of her that caused the West to shy away from helping the Republican government, to yield to Hitler and Mussolini, which untied their hands for further action.

In March, 1936-st German troops entered the demilitarized Rhineland, two years later the Anschluss of Austria occurred, which greatly improved the strategic position of Germany. 29 – 30 September 1938 was held in Munich, the meeting of the English and French Prime Ministers Chamberlain and Daladier with Hitler and Mussolini. The agreement they signed provided for the transfer of the Sudetenland belonging to Czechoslovakia to Germany (where a significant number of Germans lived), and some territories were withdrawn by Hungary and Poland. The West actually sacrificed Czechoslovakia, trying to appease Hitler, and the Soviet offers of help to this country were ignored.

Result? In March 1939, Germany liquidated Czechoslovakia as a sovereign state, and two weeks later captured Memel. After which the victims of German aggression were the peoples of Poland (September 1 - October 6, 1939), Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Holland, Luxembourg, France (from April 10 to June 22, 1940). In Compiegne, in the same car where the surrender of Germany was signed in 1918, a Franco-German truce was concluded, according to which Paris agrees to occupy most of the country's territory, demobilize almost the entire land army, and intern the naval fleet и aviation.

Now it was necessary to crush only the USSR in order to establish dominance over all continental Europe. The conclusion of the German-Soviet non-aggression treaties (23 August 1939 th) and friendship and border (28 September 1939 th) with additional secret protocols was considered in Berlin as a tactical maneuver to create the most favorable political and strategic prerequisites for aggression against the USSR. Speaking to a group of members of the Reichstag 28 of August 1939, Hitler emphasized that the non-aggression pact “does not change anything in the principled anti-Bolshevik policy” and moreover will be used by Germany against the Soviets.

Having concluded 22 on June 1940, a truce with France, the German leadership, despite the fact that he did not manage to withdraw England from the war, decided to turn weapon against the USSR. Colonel Halder, Chief of the General Staff of the Ground Forces, already on July 3 on his own initiative, even before receiving the relevant order from Hitler, began to study the issue of a military strike against Russia that would force her to recognize the dominant role of Germany in Europe. The plan was completed in the first half of December.

18 December 1940 of the year Hitler signed directive No. 21, in which, under the heading “Top Secret. Only for command! ”Contained a plan of attack on the Soviet Union. The key task of the Wehrmacht was the destruction of the Red Army. The plan was given the provisional name "Barbarossa" - in honor of the aggressive policy of the King of Germany Frederick I Gigenshtaufen (1122 – 1190), nicknamed Barbarossa for his red beard.

The essence of the directive most fully reflected the phrases with which it began: “The German armed forces must be ready to defeat Soviet Russia during the short-term campaign before the war against England is over ...” The absolutization of the German military command of experience reflected in a concentrated form lightning wars against Poland and France, the conviction that the next blitzkrieg will end in a few weeks of border battles.

The Barbarossa plan envisaged the participation of Rumania and Finland in the war. The Romanian troops were supposed to "support the offensive of the southern flank of the German troops, at least at the beginning of the operation," and "for the rest, to carry out auxiliary service in the rear areas." The Finnish army was instructed to cover up the concentration and deployment of a group of German troops advancing from occupied Norway near the Soviet border, and then conduct combat operations jointly.

In May, 1941 was also involved in the preparation of an attack on the USSR. Located in the center of Europe, it was the crossroads of the most important communications. Without its participation or even consent, the German command could not transfer its troops to South-Eastern Europe.

The whole of Europe worked for Hitler


January 31 The 1941 General Command of the Ground Forces prepared a strategic deployment directive in accordance with the Barbarossa plan. 3 February she was approved and sent to the headquarters of the three army groups, the Luftwaffe and the naval forces. At the end of February, 1941 began the deployment of German troops near the borders of the USSR.

Russian military strike, which would force her to recognize the dominant role of Germany in Europe "
The leaders of the allied German countries believed that the Wehrmacht was capable of crushing the Red Army in a few weeks or months. Therefore, the rulers of Italy, Slovakia and Croatia, on their own initiative, hastily sent their troops to the Eastern Front. In a matter of weeks, an Italian expeditionary corps consisting of three divisions, a Slovak corps with two divisions and a Croatian reinforced regiment arrived here. These compounds supported 83 Italian, 51 Slovak and up to 60 Croatian combat aircraft.

Higher instances of the Third Reich in advance developed plans for not only waging war against the Soviet Union, but also for its economic exploitation and dismemberment (the “Ost” plan). The speeches of the Nazi leader in front of the top of the Wehrmacht 9 in January, 17 and 30 in March 1941, give an idea of ​​how they saw the war with the USSR in Berlin. Hitler declared that it would be "the complete opposite of a normal war in the west and north of Europe," and provides for "total destruction, the destruction of Russia as a state." It is necessary to crush not only the Red Army, but also the "control mechanism" of the USSR, "destroy the commissars and the communist intelligentsia," functionaries, and thus destroy the "ideological ties" of the Russian people.

By the beginning of the war against the USSR, the representatives of the Wehrmacht high command well assimilated the Nazi world view and perceived Hitler not only as the Supreme Commander, but also as an ideological leader. They put his criminal instructions in the form of orders to the troops.

28 April 1941, the order of Brauchitsch issued an order “The procedure for the use of the security police and the security services (SD) in ground forces”. It emphasized that the army commanders, together with the commanders of the special punitive formations of the Nazi Security Service (SD), are responsible for carrying out actions to destroy communists, Jews and "other radical elements" in the rear front areas without trial. The chief of staff of the Wehrmacht’s High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht) on May 13 of Keitel 1941 issued an order “On Special Jurisdiction in the“ Barbarossa ”Region and Special Authorities of the Troops”. With the soldiers and officers of the Wehrmacht was removed responsibility for future crimes in the occupied territory of the USSR. They were instructed to be ruthless, to shoot on the spot without a trial all those who would show even the slightest resistance or sympathize with the partisans. The Guidelines on the Conduct of Troops in Russia, as one of the annexes to special order No. 1 of 19 of May 1941 of the Barbarossa directive, stated: “This struggle requires merciless and decisive actions against Bolshevik instigators, partisans, saboteurs, Jews and complete suppression of any attempt at active or passive resistance. " 6 June 1941, the headquarters of the OKW issued an "Instruction on the Treatment of Political Commissioners." The soldiers and officers of the Wehrmacht were ordered to exterminate on the spot all the captured political workers of the Red Army. These ideologically motivated orders contradicting international law were approved by Hitler.

The criminal goals of the leadership of Nazi Germany in the war against the USSR, if we put them in several lines, were as follows: the destruction of the Soviet Union as a state, the seizure of its wealth and land, the extermination of the most active part of the population, first of all, representatives of party and Soviet organs, intellectuals and all those who led the fight against the aggressor. The rest of the citizens were destined to either expulsion to Siberia without means of subsistence, or the fate of the slaves of the Aryan masters. The rationale for these goals were the racist views of the Nazi leadership, contempt for the Slavs and other "subhumans", which hinder the "existence and reproduction of the highest race" allegedly due to the catastrophic lack of "living space."

It was envisaged for seven months (August 1940-th - April 1941-th) to ensure the complete re-equipment of the ground forces (at the rate of 200 divisions). Not only the factories of the Third Reich, but also 4876 enterprises of the occupied Poland, Denmark, Norway, Holland, Belgium and France took up its implementation.

The aviation industry of Germany and its affiliated territories produced 1940 in 10, and 250 military aircraft of all types in 1941. The main attention in preparing for the attack on the USSR was paid to the accelerated production of fighter jets. From the second half of 11, the production of armored vehicles became the highest priority military program. Over the year it has doubled. If for the whole of 030 went 1940 light and medium tank, then only in the first half of 1941 their release reached 1621 units. In January 1941, the command demanded that the monthly production of tanks and armored personnel carriers be brought to 1250 vehicles. In addition to them, wheeled and semi-tracked armored vehicles and armored personnel carriers were created with 7,62 and 7,92 mm machine guns, 20 mm anti-aircraft and 47 mm anti-tank guns and flamethrowers. Their output has more than doubled.

At the start of 1941, Germanic weapons production reached its highest level. In the second quarter, 306 tanks were launched monthly against 109 in the same period of 1940 of the year. Compared to 1 on April 1940, the growth of ground army armaments for 1 June 1941 was expressed in the following figures: for light 75-mm infantry guns - by 1,26 times, for ammunition to them - by 21 times; for heavy 149,1-mm infantry guns - 1,86 times, ammunition for them - 15 times; 105-mm field howitzers - 1,31 times, ammunition for them - 18 times; for heavy 150-mm field howitzers - 1,33 times, for ammunition - 10 times; 210-mm mortars - 3,13 times, ammunition for them - 29 times.

In connection with preparations for war against the USSR, the production of ammunition was significantly increased. Only for the implementation of the initial stage of the operation "Barbarossa" they were allocated about 300 thousand tons.

In value terms, the production of weapons and equipment increased from 700 million marks in 1939 year to two billion in 1941-m. The share of military products in the total industrial output increased in the same years from 9 to 19 percent.

The bottleneck was the unstable supply of Germany with strategic raw materials, as well as a lack of human resources. But the success of the Nazis in the campaigns against Poland, France, and other countries created the Wehrmacht command and political leadership confidence that the war against the CCCR could be won during the short-term campaign and without full mobilization pressure of the economy.

Starting aggression against the USSR, Germany also hoped that it would not have to wage war on two fronts, with the exception of naval and air operations in the West. The German military command, together with representatives of the German industry, made plans for the quick capture and development of natural resources, industrial enterprises and the workforce of the Soviet Union. On this basis, the leadership of the Third Reich considered it possible in a short time to increase its military-economic potential and take further steps towards world domination.

Before the attack on France in the Wehrmacht there were 156 divisions, including 10 tank and 6 motorized, then before the attack on the USSR there were already 214 divisions, including 21 tank and 14 motorized. For the war in the East, more than 70 percent of the connections were allocated: 153 divisions, including 17 tank and 14 motorized, as well as three brigades. It was the most combat-ready part of the German ground forces.

For the air support of the five air fleets available in the Wehrmacht, three are fully allocated and one is partially allocated. These forces, according to the German military command, were quite enough to defeat the Red Army.

In order to create more favorable conditions for the deployment of its troops at the western borders of the USSR, the Reich achieved the accession of the three countries (Germany, Italy, Japan) of a number of European countries: Hungary (November 20, 1940 November), Romania (November 23), Slovakia (24 November), Bulgaria (March 1 1941), “independent” Croatia (June 16), created by the Hitler government after the defeat and dismemberment of Yugoslavia in April 1941. With Finland, Berlin established military cooperation without including it in the Three-Power Pact. Under the cover of 12 and 20 of 1940 on the transit of military materials and troops in occupied Norway entered into Helsinki in September, the Finnish territory was transformed into an operational base for an attack on the USSR. The Turkish government, while maintaining neutrality at a certain stage, planned to enter the war on the side of the Axis countries and was ready to attack the Soviet Union in the autumn of 1942.

It was not possible to complete the deployment of the main German forces in the east according to the Barbarossa plan, as planned, before 15 in May. Part of the German troops from 6 to 29 on April 1941-th participated in the Balkan campaign against Yugoslavia and Greece. On April 30, at the Wehrmacht High Command meeting, the start of Operation Barbarossa was postponed to June 22.

The deployment of German troops intended to attack the USSR ended in the middle of the month. The grouping of the German armed forces 22 June 1941, there were 4,1 million people, 40 500 artillery guns, about 4200 tanks and assault guns, more 3600 combat aircraft, 159 ships. Taking into account the troops of Finland, Romania and Hungary, Italy, Slovakia and Croatia, about five million people, 182 divisions and 20 brigades, 47 200 guns and mortars, about 4400 tanks and assault guns, more 4300 combat aircraft, 246, were concentrated to invade the USSR. ships.

Thus, in the summer of 1941, the main military forces of the block of aggressors came out against the USSR. An armed struggle unprecedented in scope and tension began. From its outcome depended the direction of human history.

“Oldenburg” is the codename for the economic subdivision of the “Barbarossa” plan. Provision was made for the service of the Reich of all stocks of raw materials and large industrial enterprises in the territory between the Vistula and the Urals.

The most valuable industrial equipment was supposed to be sent to the Reich, and that which Germany does not need is to be destroyed. The initial version of the Oldenburg plan (Goering’s Green Folder) was approved at a secret meeting of the March 1 1941 of the year (1317 PS protocol). Finally approved after a two-month detailed study of 29 on April 1941-th (minutes of the secret 1157 PS meeting). The territory of the USSR was divided into four economic inspectorates (Leningrad, Moscow, Kiev, Baku) and 23 commandant's offices, as well as the 12 bureau. For coordination, the headquarters of Oldenburg was formed.

Subsequently, it was supposed to split the European part of the USSR into seven states, each of which was to be economically dependent on Germany. The Baltic territory was planned to be a protectorate and later incorporated into the Reich.

The economic robbery was accompanied by the implementation of the OST plan — the extermination, relocation, and Germanization of the Russian people. For Ingermanlandia, which was supposed to include Pskov land, a sharp reduction in population (physical destruction, decline in fertility, relocation to remote areas) was proposed, as well as the transfer of the liberated territory to German colonists. This plan was designed for the future, but some directives were embodied as early as the occupation period.

Several German landowners arrived on the Pskov lands. One of them, Beck, was given the opportunity to create a latifundia on the basis of the Gari state farm in the Dnovsky district (5700 hectares). In this territory there were 14 villages, more than a thousand peasant farms, which turned out to be slaves. In Porkhov district on the lands of the state farm "Iskra" arranged the estate of Baron Schauer.

From the first days of the occupation, compulsory labor service was introduced for all persons from 18 to 45 years, which was later extended to those who turned 15 and extended to 65 years for men and to 45 for women. The working day lasted 14 – 16 hours. Many of those who remained in the occupied territory worked at the power station, on the railway, on the peat fields, and in the tannery, being subjected to corporal punishment and imprisonment. The invaders deprived the Russian population of the right to study in schools. All libraries, cinemas, clubs, museums were looted.

A terrible page of the occupation - sending young people to work in Germany and the Baltic States. They were placed in farms, where they labored in the field, looked after the livestock, while receiving scarce food, wearing their own clothes and being bullied. Some were sent to military factories in Germany, where the working day lasted 12 hours, and the salary was 12 marks per month. This money was enough to buy 200 grams of bread and 20 grams of margarine a day.

The Germans created several concentration camps in the occupied territory. They contained hundreds of thousands of wounded and sick. Only in a concentration camp at Kresty, 65 killed thousands of people - something like this was the whole pre-war population of Pskov.

First Guerrilla


Despite the "new order" based on fear, brutal exploitation, robbery and violence, the fascists failed to break the Pskovites. In the first months of the occupation, partisan detachments from 25 to 180 were organized.

Century error fee


The position of the northern capital, blocked from all sides, forced the leaders of the regional party committee to force the creation of the headquarters of the partisan movement in the Leningrad Region, which included the northern part of the present Pskov. LSDPD was formed on September 27 1941 of the year, the first in the country, long before the organization of the central headquarters (in May 1942).

Taking into account the situation, it was decided to create base groups and brigades (mainly in Leningrad), which were then thrown across the front line and already in the occupied territory gathered isolated guerrilla units, called upon the local population to resist. There was also a self-organization based on extermination battalions and the people's militia.

The core of the 2 of the Leningrad partisan brigade (commander - cadre officer Nikolai Vasilyev), which soon became the leader, was formed from Soviet workers in the eastern regions of the Pskov region and professional military. His goal was to unite all the scattered and small groups in the occupied territory. In August, 1941-th, this task was completed.

Soon, 2-I LBP won a large part of the territory from which the first Guerrilla Territory was formed from the enemy. Here, south of Lake Ilmen, at the junction of the modern Pskov and Novgorod regions, there were no large German garrisons, so it was possible to expand the borders of the region, making small strikes and sabotage. But the population of the villages received the hope that they had real protection, armed groups would always come to the rescue. The peasants provided all possible support to the partisans with food, clothing, information about the location and movement of the German troops. More than 400 villages were located on the territory of the Guerrilla Territory. Here, in the form of office buildings and village councils, Soviet power was restored, schools worked, newspapers were published.

At the first stage of the war it was the most significant area of ​​the partisans. In the winter of 1941 – 1942, they made raids to destroy the German garrisons (Jasski, Tyurikovo, Dedovichi). In March, a carriage with food for the besieged Leningrad was sent from the region to 1942. During this period, the 2 Brigade thrice reflected the onset of punitive expeditions (November 1941, May and June 1942), and each time she managed to win, first thanks to national support, which was also manifested in the increase in the number of fighters: August 1941 th to three thousand a year later. Fortified outposts were created along the border of the region. Punishers committed atrocities in areas adjacent to the partisan region: they burned villages, killed peasants. The partisans also had losses: 360 dead, 487 injured in the first year.

Over its centuries-old history, Pskov had to participate in the 120 wars and endure 30 sieges, but still the most heroic and tragic moments of its history will forever remain connected with the Great Patriotic War.

Way to glory


Early in the morning of May 1, 1945, Alexei Berest, Mikhail Egorov and Meliton Kantaria, with the support of company gunners I. Syanova, hoisted the assault flag of the 150 Infantry Division, which later became the Banner of Victory, over the Reichstag. This division was formed in September 1943 in the area of ​​Staraya Russa on the basis of 127, 144 and 151 of rifle brigades of the North-Western Front.

Since September 12, the 150-Infantry has already taken part in local battles. Until the end of 1943, she participated in battles as part of 22 and 6 of the Guards armies. From 5 January to the end of July, 1944-th fought defensive and offensive battles as part of the 3-th Shock Army of the 2-Baltic Front. During the Rezhitsko-Dvinskaya and Madona operations, she took part in the liberation of the cities: July 12 - Idritsa, July 27 - Režice (Rezekne), August 13 - Madona. By order of the Supreme Commander from 12 July 1944, for military service, the 150 Infantry Division was awarded the honorary title Idritskaya. The division led offensive battles in the Riga operation (September 14 - October 22 1944 of the year).

As part of the 3 Shock Army of the 1 Belorussian Front, the 150 Rifle Division Idritskaya Order of the Kutuzov Division took part in the Berlin operation (April 16 - 8 May 1945), leading combat operations on the main line.

30 April after several attacks units 150 th infantry division under the command of Major General V. Shatilova and 171 th Infantry Division under the command of Colonel A. Reason stormed captured the main part of the Reichstag. The remaining Nazi units offered fierce resistance. I had to fight literally for every room. During the battle for the Reichstag, the assault flag of the 150 Division was mounted on the dome of the building. By order of the Supreme Command of 11 June 1945, the division was given the honorary title Berlin.

Pskov after liberation was a terrible picture of destruction. The total damage to the city in post-war prices amounted to 1,5 billion rubles. Residents had to make a new feat, this time labor.

The leadership of the state understood the importance of the city in the history of the country and Russian culture, which provided great help and support to the Pskov people. In accordance with the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR from 23 August 1944, Pskov became the center of the newly formed region. November 1 The 1945, by decree of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR, is included in the number of 15 oldest cities in the country, which were subject to primary restoration. All these measures contributed not only to the revival in historical and cultural guises, but also to the acquisition of new - political and economic values.

By presidential decree from 5 December 2009 of the year for the courage, resilience and mass heroism shown by the defenders of Pskov in the struggle for the freedom and independence of the Fatherland, he was awarded the honorary title of the City of Military Glory.

Lessons and conclusions


The question is valid: could the beginning of a war have been different for us, could it have been better prepared to repel aggression? Accomplishment of all that was planned was not allowed by an acute shortage of time and insufficient material resources. The restructuring of the economy for the needs of the future war was far from over. Numerous measures to strengthen and rearm the army did not have time to finish either. Fortifications on the old and new frontiers were not completed and poorly equipped. The army, which has grown many times, felt a great need for qualified command personnel.

Speaking about the subjective side of the problem, one cannot but recognize the personal responsibility of the Soviet political and military leadership, Stalin personally for the mistakes made in preparing the country and the army for war, for mass repressions. And also for the fact that the order to bring the border districts on full alert was given too late.

The roots of many wrong decisions should be sought in the fact that the leaders of the USSR mistakenly assessed the political possibilities of preventing a war with Germany in 1941. Hence, the fear of provocations, and the delay with the necessary orders. The stakes in the prewar most difficult game with Hitler were extremely high, and the significance of its possible outcome was so great that the risks were underestimated. And it was very expensive. We got the hardest war on our territory with huge losses of population.

It would seem that our victims are a confirmation of the Soviet Union’s unpreparedness for war. They are truly immense. Only in June - September of 1941 did the irretrievable losses of the Soviet troops exceed 2,1 million, including those killed, dead from wounds and diseases - 430 578 people, missing and prisoners - 1 699 099. The Germans in the same period left thousands of people killed on the Soviet-German front 185. Wehrmacht tank divisions already by mid-August lost up to 50 per cent of personnel and about half of the tanks.

Nevertheless, the tragic results of the initial period of the war should not prevent us from seeing the main thing: the Soviet Union survived. And this means that in the broad sense of the word he was ready for war and proved himself worthy of victory.

In Poland, France and other European countries, unavailability was of a fatal nature, and this is confirmed by the fact of their rapid and crushing defeat.

The USSR withstood the blow and did not collapse, although many had predicted this. The country and the army retained controllability. In order to unite the efforts of the front and the rear, all power was concentrated in the hands of the 30 State Defense Committee formed on June 1941. The brilliantly organized evacuation of millions of people, thousands of enterprises, and enormous material assets made it possible already in 1942 to surpass Germany in the production of the main types of military products.

Despite all the military successes and the seizure of many regions of the USSR with a multi-million population, the aggressor was unable to achieve the goal: to destroy the main forces of the Red Army and to secure unimpeded progress inland.

Significant in this respect is the sharp slowdown in the onset of the German fascist troops. The average daily rate of advance of the Wehrmacht compared with the first days of the war by September 1941-th reduced in the north-west direction from 26 to two or three kilometers, in the west - from 30 to two or two and a half kilometers, in the south-west - from 20 to six kilometers away. During the counteroffensive of the Soviet troops near Moscow in December 1941, the Germans were driven away from the capital, which meant the failure of the Barbarossa plan and the blitzkrieg strategy.

Won time, the Soviet command used to organize the defense, the formation of reserves and evacuation.

Before the attack on the Soviet Union, Germany in lightning military campaigns defeated and seized many European states. Hitler and his entourage, believing in the doctrine of the blitzkrieg, hoped that it would work flawlessly against the USSR. The temporary successes of the aggressor cost him big irrecoverable losses, undermined material and moral-psychological forces.

Overcoming significant shortcomings in the organization and conduct of hostilities, the commanders of the Red Army studied the skills of command and control, mastered the advanced achievements of the art of war.

The consciousness of the Soviet people became different in the fire of war: the initial confusion was replaced by firm confidence in the rightness of the struggle against fascism, in the inevitability of the triumph of justice, in Victory. A sense of historical responsibility for the fate of the Motherland, for the lives of loved ones, multiplied the forces of resistance to the enemy.
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http://vpk-news.ru/articles/29709
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  1. venaya
    venaya April 3 2016 06: 01
    +6
    Hitler seemed closer and more understandable to “Western democracies,” and his clash with the Soviet Union was an ideal option.

    Like today, now: Western democracies create Hitler, after which they develop at an incredible pace the industry (67% annual growth) of the military machine, and then they push them against the Soviet Union with all their might. We are observing something similar now: either Al-Qaeda is being created, then Daesh, and as a result, the final meaning is the same, everything is against Russia, no matter how it is called.
    1. vladimirZ
      vladimirZ April 3 2016 16: 22
      +16
      A strange article covering a long historical period of time, without the name of the leader and leader of the USSR, who conducted the main political and economic line of development of the USSR state.
      Virtually nowhere is the leader and leader of the USSR, I.V. Stalin (with the exception of the results and conclusions, where another bucket of mud was poured on Stalin).

      There is no name of the main organizer of the socialist state, the Great Sovereign of Russia Stalin Joseph VissarionovichThanks to which the USSR, literally in 10 years, from 30 to 40, became a world industrial power, thanks to which the USSR was prepared for the inevitable war, the fatal gap in industrial development between the USSR and the advanced capitalist states was bridged, and thanks to which the USSR emerged victorious World War II, won our victory.

      But this is yet another liberal ordered article that aims at the so-called “de-Stalinization”. Biased article. A huge minus to the author.
      1. 11 black
        11 black April 4 2016 11: 13
        -3
        Quote: vladimirZ
        A strange article covering a long historical period of time, without the name of the leader and leader of the USSR, who conducted the main political and economic line of development of the USSR state.
        Virtually nowhere is the leader and leader of the USSR, I.V. Stalin (with the exception of the results and conclusions, where another bucket of mud was poured on Stalin).

        There is no name of the main organizer of the socialist state, the Great Statesman of Russia, Stalin Joseph Vissarionovich, thanks to which the USSR, literally in 10 years, from 30 to 40 year, became a world industrial power, thanks to which the USSR was prepared for the inevitable war, bridging the gap in industrial development between The USSR and the advanced capitalist states, and thanks to which the USSR came out victorious in World War II, won our Victory.

        But this is yet another liberal ordered article that aims at the so-called “de-Stalinization”. Biased article. A huge minus to the author.


        Stalin Stalin - it was not Stalin who built the plants - scientists and engineers! The weapon of victory was not created by Stalin - again, scientists and engineers! It was not Stalin who worked in the rear — the workers and peasants! Not Stalin sat in the trenches - soldiers and officers!
        But with his absurd repressions, your Stalin inflicted tremendous damage to the state - it’s necessary to think of it, throw the best scientists and engineers - defenders in prisons and gulags.
        What is the arrest of Korolev and Tupolev, who instead of scientific activities for the good of the country lost several years in prisons and camps! Tupolev in his memoirs gives a list of approximately 100 names of engineers - aviators, who, like him, were innocently thrown into camps - AND THIS IS ON THE EVE OF THE WAR! AND THIS IS ONLY TUPOLEV - and they planted them in thousands, and most likely tens of thousands!
        And the unjust arrest of the engineers of the 7 project destroyer designers - the engineers were imprisoned for the stupidity of the leaders who failed to correctly determine the terms of reference! ON THE EVE OF THE WAR OF ENGINEERS SIT FOR THE STUPIDNESS OF THE TOP - THE CREATORS OF THE PRIDE OF THE NAVY - BRAAVOO!
        And finally, 3 people were condemned by the Collegium of the OGPU, the "troikas" of the NKVD, the Special Conference, the Military Collegium, courts and military tribunals, including 777 people were sentenced to death, and to detention in camps and prisons for a term of 380 years or less - 642 people, for exile and deportation - 980 people. The overwhelming majority of them are innocent people, and not only simple workers, but scientists, engineers, designers - 25 years, 2 years before the war - bravo to Stalin?
        1. vladimirZ
          vladimirZ April 4 2016 13: 34
          +2
          Stalin Stalin - it was not Stalin who built the plants - scientists and engineers! The weapon of victory was not created by Stalin - again, scientists and engineers! It was not Stalin who worked in the rear — the workers and peasants! Not Stalin sat in the trenches ...
          - 11black


          I.V. Stalin was the organizer and leader of what scientists and engineers did, what the people built, was the Supreme Commander-in-Chief in the war.
          It is a pity that you do not understand the role of the Person in history.
          Russia was lucky that in the most difficult years of testing, building the economy, in the terrible years of the war, the leadership of the state had such a person as Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin, and not a traitor and a wretch like Gorbachev and Yeltsin, the like.
          Listen to the ballad of the bard, patriot, officer Alexander Kharchikov about the role of I.V. Stalin.
          1. 11 black
            11 black April 4 2016 14: 34
            -4
            Quote: vladimirZ
            I.V. Stalin was the organizer and leader of what scientists and engineers did, what the people built, was the Supreme Commander-in-Chief in the war.
            It is a pity that you do not understand the role of the Person in history.
            Russia was lucky that in the most difficult years of testing, building the economy, in the terrible years of the war, the leadership of the state had such a person as Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin, and not a traitor and a wretch like Gorbachev and Yeltsin, the like.
            Listen to the ballad of the bard, patriot, officer Alexander Kharchikov about the role of I.V. Stalin.

            I am analyzing the facts - and not a single one of the facts cited by me above can be disputed - the fact is generally the most stubborn thing in the world ... and the Stalinist repressions killed at least hundreds of thousands of innocent people, the Stalinist machine illegally planted as many as these people there were at least thousands, and most likely tens of thousands of invaluable shots such as Tupolev and Korolev - a fact! And you, as I understand it, draw conclusions based on the ballad?
            Quote: vladimirZ
            I.V. Stalin was the organizer and leader of what scientists and engineers did, what the people built, was the Supreme Commander-in-Chief in the war.

            So what exactly did he organize? Give at least one example of his personal organization - or do you think it should be done by a certain date, but isn’t everyone under execution this organization?
            Here is a fresh example - the top officials issued a task for the development of a destroyer with a linear power plant, the engineers are doing a brilliant job - they are launching the future pride of the USSR Navy - project 7, and then the shortcomings of the linear power plant are revealed - it was the top officials who issued the task to develop the destroyer "WITH LINEAR power plant" Three design engineers sat down "for sabotage" - and at first the destroyers were ordered to dismantle, and only through efforts (associated with the risk of repeating the fate of the first) the remaining engineers saved the project and completed the construction of 28 ships, otherwise they would have remained without destroyers for war - and this in 37, right before the war - organized so organized ...
            Quote: vladimirZ
            Russia was lucky that in the most difficult years of testing, building the economy, in the terrible years of the war, the leadership of the state had such a Person as Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin

            Quote: vladimirZ
            he was the Supreme Commander in the war.

            Tell me at least one successful military operation developed personally by Stalin? The troops were controlled by generals and marshals — Zhukov, Konev, Rokossovsky, Malinovsky, and others — and Stalin, forgive me, was confused under their feet.
            1. vladimirZ
              vladimirZ April 4 2016 16: 49
              +4
              Tell me at least one successful military operation developed personally by Stalin? The troops were controlled by generals and marshals — Zhukov, Konev, Rokossovsky, Malinovsky, and others — and Stalin, forgive me, was confused under their feet.
              - 11black

              laughing laughing laughing
              Sorry, with such an illiterate knowledge of the past, the assessment of the role of the highest Leader of the State and the Supreme Commander-in-Chief, like yours, and especially during the Second World War, the Great Patriotic War, to discuss the role of Stalin in our history, just put yourself in a stupid position.

              "Stalin, forgive me, got confused under their feet"

              It is necessary to say such a "masterpiece" ?! Read at least the memoirs of Marshals Rokossovsky, Golovanov, who by the way fell into "repression in '37" and did not betray Stalin after the war, about working with the Supreme Commander-in-Chief Stalin.

              Well, for all the facts you have cited "about millions of prisoners, the innocently imprisoned Tupolev, Korolev", etc.
              You seem to still feed on the materials of Khrushchev and his followers about the denigration of Stalin, and who claimed that "Stalin directed military operations on the globe" and "shot millions of people."
              All your facts "are not worth a damn" without considering specific criminal cases of specific people "for WHAT and WHEN" planted.
              But when you look, you will understand that "there is no punishment without guilt," no matter how loud the name was behind him.
              Yes, there were some exceptions, punishment without guilt on the denunciation of a scammer, settling of personal scores, for a career and occupying a vacant place or housing, but as a rule, they dealt with this and freed people. These phenomena were not massive; anti-Stalinists and liberals made them "massive".
              1. 11 black
                11 black April 7 2016 21: 31
                0
                Quote: vladimirZ
                Tell me at least one successful military operation developed personally by Stalin? The troops were controlled by generals and marshals — Zhukov, Konev, Rokossovsky, Malinovsky, and others — and Stalin, forgive me, was confused under their feet.
                - 11black

                laughing laughing laughing
                Sorry, with such an illiterate knowledge of the past, the assessment of the role of the highest Leader of the State and the Supreme Commander-in-Chief, like yours, and especially during the Second World War, the Great Patriotic War, to discuss the role of Stalin in our history, just put yourself in a stupid position.

                "Stalin, forgive me, got confused under their feet"

                It is necessary to say such a "masterpiece" ?! Read at least the memoirs of Marshals Rokossovsky, Golovanov, who by the way fell into "repression in '37" and did not betray Stalin after the war, about working with the Supreme Commander-in-Chief Stalin.

                Well, for all the facts you have cited "about millions of prisoners, the innocently imprisoned Tupolev, Korolev", etc.
                You seem to still feed on the materials of Khrushchev and his followers about the denigration of Stalin, and who claimed that "Stalin directed military operations on the globe" and "shot millions of people."
                All your facts "are not worth a damn" without considering specific criminal cases of specific people "for WHAT and WHEN" planted.
                But when you look, you will understand that "there is no punishment without guilt," no matter how loud the name was behind him.
                Yes, there were some exceptions, punishment without guilt on the denunciation of a scammer, settling of personal scores, for a career and occupying a vacant place or housing, but as a rule, they dealt with this and freed people. These phenomena were not massive; anti-Stalinists and liberals made them "massive".

                You are wrong - oh wrong, not to mention the fact that you contradict yourself and there are no facts at all, even - as apparently you think only you don’t bring any eggs that have been eaten away.
                Well, okay - attempt # 3, here is the Project 82 cruiser "Stalingrad".
                Their construction was personally initiated by Joseph Vissarionovich (excuse me - an absolutely mediocre decision), because:
                A) the time of battlecruisers passed back in the 40's, they absolutely could not oppose anything to aircraft carriers.
                B) even the construction of the full series in the 3-4 of Stalingrad would not have affected anything - the Americans, not counting their allies, had a fleet of 24 heavy attack aircraft carriers Essex (not counting the Rangers, Lesington, Independence, heavyweight Midway which 3 ships - 5 ) and 10 of modern battleships Iowa and South Dakota, as well as 14 heavy cruisers of the Baltimore type and more 200 destroyers of the Fletcher and Goering type) - 4 of Stalingrad is nothing - DROP IN THE SEA OF AN ENEMY'S SHIP!

                Tell me, engineers worked for several years, hundreds, and most likely thousands of shipbuilding engineers, were Tied up by this project, then THOUSAND WORKING SHIPBUILDERS built the first ship for three years, not to mention the whole country worked on such a project - then Stalin died - and the project right there they canceled (and did it right) as ABSOLUTELY UNNECESSARY, which means thousands of workers and engineers, dozens of industrial enterprises worked in vain, aimlessly - all they can do is throw in the bin - CONSTRUCTION WAS PERSONALIZED ... and after all, mine They wanted to develop and rivet 10 pieces no less with the same forces or underwater locks that were needed, and they only got tainted paper and scrap metal for three years of construction - on a personal behalf ... glory to Stalin?
                PS - but you probably know this story, the cult of personality is such a thing ...
                1. 24hours
                  24hours April 7 2016 23: 15
                  0
                  Quote: 11 black
                  Their construction was personally initiated by Joseph Vissarionovich (excuse me - an absolutely mediocre decision), because:

                  Also me, the news.
                  Almost everything the former seminarian promoted was sheer crap. However, later it was called "legendary". To have no options. And the crap was promoted by Dzhugashvili:
                  1. Gun ZIS-3. It was wretched for a while, it is a product of the 1MB level. But in to 1943. she finally lost the basic signs of an acceptable weapon. Nevertheless, it was produced until the end of the Second World War.
                  2. Tank T-34. It was generally the POC. For the promotion of this "masterpiece" alone, Dzhugashvili deserves anathema forever. Note that this freak was armed, right up to the summer of 1944, with the same wretched three-inch gun.
                  3. "Attack aircraft" IL-2. On the one hand, an almost completely harmless aircraft for the Germans, for some reason, called "attack aircraft". On the other hand, these are not built about 30 thousand good fighters with powerful engines and good weapons. In addition, these are about 30 thousand 23-mm ground-based anti-aircraft guns, which were not received by the troops.
                  4. The list goes on and on. But I will dwell on one more "eccentricity" of the former seminarian. This is a 7,62x39 mm cartridge and a weapon on it (in particular the AK-47). "Everything is like the clever Germans." As a result, the country suffered colossal damage, and it was armed with outright bullshit. Therefore, in the 70s it was necessary to re-equip again, and this is a huge expense.
                  He was a completely stupid and uneducated satrap. Moreover, cruel and bloodthirsty. Only completely blind and deaf adherents of "socialism" are able to find in its "deeds" something supposedly positive.
                  1. 11 black
                    11 black April 8 2016 10: 25
                    0
                    Quote: 24hours
                    Also me, the news.
                    Almost everything the former seminarian promoted was sheer crap. However, later it was called "legendary". To have no options. And the crap was promoted by Dzhugashvili:
                    1. Gun ZIS-3. It was wretched for a while, it is a product of the 1MB level. But in to 1943. she finally lost the basic signs of an acceptable weapon. Nevertheless, it was produced until the end of the Second World War.
                    2. Tank T-34. It was generally the POC. For the promotion of this "masterpiece" alone, Dzhugashvili deserves anathema forever. Note that this freak was armed, right up to the summer of 1944, with the same wretched three-inch gun.
                    3. "Attack aircraft" IL-2. On the one hand, an almost completely harmless aircraft for the Germans, for some reason, called "attack aircraft". On the other hand, these are not built about 30 thousand good fighters with powerful engines and good weapons. In addition, these are about 30 thousand 23-mm ground-based anti-aircraft guns, which were not received by the troops.
                    4. The list goes on and on. But I will dwell on one more "eccentricity" of the former seminarian. This is a 7,62x39 mm cartridge and a weapon on it (in particular the AK-47). "Everything is like the clever Germans." As a result, the country suffered colossal damage, and it was armed with outright bullshit. Therefore, in the 70s it was necessary to re-equip again, and this is a huge expense.
                    He was a completely stupid and uneducated satrap. Moreover, cruel and bloodthirsty. Only completely blind and deaf adherents of "socialism" are able to find in its "deeds" something supposedly positive.

                    I absolutely disagree with yours, sorry, Nonsense - even commenting is sickening ...
                    1. 24hours
                      24hours April 8 2016 10: 44
                      0
                      Quote: 11 black
                      I absolutely disagree with yours, sorry, Nonsense - even comment sickeningly

                      So what to do? In addition to emotions and hysterical cries, the witnesses of socialism have no other arguments. And it cannot be. They were taught so, they are so used. Dzhugashvili, wise. Party, steering. The weapon is legendary. I note, not good, but the best and legendary. This is not in doubt; conversations on these topics are not appropriate. And no arguments are taken into account. This is a mantra, and that’s it.
                      But I wrote a perfectly accurate truth. I can confirm any of my statements with numbers in my hands. And you can only ... retell written in the district committee.
                      So we talked.
                      1. 11 black
                        11 black April 9 2016 12: 25
                        0
                        Quote: 24hours
                        So what to do? In addition to emotions and hysterical cries, the witnesses of socialism have no other arguments. And it cannot be. They were taught so, they are so used. Dzhugashvili, wise. Party, steering. The weapon is legendary. I note, not good, but the best and legendary. This is not in doubt; conversations on these topics are not appropriate. And no arguments are taken into account. This is a mantra, and that’s it.
                        But I wrote a perfectly accurate truth. I can confirm any of my statements with numbers in my hands. And you can only ... retell written in the district committee.
                        So we talked.

                        Well, confirm! So let's talk ...
                      2. igoryok1984
                        igoryok1984 1 January 2017 10: 41
                        +1
                        Well, come on, bring your "numbers in hand"! so far I only see criticism and trolling.
                  2. igoryok1984
                    igoryok1984 1 January 2017 10: 39
                    +1
                    Well, to honor you, so there is no one smarter than you in the world. What are all smart hindsight! You would be sent there at that time to send a guide. Zadolbali already with their victory in spite of.
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      2. The comment was deleted.
  2. unknown
    unknown April 3 2016 07: 30
    -14%
    One-sided perception.
    Yes, Hitler appeared thanks to Western democracies.
    But, the USSR, too.
    The Zionist revolution of 1917 is one of the stages of the general plan for the establishment of a New World Order.
    And the Germans are not the main ones in the financing of 1917. And the victory in the so-called Civil War, the Communists (Zionists) are obliged to the active financial assistance of the West. All pre-war industry was built thanks to the West, mainly the United States.

    Nazi Germany was prepared for the final demolition of Europe. But the USSR was also preparing for the same. Just the owners were a little different. Germany was more oriented to Great Britain, the USSR, to the USA.
    Not without reason, there is a well-founded point of view that WWII is the war of Great Britain and the USA.
    The victory in this war was won by the United States by destroying the British Empire. Basically, with the wrong hands and lives.
    1. gamer
      gamer April 3 2016 08: 45
      +5
      Ward № 6 ! Point out, my dear, when was the USSR in the masters of the United States? fool
      1. V.ic
        V.ic April 3 2016 09: 19
        +3
        Quote: igorek
        when it was in the ussr the ussr

        Where did Leiba Bronstein come from, who, after the death of VIL, became the No. 1 man in the USSR, distributing concessions to foreign companies, incl. and American. Read about the sister of VM Molotov's wife. What "journalists" were John Reed and Albert Rhys Williams?
        "He knew Lenin and the second-tier Bolsheviks (whom he called Russian-Americans) who fled to the United States during the Tsarist regime and returned to Russia in 1917." http://ru.rfwiki.org/wiki/%D0%A0%D0%B8%D1%81_%D0%92%D0%B8%D0%BB%D1%8C%D1%8F%D0%B
        C%D1%81,_%D0%90%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%B1%D0%B5%D1%80%D1%82
        Colonel Robins. http://all159z.narod.ru/booki/sutton/11.html
    2. Pereira
      Pereira April 3 2016 11: 27
      +11
      Quote: ignoto
      All pre-war industry was built thanks to the West, mainly the United States.


      This was not a gift. It was all bought. For grain during the famine and national cultural heritage.
      I do not intend to thank the United States.

      Nazi Germany was prepared for the final demolition of Europe. But the USSR was also preparing for the same. Just the owners were a little different.


      I would like to know who was the master of Stalin.
      1. Cap.Morgan
        Cap.Morgan April 3 2016 23: 36
        +1
        Quote: Pereira
        Quote: ignoto
        All pre-war industry was built thanks to the West, mainly the United States.


        This was not a gift. It was all bought. For grain during the famine and national cultural heritage.
        I do not intend to thank the United States.

        .

        More correctly, "for grain, the sale of which to the West, caused famine in Russia"
    3. KaPToC
      KaPToC April 3 2016 13: 40
      0
      In vain they set up cons, this is the main result of the war, Great Britain lost its leadership, losing it to the USA, the USSR simply remained with its own, received no dividends.
      1. max702
        max702 April 4 2016 00: 23
        +2
        Quote: KaPToC
        In vain they set up cons, this is the main result of the war, Great Britain lost its leadership, losing it to the USA, the USSR simply remained with its own, received no dividends.

        Everything is not so .. Hucksters from England moved to the USA and that’s the whole result ... WWII finally destroyed the countries of the nation and launched the project global globalism .. And only the USSR was an obstacle ..
  3. aszzz888
    aszzz888 April 3 2016 07: 34
    0
    Thanks, author. Of course, in the article, it is impossible to reflect all the nuances of the disaster that began on June 22, 1941. Thousands of books, magazines and other printed publications are available at the end of that time. Hundreds of opinions of various authors and publishers.
    But we know one thing, we won that war, and no one will take this Victory from us, however much the enemies would like to!
  4. Dynamic systems
    Dynamic systems April 3 2016 07: 37
    +6
    If you look at the root, you can see Britain's rat tail everywhere. I don't think this country is great. It was through the fault of the leadership of this country that there were troubles, uprisings, robberies and coups in Russia from ancient times. And to this day, this very country is a breeding ground and a cover for terrorists and criminals of all stripes.
    I hope, and I am sure that Britain will "shake off" in full ....
    1. Cap.Morgan
      Cap.Morgan April 3 2016 23: 39
      0
      Quote: Dynamic Systems
      If you look at the root, you can see Britain's rat tail everywhere. I don't think this country is great. It was through the fault of the leadership of this country that there were troubles, uprisings, robberies and coups in Russia from ancient times. And to this day, this very country is a breeding ground and a cover for terrorists and criminals of all stripes.
      I hope, and I am sure that Britain will "shake off" in full ....

      Interestingly, the breakdown of relations with Great Britain in the Bolshevik Russia occurred as a result of espionage scandal - funds and weapons intended for the revolution in England were discovered.
  5. parusnik
    parusnik April 3 2016 07: 52
    +2
    At the end of the First World Idea, the revival of nations found fertile ground in the so-called defeated countries. The society of these states saw the way out of the crisis in the ideology of fascism. So, in 1922 in Italy, the Nazis came to power, led by Mussolini.... Italy from the list of winning countries ...Hitler seemed to "Western democracies" closer and more understandable... Hitler, the project of "Western democracies" ..
  6. Monster_Fat
    Monster_Fat April 3 2016 09: 27
    +6
    "Hitler was being prepared." Hitler was not just "prepared" for him, "they were waiting with hope." We need to take a broader look at the situation in Europe at that time. And there was a complete seam-rampant unemployment, poverty, corruption, etc. The states of Europe were experiencing a deep crisis (or do you think that the "Great Depression" concerned only the United States?) And the governments of European countries in every possible way began to tighten the screws for the people. And in Germany .... defeated the Nazis who defeated the communists and socialists proclaimed the slogan, "EVERYTHING deserves EVERYTHING and will get EVERYTHING!" That is, in simple terms, Hitler promised the capitalists-money, the workers-work with a decent wage, the peasants-securing the land for them and the state order, etc. And Germany "flooded" by leaps and bounds. Everyone in other countries saw this and naturally "drooling" about this, "I wish we had such a leader!" In European countries, pro-German Nazi movements began to emerge and gain strength, and speeches were made about "uniateism" with the great German nation in the name of "a united and strong Europe." Actually, the idea of ​​the Euro-Union appeared just then. However, the ruling elite in Europe quickly realized that in this case, the threat to their existence was growing, since in the event of the emergence of a United Europe under the auspices of Hitler, they would have to move away from the government and the state trough and they sanctioned Hitler's movement to the East through the "European corridor" sacrificing "worthless countries" so to speak away from themselves. However, Hitler had other plans, his famous words: "Europe is waiting for me! Europe wants me! Europe will fall under me!" just show what he expected from Europe. So it actually happened. The official propaganda of Europe, ashamed of cooperation with Hitler, invented the myth of "unwillingness", "resistance" to the Nazi regime in Europe. But this is a lie. There was no "resistance" except for a miserable handful of insurgents fueled by money from the outside, for the most part Europeans felt quite comfortable under the Nazis and were absolutely loyal to the Hitler regime, and they perceived the entry of the Soviet army into the territory of their states as an occupation, and not as liberation. It was good for them under Hitler, but the Russians came and destroyed their entire "idyll". So they now perceive those events, precisely as an occupation, not a liberation. Therefore, in Europe, all sorts of horror stories about the Soviet Army that liberated Europe from the Nazis are now being invented and "inflated" in order to justify their deep-rooted negative attitude to this event.
    1. Idiot
      Idiot April 5 2016 13: 08
      +1
      It would be naive to believe that economic growth in Germany began only after Hitler came to power. There would have been no Hitler, someone else would have come to power, but the focus on creating a powerful state under the control of the Anglo-Saxons in the center of Europe would be key. Without the UNPRECEDENTED financial pumping of the German economy, primarily from the United States and Great Britain, no miracle would have happened. All large German industrial corporations, including Krupp, Siemens, BMW ..., had Anglo-Saxon capital in their assets. American "StandardOil" controlled the WHOLE oil market of the Third Reich during the Second World War. The British refused to bomb the cities of Germany, where the facilities of this respected organization were located, as well as other equally respected ones. I get the impression that now the English-speaking peacekeepers of today have chosen Erdogan's Turkey for the role of the Third Reich. I would like to be mistaken.
  7. Vadim237
    Vadim237 April 3 2016 09: 43
    -1
    The fact that they have prolonged the beginning of the war and did not prepare for it is the country's leadership.
    1. bistrov.
      bistrov. April 3 2016 11: 27
      +4
      Quote: Vadim237
      The leadership of the country is to blame for the fact that they prolonged the beginning of the war and did not prepare for it

      In connection with the widespread misinformation by Germany, Soviet intelligence called it one term of attack, then another, and the Soviet leadership really was not easy to navigate. There were objective reasons for the defeat in the border battles: the rearmament and reorganization of the Red Army that had not been completed had been completed (moreover, here gagging was allowed, the brigades were disbanded, and the corps had not yet been created). The industry simply physically did not have time to release the necessary amount of new equipment and weapons, especially mechanical traction and vehicles, as well as communications, there was not enough commanders. In addition, a fatal mistake was made in the alleged direction of the main strike of the Wehrmacht (assumed in Ukraine, occurred in Belarus). There was a delay in the field deployment of units and formations of the frontier cover, (the wines of the highest military command and Stalin personally), some were captured by the war sleeping in the barracks, and aviation at stationary airfields. Warehouse stocks of weapons, ammunition, equipment, fuel and lubricants, as well as second-tier troops were too close to the border, as a result, the depots were lost, and parts of the second echelon did not have time to deploy. completely destroyed, which almost blocked the control of troops. The Red Army did not have combat experience in counteracting a rapid attack (tank wedge). All this led to the grand defeat of the Red Army in the first months of the war. But preparations for the war were intensively conducted, they waited for the war from day to day, yes, they tried to postpone it in every possible way, because they felt that they were not ready for it yet. And I would not indiscriminately accuse the country's leadership that it was only her fault. There is a lot of guilt and command of the districts, commanders of units and formations. The unlimited faith in the genius of Stalin (a really good leader of the country) played a cruel joke here.
      1. Vadim237
        Vadim237 April 3 2016 12: 47
        0
        The fish rots from the head - who said "Stop panicking there will be no war", who staged repressions against the officers, and then everything that you listed above - Who is to blame - no answer is required.
      2. Cap.Morgan
        Cap.Morgan April 3 2016 23: 45
        -1
        Bistrov
        What kind of unpreparedness it is.
        The USSR has 5 times more tanks, 3 times more aircraft.
        This is counted as T-1 and T-2 tanks.
        All the same, the underdeveloped tank corps had more tanks than the German division formed by all the rules.
        And there were so many buildings that the Germans never dreamed of.
        1. npzh
          npzh April 4 2016 08: 56
          +2
          There is an expression - "1000 ships and 1000000 sailors is not a fleet yet (Jackie Fisher)"

          In one of the best mechanized corps in May 1941, 5 T-34 tanks were spoiled by filling them with gasoline. The mechanical drives of this building had driving experience from 2 to 10 hours. Guidelines for new tanks were supposed to enter the troops in the fall. In autumn, mechanized corps maneuvers were planned. Prior to this, there was no understanding what it was and how to use it.
          Lack of specialists - signalmen, technicians, etc.
          That was such a willingness.
  8. Cap.Morgan
    Cap.Morgan April 3 2016 09: 58
    +1
    The article could be swung more.

    Well, firstly, there was no one Hitler in the 20s, and there was no way to call him. And the fact that someone was preparing and leading it is a pure delusion. The leader of fascism then was Mussolini. Germany could just as well become communist.

    All the same, you do not need to forget about the pre-war friendship with Hitler.
    This friendship was. Hitler sold us many military technical innovations and supplied a wide range of equipment. We him - oil, alloying metals, cotton ...
    So the author has not written anything about this? After all, a claim to objectivity.

    All of Europe did not work for Hitler.
    Europe without England, without the Pyrenees, without the Swedes ... In England, industry was more powerful than German.
    Wow "all of Europe"
    And the whole of America worked for the USSR. There were more than 100 Studkbeker cars delivered, 000 jeeps. A total of 50 cars were delivered.
    For reference. The annual production volume of Opel cars did not exceed 25. In total, during the war years, Opel produced 000 cars of all classes. The rest produced 120-000 cars a year. Compare yourself.

    Why this article? There are a lot of them. In the 40s and 70s of such articles, entire encyclopedias were written. The brigades of writers copied them from each other, changing paragraphs and inserting or removing the names of more or less popular leaders at that time. The author went the same way.
    1. Glory60
      Glory60 April 3 2016 19: 23
      +3
      German equipment worked on Swedish ball bearings, Pyrenees - Franco Spain, "Blue Division" from Spain. Division "Viking", brigade "Nord" - volunteers from the Scandinavian countries. Is this not Europe? Look at the composition of the prisoners by nationality. There are quite a few non-Germans and non-allies in Germany in total. The French and Czechoslovak industries were highly developed. So all the same Europe.
      1. Mikado
        Mikado April 3 2016 20: 06
        +2
        Quote: Glory60
        German equipment worked on Swedish ball bearings, Pyrenees - Franco Spain, "Blue Division" from Spain. Division "Viking", brigade "Nord" - volunteers from the Scandinavian countries. Is this not Europe? Look at the composition of the prisoners by nationality. There are quite a few non-Germans and non-allies in Germany in total. The French and Czechoslovak industries were highly developed. So all the same Europe.

        I will add. German tank divisions were in 1941 a quarter manned by Czech tanks. If by the beginning of WWII, Germany had 84 machine guns MG-000, then only in Czechoslovakia in 34 1938 machine guns were captured. Half an million is enough for an army. And this is only at the beginning of the war. And how much was released later ..
        1. Cap.Morgan
          Cap.Morgan April 4 2016 00: 01
          0
          Quote: Mikado
          Quote: Glory60
          German equipment worked on Swedish ball bearings, Pyrenees - Franco Spain, "Blue Division" from Spain. Division "Viking", brigade "Nord" - volunteers from the Scandinavian countries. Is this not Europe? Look at the composition of the prisoners by nationality. There are quite a few non-Germans and non-allies in Germany in total. The French and Czechoslovak industries were highly developed. So all the same Europe.

          I will add. German tank divisions were in 1941 a quarter manned by Czech tanks. If by the beginning of WWII, Germany had 84 machine guns MG-000, then only in Czechoslovakia in 34 1938 machine guns were captured. Half an million is enough for an army. And this is only at the beginning of the war. And how much was released later ..

          The Soviet army received English and American weapons.
          In the battle of Moscow, every fifth tank was English, and these were full-fledged vehicles, airplanes were being delivered non-stop, both from England, which some had deleted from European countries and from the USA.
          Shermans, Grants, Stuarts, Churchilli, Valentines, Matilda, Hurricanes, Aero Cobra, Marauders, Dakota, studentbackers, steam locomotives went and went unceasingly.
          1. dmikras
            dmikras April 4 2016 10: 34
            0
            All for free?
      2. Cap.Morgan
        Cap.Morgan April 3 2016 23: 54
        0
        Quote: Glory60
        German equipment worked on Swedish ball bearings, Pyrenees - Franco Spain, "Blue Division" from Spain. Division "Viking", brigade "Nord" - volunteers from the Scandinavian countries. Is this not Europe? Look at the composition of the prisoners by nationality. There are quite a few non-Germans and non-allies in Germany in total. The French and Czechoslovak industries were highly developed. So all the same Europe.

        The Germans had their own facilities producing ball bearings.
        Volunteers are volunteers. These are not national armies.
        Franco's Spanish division was soon prudently recalled. And this is 20 thousand, not a million.
        There were already 50 people in the British SS Legion.
        The French army cooked in the barracks, in addition to the Charlemagne legion, this is another 20 thousand.
        Instead of 2 million if the Gauls fought with us.
  9. creak
    creak April 3 2016 10: 45
    +3
    Speaking about the many factors that caused the catastrophic defeats of the Red Army in the initial period of the war, many authors do not mention, knowingly or not, another ...
    It seems that the outstanding military leader, General Gorbatov, one of the best, if not the best commander of the Great Patriotic War, spoke well of this ...
    In response to the question of what would have changed if the troops had been alerted a few days earlier, he replied: "The defeat would have been much worse .... Many times more of our soldiers would have been captured. The fact is that by we were not psychologically ready for war. "
    I believe that the opinion of a professional of such a high class as Gorbatov can be trusted.
    The situation that developed in June - early July 1941 is best characterized by the response of the Zhukov National School of Economics to General Khrulev’s request that the quartermaster’s office has no data on where and how much to import.
    Zhukov's resolution: "I can't tell you anything, because we don't have any ties with the troops and we don't know what the troops need." (Archive GSh 10, op295, op 295, d.001.)
    Therefore, even the heroism of the individual units and formations did not help to outweigh the confusion and inability of the command to objectively evaluate the current situation and make adequate decisions with all the ensuing consequences ...
    PS It is not by chance that there is such an expression "The wounds of the victors heal faster than the wounds of the vanquished" - this is the question of psychology ...
    1. Ivan Tartugai
      Ivan Tartugai April 3 2016 19: 37
      +3
      Quote: ranger
      It seems that the outstanding military leader, General Gorbatov, one of the best, if not the best commander of the Great Patriotic War, spoke well of this ...
      In response to the question of what would have changed if the troops had been alerted a few days earlier, he replied: "The defeat would have been much worse .... Many times more of our soldiers would have been captured. The fact is that by we were not psychologically ready for war. "
      I believe that the opinion of a professional of such a high class as Gorbatov can be trusted.


      A strange opinion from a professional of such a high class as Gorbatov.
      According to Gorbatov, going out if you do not prepare for hostilities will be better than preparing.
      According to the memoirs of generals Boldin, Popel, Sandalov, Ryabyshev and others, our generals are from the main districts, i.e. ZAPOVO, KOVO, PribOVO actually did just that, namely:
      - June 21 from 18-00 canceled the increased combat readiness in the troops, announced on June 18;
      - They gave the command to the troops to return to the depots shells, cartridges, to drain fuel from military equipment, aircraft, and in some cases to remove weapons;
      - Hand over artillery optics in practice;
      - Military artillery, including anti-aircraft, was sent to the training grounds, allegedly for firing. As a result, the bulk of the artillery met the war outside their units and formations. And due to the lack of traction and fuel, the Wehrmacht went as trophies;
      - The unit commanders were ordered to hand over the cards they raised;
      - The main part of the commanders was sent to rest, in the units they were left only on duty according to the states of peacetime;
      - Fighters of the Red Army until late, until the dark of June 21, hours before the fighting, were engaged in preparations for sports holidays and the like entertainment events scheduled for June 22, namely, they covered the tracks with sand, broken bricks, paved the platforms for the performances of athletes and artists, hung out banners and other household works;
      - Almost all generals and senior officers, hours before the war, organized with wives, families went to concerts, performances, for walks in city gardens and parks. After performances and concerts, many went to banquets with artists.
      These actions of our generals naturally tragically affected the position of our troops.
      But according to General Gorbatov, if the generals were preparing for war, it would be even worse.
      What kind of generals were we like?
      Is this the opinion of General Gorbatov himself? Or did he come up with such an opinion?
  10. Aleksander
    Aleksander April 3 2016 11: 23
    -2
    The question is legitimate: could the start of the war be different for us, could it be better prepared to repel aggression?


    I think so. It was necessary to carefully study the experience and course of the Great War, Schlieffen's plan was also known. Of these, it was evident that Germany could be defeated only by joint efforts from both sides. Stalin's naive policy of trying to sit out while the West beats each other was an ostrich and stupid and led to the fact that Germany after France with all its might fell upon the USSR. On the day of the invasion of France, the "Non-Aggression Pact" exhausted itself and the USSR was to strike at Nazi Germany in Poland. The whole world recognized by this moment Hitler as an aggressor and invader, and a blow on him would be welcomed by everyone, especially France and forced Britain. An attempt to explain sitting out by the desire to better arm is untenable, because during this year (1940-41) Germany, having conquered Europe, became SEVERAL TIMES stronger.

    The main reason for the WWII-October coup carried out by the Russophobic clique of forms and concluded by them the Brest shame that excluded Russia from the winners. The victorious Russia would never allow such difficult conditions for the Treaty of Versailles, and, controlling Germany along with France, would NEVER allow the armament of Germany.
    1. Glory60
      Glory60 April 3 2016 19: 29
      0
      History does not know the subjunctive mood, so guessing "what would have happened if" is a fruitless exercise
      1. Aleksander
        Aleksander April 3 2016 22: 00
        0
        Quote: Glory60
        History does not know the subjunctive mood, so guessing "what would have happened if" is a fruitless exercise

        I have, sir, FACTS, not fortunetelling.
        In WWII, Russia (USSR) was among the winners of the World War II.NO 70 YEARS.

        In WWI (because of the Brest Bolshevik shame) Russia is a loser and WWII began in just 21 year.
        And this -FACT! yes
      2. Cap.Morgan
        Cap.Morgan April 4 2016 00: 04
        +1
        In order not to make mistakes in the future ...
  11. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 April 3 2016 12: 40
    +3
    I respect General Shamanov as an officer. I read the article carefully, I think that it would be better to write. Too many controversial points, very one-sided view, too many slogans.

    How can you so terribly distort the name of Friedrich Barbarossa - GIGENSTAUFEN?

    By the way, one small fact - Germany of Friedrich Barbarossa and Vladimir Russia of Andrei Bogolyubsky were very close allies in that distant era; and these two sovereigns conducted active correspondence among themselves. From Germany even came the masters of the construction of cathedrals in the same Vladimir.

    Again, the fact is that the advent of far-right governments to power does not necessarily mean war. A bunch of them came to power in 20x - but there was no war for 20 years.

    Again the old myth about the "isolation" of the USSR. But what kind of isolation, when tanks were bought in England, planes in the USA, air guns in Spain, sights in Switzerland?

    Again, the fact of successful and extensive military cooperation between Germany and the USSR back in the 20x and at the end of the 30x and the beginning of the 40x was not completely voiced.

    So once again I will say - one-sided, unprofessional; in reality, everything was far from so simple.

  12. Iskander
    Iskander April 3 2016 12: 42
    -1
    Quote: anodonta
    Quote: Vadim237
    The fact that they have prolonged the beginning of the war and did not prepare for it is the country's leadership.

    What do you think is "not prepared"? what By the beginning of the war, the USSR had 4 times (!) More tanks and aircraft. What then was unpreparedness? what smile


    unpreparedness - unprepared for the German strike, they were prepared with little blood, on foreign territory, a victorious march, but it was necessary with blood and sweat .....
    and America is a victorious march, little blood, on foreign territory ....
    no one else would have stopped Hitler on land, but Stalin was able to do this because he was preparing to seize the whole of Europe, the conclusion - "PREPARATION IS THE KEY TO SUCCESS OF ANY MILITARY OPERATION!"
  13. Stas57
    Stas57 April 3 2016 13: 32
    0
    [quote] The deployment of German troops intended to attack the USSR was completed in the middle of the month. AT the German armed forces group on 22 June 1941 year, there were 4,1 million people, 40 500 artillery pieces, about 4200 tanks and assault guns, [/ Quote]
    I will clarify
    1941 year: How many tanks did Hitler have?
    http://topwar.ru/index.php?newsid=8452
  14. The comment was deleted.
  15. jungler
    jungler April 3 2016 15: 48
    +3
    With great respect for the Author, I will not understand - when He works in his specialty - when in the service or when he writes a book? The author rightly observes that Hitler had a CLEAR PLAN of action in domestic and foreign policy. As for the notes ... I ask myself - Where is the President of the Russian Federation and the Government having such a strategic development plan and politics? I don’t remember something .... all are some kind of unsuccessful forecasts on exchange rates, budget withdrawals, another privatization the most profitable industries .... now think after that about the level of planning in the Russian Federation and WHERE are the enemies of the country sitting ....
  16. npzh
    npzh April 4 2016 09: 04
    +3
    Quote: Cap.Morgan
    All of Europe did not work for Hitler.
    Europe without England, without the Pyrenees, without the Swedes ... In England, industry was more powerful than German.
    Wow "all of Europe"


    Why without the Pyrenees? Spain actively traded with Germany until the age of 44. The Swedes supplied the world's best iron ore and bearings.

    For reference. The annual production volume of Opel cars did not exceed 25. In total, during the war years, Opel produced 000 cars of all classes. The rest produced 120-000 cars a year. Compare yourself.


    In 1942, it produced 78,2 thousand, trucks and 10,7 thousand tractors, in 1943 - 81,9 and 37 thousand, respectively, in 1944 - 69,0 and 27,8 thousand. (German industry during the war of 1939-1945, pp. 241, 271.)

    About 60 thousand trucks were received from France only from Renault.
  17. Torins
    Torins April 4 2016 23: 53
    +1
    Quote: vladimirZ
    A strange article covering a long historical period of time, without the name of the leader and leader of the USSR, who conducted the main political and economic line of development of the USSR state.
    Virtually nowhere is the leader and leader of the USSR, I.V. Stalin (with the exception of the results and conclusions, where another bucket of mud was poured on Stalin).

    There is no name of the main organizer of the socialist state, the Great Sovereign of Russia Stalin Joseph VissarionovichThanks to which the USSR, literally in 10 years, from 30 to 40, became a world industrial power, thanks to which the USSR was prepared for the inevitable war, the fatal gap in industrial development between the USSR and the advanced capitalist states was bridged, and thanks to which the USSR emerged victorious World War II, won our victory.

    But this is yet another liberal ordered article that aims at the so-called “de-Stalinization”. Biased article. A huge minus to the author.

    I agree, Stalin, of course, was not an angel, but if someone else were in his place, they would most likely merge their homeland.
  18. silver_roman
    silver_roman April 5 2016 11: 43
    +1
    Article +, but there are certain points that sometimes require adjustment, and sometimes do not have any truth at all:
    1) Repressions of Stalin: it is foolish to believe that the attack was prepared only by external forces. Favorite tactics of the Saxons and puppet Europe - palace coups. I am sure that such were provided for and apparently only thanks to the actions of the leadership and the early identification of traitors, we did not lose the war, not having time to answer it.
    Moreover, many were not repressed with the blessing of I. Stalin. Later, many were taken out from under arrests and repressions, and those who sent people there, on the contrary, were severely punished.
    2) The defense of European countries and the resistance of the Third Reich: it sometimes seems to me that all this European drain is a complete spectacle. For example, Czechoslovakia, having a well-developed industry and armored thought, surrendered its territory almost without resistance. The same goes for the rest. It is clear that such weaklings as a Pole couldn’t really do anything, but still. Also, I am wildly surprised by the fact that only Russians were deliberately killed. Bulgarians are also Slavs ... In general, there are still many secrets, gaps and inaccuracies in the history of the Second World War.

    And in general, I would never in my life forgive such an attitude towards our country and our people. And these excuses like "ordinary Germans are not guilty of anything" - TOTAL HERESY!
    I would mow out 90 percent of Germans, purely so that they would know for the future that whoever crawls towards us will be the most brutally destroyed. And this applies not only to the Germans. Yes, there is logic and truth in the fact that not all were fascists, but I am much more worried about the effect of the fact that in the future the same bastards will not poke around again and will not mow our people. That even damn napalm children and German pensioners burn ... do not care ..... we paid an exorbitant fee. It was necessary in the end, at least to the maximum, to squeeze the benefit out of the liberated countries. And it turns out that we are solid altruists.
    Received damage? So the answer should be much more painful. That’s the whole logic.
    But in practice, it turns out that now the very Germans are investing in the revolution on the Maidan, what’s the matter how much they have been telling us slippers during all these years? They were both enemies and remained. Illusions should not be harbored.

    And I forgot: they still wanted to divide us into 7 parts. I assure you that these plans were not born in Germany, but if there, then the Saxons are trying to implement the same plan. If we take into account that the Reich is an artificial formation (tool) against the USSR, then everything finally falls into place. it's time to rewrite history books!