Military Review

Ivan Red

28
Ivan Red 690 years ago, 30 March 1326, the Grand Prince of Moscow and Vladimir (1353-1359) Ivan II Red was born. Ivan Ivanovich was born in Moscow. He is one of the sons of Ivan I Kalita and his first wife, Princess Elena. According to the chronicles, Ivan got his nickname “Red” because of his pleasant appearance (ie, from the word “beautiful”). But there are his other nicknames - “Merciful” and “Meek”.


Ivan succeeded to the throne after his brother Seeds Proud (1318 — 1353). Semyon and Ivan were the children of Prince of Moscow Ivan I Danilovich Kalita (1283 - 1340) and Princess Elena. Ivan received the same name as his father, but in honor of another saint - not John the Baptist, but John of the Ladder (on the day of whose memory he was born). Three years after his birth, in 1329, Ivan Kalita erected a church in the Kremlin in honor of John of the Ladder.

The thirty-three-year life of Ivan Ivanovich is relatively poor in events. Apparently, thanks to his character, quiet and peaceful. Before he became prince of Moscow, the chronicles mark only a few trips to the Horde and an unsuccessful campaign against the Swedes. In 1339, when he was 13, he accompanied his father, Semyon and Andrew, to the Horde. In the autumn of the same year, Ivan had once again visited the Horde and left the Horde kingdom already in the winter, with a reward and, as the chronicles write, with love. Then, with his brother Semyon after the death of his father, he visited the Horde: in 1341, 1344 and 1351. In 1347, he went on a campaign against the Swedes. Arriving in Novgorod, Ivan learned that the Swedes had taken the Orekhov fortress, however, for some unknown reason, he came back.

In 1353, Semen Proud passed away. The grand duke died of a "pestilence" (the great plague epidemic). Under the will of his father, Ivan Ivanovich got the village of Zvenigorod, Ruza and another 21 village. Another third of the lands of the Moscow principality from the will of Ivan Kalita (the main cities of Mozhaisk and Kolomna) later also transferred to Ivan Ivanovich, because together with Semyon Ivanovich both his sons died in the plague. A third of the younger Ivanovich Andrei (first of all, Serpukhov and Lopasnya), who also died during the plague, passed to his son Vladimir (the future Brave).

In the same year, all the Russian princes went to the Horde, so that the Khan chose the new Grand Prince of Vladimir, who was considered the eldest in Russia. The main rival of Ivan the Red was Prince Suzdal Konstantin Vasilyevich. Novgorod sent an ambassador from himself, Semyon Sudakov, to ask the Horde king for Prince of Suzdal. They were offended by Ivan Kalita and the Seeds of Proud, who were trying to bend under Novgorod. Novgorodians did not expect for themselves good from the heirs of the great princes of Moscow and did not want to see the descendants of Ivan Danilovich on the grand-ducal table. However, Khan Chanibek put on the great reign of Moscow Prince Ivan II Ivanovich. 25 March 1354. Ivan sat down on the great reign in Vladimir.

At first, neither Suzdal, nor Ryazan, or Novgorodians recognized his grand-ducal rights. Offended Novgorod a year and a half were with the Grand Duke without peace, but before the war it did not come, and then both sides made peace.

The reign of Ivan the Red was a period of relative weakening of Moscow and the strengthening of its neighbors and opponents. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania achieved the approval of a separate metropolitan in Kiev. The successor of Theognost Alexy was arrested in 1358 year by order of the Lithuanian prince Olgerd in Kiev, where he stayed until 1360 year, and then escaped from custody. Olgerd captured the Bryansk principality and went to Mozhaisk.

In Tver affairs Ivan Ivanovich supported Prince Kashinsky Vasily Mikhailovich, who occupied the Tver grand prince's table. When, in 1357, the Tver princes, uncle and nephew, Vasily Kashinsky and Vsevolod Alexandrovich Kholmsky, who claimed to be the grand prince's table, quarreled, the Grand Duke of Moscow and Vladimir supported Vasily. In 1358, the Moscow and Tver rati jointly went to take away Rzhev from the Lithuanians, which they did. True, Lithuanian troops soon recaptured the city.

Ryazan principality strengthened. Soon after Ivan Ivanovich went to the Horde, the people of Ryazan with their young prince Oleg Ivanovich (the future famous commander) seized Lopasnya (Blade) with a sudden blow. The fortress was located on the right bank of the Oka at the confluence of Lopasni, opposite the mouth of the last, and was of strategic importance to the Moscow principality. Earlier Lopasnya was part of the Ryazan principality, as was Kolomna. The Moscow governor, Prince Mikhail Alexandrovich, was captured and held until he received a ransom. Returning from the Horde, Ivan Krasny did not begin a war with Ryazan because of the city, which belonged to the lot of his juvenile nephew, Prince Vladimir Andreyevich of Serpukhov and gave him other lands.

With Nizhny Novgorod-Suzdal Grand Prince Konstantin Vasilyevich, Ivan Ivanovich reconciled only a year before his death. Khan retained the label for Ivan Red. But after the death of Ivan, the label was in the hands of Dmitry Konstantinovich, and the heir Ivan Ivan had to return the great reign by force, also using distemper in the Horde.

The reign of Ivan the Red was weak, so Moscow was not able at that time to take advantage of the unrest that had begun (“jam”) in the Horde. Khan Chanibek, whom the Russian chronicles called Good, was killed in 1357 by supporters of his son Berdibek. Supporters of Khan Berdibek also killed 12 of his brothers, thus making Berdibek the only legitimate heir to the Golden Horde throne. Berdibek himself was killed in 1359 year. As a result, from 1359 to 1380, the year on the throne of the Golden Horde replaced more than 25 khans, and many uluses (regions) tried to become independent. A year before the death of Ivan Red, the Horde prince Mamat-Khozha came to Ryazan and sent to Moscow to announce the Grand Duke of Moscow and Vladimir, that it was necessary to draw precise and inviolable borders between the Ryazan and Moscow lands. However, Ivan Ivanovich did not let the prince into his land.

Ivan Ivanovich Krasny died in Moscow on November 13 1359 of the year in the sixth year of his reign. He was buried in the Kremlin's Archangel Cathedral. Two of his sons, Ivan bequeathed possessions left by Ivan Kalita, respectively, to Semen and him. After the speedy death of the younger son of Ivan the Red, the possessions were again united under the rule of the Moscow prince.

Ivan Ivanovich was married twice: 1) with 1341 on Princess Feodosiya, daughter of Bryansk Prince Dmitry Romanovich, she died a year or so later; 2) on Alexandra, from the noble Velyaminov family. The children of Ivan Ivanovich were only from the second marriage: Dmitry (Donskoy), Ivan Small (died during the plague epidemic in 1364), two daughters - Anna, the future wife of Prince Dmitry Bobrok-Volynsky, and an unknown daughter named as Lithuanian Prince Dmitry Koriatovich.

Thus, during the short reign of Ivan the Red, Moscow Russia did not increase, but did not lose its previous conquests.
Author:
28 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. parusnik
    parusnik 30 March 2016 06: 46
    +18
    The main direction in the domestic policy of Ivan II was the strengthening of the state. He saw the path to this, like his father, in expanding the territory, attracting people to the principality. To this end, he attracted peasants, artisans, boyars, invited military men to the army. Migration policy in the Volga region, Uglich field, Ustyuzhie and in other lands of Russia yielded results. The population of the principality significantly increased, agriculture and crafts began to develop more efficiently. The Moscow Principality included Kostroma and Dmitrov lands. The result of this activity was the further strengthening of the principality, the expansion of the territory, and the strengthening of economic power. Ivan II created a good economic basis for the principality for his son, Dmitry Donskoy. The direction of the foreign policy of Ivan II was the establishment of peaceful relations with neighbors. He tried to solve all issues through diplomatic ways. He maintained good relations with the khans of the Horde, tried not to conflict with Lithuania. The result of the activity was that during it there were no wars, raids of the Horde khans. There was silence in Russia, a generation of people grew up who did not know the horrors of war. Thus, despite the short term of government, Ivan II managed to maintain peace on the lands of the principality, strengthen the princely power, strengthen the economy. Peaceful foreign policy led to the absence of large military clashes, raids on Russia. He handed over a strong principality to his son - Dmitry Donskoy.
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon 30 March 2016 07: 46
      +1
      Ivan the Red was a weak prince, appointed by him as a thousand Alexei Khvost, the Velyaminovs killed and the prince forgave them and the princedom strong after the death of Ivan, made the Velyaminovs in their infancy Dmitry
      1. ver_
        ver_ 31 March 2016 12: 15
        +1
        .. The Velyaminovs, all this is Rurikovich .. The whole family comes from Khan Eney Rurik Varyag Troyants ..

        1. The son of Rurik Vsevolod.
        2. Vsevolod: 2 sons - Yuri George Dolgoruky and Yaroslav John (Kalita) ..
        (one name was given at birth, another received at baptism)
        - Children of Kalita: Alexander (Nevsky), John (Red) and Andrey ..
        Andrei (Alexander Nevsky) destroyed Andrei on the orders of his father Yaroslav for treason ...

        All these persons had the title of Khan = king ..

        Velyaminov’s-flows of John the Red ..

        At the same time, Khan Mamay = Velyaminov was uncle Dmitry Donskoy-Khan Toktamysh ..
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. siberalt
      siberalt 30 March 2016 14: 39
      0
      From Ivan the Red to Nikita Lysy (later, historians will tell you that bald means clear, sunny). Well, what a breadth of knowledge! belay And who will be the first to write about the current ones, if they allow it, of course? laughing How is it now? "We leave the bathhouse with Dad. My face is red, like that. I don't bother anyone at this end of the village, but Dad is at the other." - Yeah. And in the middle there is a horde of visitors with oars. laughing
  2. The comment was deleted.
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 30 March 2016 07: 46
      0
      Why Ivan the Terrible?
  3. Mangel olys
    Mangel olys 30 March 2016 07: 59
    +9
    Khan Chanibek, whom the Russian chronicles called Good, in 1357 was killed by supporters of his son Berdibek.

    "The very kind Tsar Janibek", as Russian chroniclers and contemporaries of the khan called him. Khan Dzhanibek during his time in power expanded the territory of the Golden Horde by annexing part of Persia. This was the heyday of the Eurasian state. In the same period, it was calm in Russia, there was wealth and prosperity.
    1. Bashibuzuk
      Bashibuzuk 30 March 2016 15: 07
      +5
      Dear Mongol Ulus ... oh, Mangel Alys ... a joke.
      ..
      Now, if there were historians who knew two languages, what ..three .... four. - that would be great.
      Well, you definitely own, I will name in general, Turkic dialects.
      (I also own it, but unfortunately, it’s not at all in a free style, rather, I will briskly explain myself in the bazaar ... or in a fight, there. And I would have to - freely).
      ...
      And then they would translate for us Russians that Dzhanybek ... this is from Dzhana - sweet, affectionate, sweet, affectionate. Well -back-, in my opinion, everyone knows that.
      Then the question would immediately arise?
      Dear king ... no brainer that this is not a name. This is for the annals. FOR HISTORY wassat
      But really, what was the name of Chanibek? A good reason to dig into history, no?
      ..
      Byrd is exactly the same ... Byck. here I can already get confused, either from the word -ber- .. come on ... that means the Tsar, who can reward something. to give something.
      Either from the word - bir .... means, simply the First, the Only.
      ...
      We don’t understand a damn thing, until we clearly understand for ourselves that the Turks and Slavs tumbled through life TOGETHER.
      I am not at all surprised that the Tatars are now bilinguals (trilinguals, quadro, etc.). Russians are the same.
      And in those ancient times, there were two all-lingvs, in essence. Steppe and Forest.
      ...
      Therefore, in internal affairs and towards the Litvin, Russia used its Slavic names.
      In the international plan, state - Turkic. Still - the Steppe!
      ...
      And how would we all become calm, in prosperity and prosperity - if we were multilinguals.
      1. Mangel olys
        Mangel olys 30 March 2016 16: 39
        +3
        Quote: Bashibuzuk
        Dear Mongol Ulus ... oh, Mangel Alys ... a joke.
        ..
        And how would we all become calm, in prosperity and prosperity - if we were multilinguals.

        Dear Igor Vladimirovich, as always, your comments differ from others in their sparkling, originality and healthy humor. Thanks for the delivered positive emotions. good
      2. ver_
        ver_ 31 March 2016 12: 42
        +1
        ... Tatar, Khazarin, the later name Cossack is an equestrian warrior .. (cavalry) .. They were also used as collectors of tribute .. Hence the proverb - not an invited guest is worse than a Tatar (tax collector) There was a Bulgar Kingdom on the Volga, and not Tatar .. Ulyanov-Lenin "christened" the Bulgars Tatars in his article and ... stuck .. Hence the question of the Tatars - who are you ...?
        1. Mangel olys
          Mangel olys April 1 2016 07: 31
          0
          Quote: ver_
          Hence the question of the Tatars - who are you ...?

          Tatars are us. Tatar is me. laughing
    2. andrew42
      andrew42 30 March 2016 18: 34
      0
      I don’t know, I don’t know .. As far as the official version of history says, the last Golden Horde successes in Transcaucasia were with Khan Berke, and Russian troops participated there as well. But this is much earlier. Under Janibek, most likely they already "held the border", and so on until the arrival of Tamerlane.
      1. ver_
        ver_ 31 March 2016 12: 46
        +1
        ... Khan Berke is the Title and pseudonym of Alexander Nevsky ..
        1. Mangel olys
          Mangel olys April 1 2016 07: 32
          0
          Quote: ver_
          ... Khan Berke is the Title and pseudonym of Alexander Nevsky ..

          Where is it proven? request
    3. Rivares
      Rivares 31 March 2016 02: 07
      +1
      Quote: Mangel Olys
      "Very good king Janibek"

      Something I doubt strongly ...
      The title "tsar" went to Russia in the 16th century and contemporaries (1357) call him tsar !?
      Zelo - the name of the letter - means incomprehensible, unknown. In a modern sense, it means "incomprehensibly good king"
      Quote: Bashibuzuk
      And then they would translate for us Russians that Dzhanybek ... this is from Dzhana - sweet, affectionate, sweet, affectionate. Well -back-, in my opinion, everyone knows that.

      Yes, Janibek is a nickname. It's like with Murza Chet.)))
      And no one mentions their generic (last name) names.
      So Chet and Dzhanibek nicknames, and for some reason the chroniclers did not write their generic names.
  4. Pvi1206
    Pvi1206 30 March 2016 10: 21
    -4
    The history of the Russian state began with Ivan the Terrible, who managed to overcome the fragmentation and sometimes enmity of the specific Russian principalities, which were inherited and fragmented ...
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon 30 March 2016 10: 24
      +4
      Excuse me, what was Ivan doing the third?
    2. Rivares
      Rivares 31 March 2016 02: 12
      +1
      Quote: Pvi1206
      The history of the Russian state began with Ivan the Terrible

      Prophetic Oleg and Svyatoslav unknown to you?
      1. martin-159
        martin-159 31 March 2016 05: 57
        0
        The history of the Russian Empire began with Ivan the Terrible.
      2. ver_
        ver_ 31 March 2016 12: 26
        0
        .. John 4-the Terrible had a poor pedigree, like the Romanovs .. In order to "match" more, he married the last princess of Byzantium - Sophia Paleologue and with her the title of Basileus .. Temple of Basileus the Blessed, not Basil the Blessed (kinship not remembering the fool) ..
      3. ver_
        ver_ 31 March 2016 12: 55
        0
        ... did they belong to the Khan family? Khan = Kan = King = Emperor - the same thing .. The King is the appointed Emperor ..
        Khan Batuy = Yaroslav Vsevolodovich gave the French Kings a label on the board ..
  5. andrew42
    andrew42 30 March 2016 10: 58
    +8
    And it is good that Ivan II did not jerk too much, but peacefully pulled the "Horde strap" on his mind. The second such confrontation as under Yuri of Moscow and Mikhail Tverskoy, the rudiment of the Muscovy would not have survived, and the center of the unification of the Russian lands might not have taken place at all. And as for the killed thousand Tails, they were creatures of Yuri Danilovich, they were ready to fight as they liked, for anything, if only for the Prince of Moscow and for their good. Of these, a new Akinf the Great could well have emerged, who, after the death of Andrei Gorodetsky, imagined himself to have the right to judge, order, imprison and drive the appanage princes. The party of friends of Yuri Danilovich was not particularly distinguished by state thinking. In contrast to them, the Velyaminovs at that time were what is called "the support of the people." Protasiy Velyaminov enjoyed the unconditional trust of Ivan Kalita, the youngest of the Danilovichi, which speaks of his ability to build state. At that time, the leader of the "city army" was the second post after the prince of Moscow, and in some matters even the first. What was needed was MIR, the internal growth of the Moscow possessions, which Ivan II provided, without wasting on inter-princes squabbles, without waking up any of the holders of the Zolotordyn throne. That is why Moscow later "shot" under Dmitry, as the center of unity, and the secret became apparent when the "Moscow Union" sent the first "Great Russian" army in history to the Kulikovo field. Dmitry formalized all the achievements of his predecessors in a practical plane, and at the "turning point" of events, he paid for it, almost ruining the entire backlog, but everything went well "along the edge of the knife." Vasily I then set up Tokhtamysh in the fight against Tamerlane, and then Muscovy de facto got rid of subordination to the collapsed Horde "center". And Ivan III was already more solving the problem of absolutizing power than the "Horde issue" - the story of the fight of his father Vasily Temny against Shemyaka and Oblique showed that no Horde was the scourge of the unity of the Russian state, but mainly the ambitions of the princes of the numerous "Zalessky" branch of Rurik ...
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon 30 March 2016 11: 23
      +4
      Of course I love Balashov, but about the great Akinf and other boyar relations, these are just versions that can not be proved
      1. andrew42
        andrew42 30 March 2016 18: 27
        +1
        For what a handsome man is described in "The Great Table". It must be understood that the collective image of the "kingmaker" has its embodiment in any medieval society of the feudal type. "Wandering" from prince to prince boyars with squads - these are Berladnik in Karamzin's way in the 13th century, and Bobrok-Volynsky in the 14th century. Well, maybe there was no Akinf, so so what? Someone was all the same, and not one such figure. The prince began from his youth, from his youth to reign, how could one live without "akinf"? And Balashov's novel is really good, and I don't see any other intelligible presentation of that era. Let it be artistic, but otherwise it is not voiced! Since it is organically and interrelated, it means that it deserves a lot of trust. Not without a doubt, of course.
    2. ver_
      ver_ 31 March 2016 13: 15
      -1
      ... The Horde strap is a military order of Russia = Army ... There were many civil strife among his own .. So Yuri Georgy Dolgoruky = Caesar Khan received a wound on the Vozha River in a showdown with his neighbors .. from which he did not recover - he died .. perhaps he was "helped to die" .. (remember Gaius Julius Caesar) .. He had an unbearable character. Neighbors complained to Yaroslav Vsevolodovich about his brother ..
      Yaroslav, after his death, declared George Saint and .. concentrated in his hands the military and spiritual power .. Khan Father ..
  6. King, just king
    King, just king 30 March 2016 16: 04
    +5
    At first they did not recognize the Grand Duke ...

    And why they should have recognized him, if only the Great Vladimir reign of Moscow princes went from Uncle Yuri, and absolutely illegal by the standards of North-Eastern Russia, for Daniel was not the Great Vladimir Prince.

    Balashov ... Yes, you have to describe it this way and what and how much to describe. From time to time I take a volume of some thread and read it. It's a pity "Yuri" is not finished. Just wondering how and what the heroes had next. It's like Tolstoy's "Peter I" is unfinished ...
  7. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 30 March 2016 18: 33
    +2
    Yes, the writer Balashov was a great man. I would say it is underestimated by our contemporaries.

    And so - to be honest - the article has nothing. Well, just a banal ruler and that's it. And by the way - if not for the "black pestilence" of the middle of the 14th century, and if decisive fighters for the national independence of Russia had not come to the Moscow throne, then maybe the Tatar yoke would have existed for a very long time.
    1. The comment was deleted.
      1. Bashibuzuk
        Bashibuzuk 30 March 2016 22: 13
        +1
        Yeah, a good link.
        It would be a link, but directly to the RAS ... to address historians.
        And to ask ... unobtrusively so ... - and on what basis was the reassessment of the age of the finds?
        P T T served as the basis for the need to revise the originally approved dates and dates.
        "... The early dating of the layers was incorrect due to the fact that the archaeologists of the previous expeditions did not take into account erosion processes ..." - this is no good ... where such erosion processes took place, in the center of the uterus ... oh, oh. .. excuse me ... caves ... or why?
        ..
        I think there will be no answer. Or in style - given the increased dating base ...
        ...
        Balashov, as a writer, everyone likes.
        And if he suddenly - announces the Latest Chrenology? NHR ... for example.
        ...
        Vladimir Yang, at one time, well, so reliably painted everything ... and Genghis Khan, and Batu, and To the Last Sea.
        Then Borodin - a bastard from his Stars-on-Samarkand ... until he came across allegedly Timur's memories. Published in Tashkent in 1992.
        Then Bushkov ... i.e. first HX - FiN ... and immediately after Morozov ... and the last.
        Then Petukhov and Alekseev.
        ...
        How long, oh, Catilina !!!!!! wassat fellow
        1. King, just king
          King, just king 31 March 2016 10: 05
          +1
          Balashov will not announce, there is no Balashov ...
  8. Villiam wolf
    Villiam wolf 30 March 2016 20: 10
    +2
    Thank you for the article! Interesting but not enough!
  9. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 30 March 2016 22: 35
    -1
    Quote: King, just king
    By the way, from the last topic about "hobbits"

    Yes thank you. Only as you understand, even from this text - with dating there everything is muddy. And even greater problems are created by the myths of the natives, in which the mysterious forest dwarfs lived in their forests until the Dutch colonization ...

    Quote: Bashibuzuk
    Vladimir Yang, at one time, well, so reliably painted everything ... and Genghis Khan, and Batu, and To the Last Sea.

    And his relative Dmitry Yanchevetsky wrote a magnificent book about how Russian troops conquered Northern China during the Rebellion. Few people know about this.
  10. Signaller
    Signaller 31 March 2016 03: 39
    0
    I'm certainly not the original. But in the light of what REN TV broadcasts with their "Shocking hypotheses" - this is not a fact. ... And in general whether there was a Tatar-Mongol invasion of Russia is also not a fact. It's in the same path. We live in an era of change. But better or worse is not clear ...
    1. ver_
      ver_ 31 March 2016 14: 17
      +1
      ... but how could it be if Mongolia was founded in the year 192 .. ..- it's like doubting whether or not phones were in the 13th century ..
  11. 2005 Aleksey
    2005 Aleksey 31 March 2016 14: 42
    +1
    If we could repulse Batu at that time, we would not pay tribute and do not spend money on the Tatar khan.
  12. Jääkorppi
    Jääkorppi April 5 2016 07: 51
    0
    How can one evaluate the historical period without giving a description of the development of productive forces and industrial relations, the degree of development of social relations in society and the world political situation! It turned out a little more than on Wikipedia. And most importantly, what is the result of government? Of course, thanks, for the article, we have too little about Russian history and, all the more, about the formation of Great Russia.