Military Review

"Zircon": five moves from the target

23
Russia expands hypersonic line weapons


The most iconic military-technical news this year, it was reported that Russian warships and submarines will soon receive into service the Zircon hypersonic cruise missiles, which are already being tested on the ground launch complex.

Work on the latest so-called interspecific rocket complex 3K22 with the 3М22 rocket, developed by the Reut corporation of the NPO Mashinostroeniya, has been going on at least since the 2011 year. The launch of the latest hypersonic product has been carried out for several years. Let's try to restore the chronology of events and understand why "Zircon" is needed after all.

Hot hypersound

Before discussing the newest missile system, it should be understood how it differs from another well-known NGO product - Masha - AGBO - aeroballistic hypersonic combat equipment, it is also an 4202 product.

First, the “Zircon”, in contrast to hypersonic military equipment, performs the entire flight in the atmosphere of the Earth, well below the “Karman Line”, the conditional boundary between the Earth’s atmosphere and space. Secondly, if 4202 is a strategic system that allows hitting targets at a distance of thousands of kilometers, then 3М22 is an anti-ship missile, in fact the development of the Bazalt-Granit-Onyx heavy anti-ship missile line, destroying enemy surface and ground targets on distance 300 – 400 kilometers.

Meanwhile, the application environment of the Zircon imposes on the product very severe limitations on the strength of the structure itself, its systems and assemblies. At hypersonic speeds, the air resistance becomes such that the flight is often compared with a slip on sandpaper. The rocket is affected not only by the so-called viscous shock layers, but also by the resulting high-temperature flow, which causes heating of individual sections of the structure to several thousand degrees. And the lower the flight altitude, the greater the load on the product.

At the same time, we must not forget that the Zircon must not only fly to a certain area, but also after finding a target, overcome the enemy’s air defense and, against the background of radio-electronic interference, orient to the desired object and hit it. Therefore, the requirements for the control system and guidance of the latest rocket are also very high.

The inertial navigation system of the product, combined with the radio altimeter, which controls the flight on the cruise trajectory, must be distinguished by exceptional accuracy and speed, since the slightest error at that speed will lead to a miss.

On the final part of the trajectory, the radar homing head already detects and identifies the target, the stable operation of which will be hampered by both false targets and radio-electronic interferences set by the enemy. Taking into account the speed of the rocket itself, its RLGSN should have high accuracy and work in conditions where all components and assemblies of the product are subjected to maximum load.

Despite all the problems associated with the physical characteristics of the hypersound, "Zircon" is an order of magnitude more complex goal, to cope with which will not succeed not only in the arsenal of the potential enemy weapons of air defense, but also promising, work on which only underway.

Strange история


The first mentions in open sources about the creation of an interspecific missile complex with a hypersonic anti-ship operational-use rocket Zircon 3K22 appeared in open sources at the end of 2011. Later, in the corporate newspaper of the NPO Mashinostroeniya “Tribuna VPK” it was indicated that in 2011, in one of the directorates, a group of chief designers was created on the topic 3М22.

"Zircon": five moves from the targetJudging by the annual report of the tactical missile armament of the Ural Design Bureau “Detal”, which is part of the Corporation, one of the areas of which is the development of radio altimeters, in 2011, the design of two products was reviewed, approved and sent to the customer (NGOMash) - “Zircon-S-ARK” and “Zircon-S-RV”. Most likely, the radio abbreviation means radio altimeter, and the ARC is an automatic radio compass.

In the same year, NPO Granit-Electron, a leading developer and manufacturer of radio electronic complexes and systems for the Naval fleet, reported on the creation for 3M22 of a preliminary design of an autopilot and inertial navigation system, for which design documentation was already ready in 2012.

In the report for 2011, the year of Strela, an industrial engineering corporation of the Orenburg manufacturing association, which produces anti-ship cruise missiles, including Onyx P-800, called the creation of a production and technical base for the development of mass production of new products, including Zircon missiles.

According to the report of the corporation NPO Mashinostroeniya itself for the year 2012, the development of an industrial critical technology for the production of laser and optoelectronic systems of a complex of receiving-transmitting devices and computing facilities for detecting, targeting hypersonic and supersonic tactical missiles has begun.

But just then "Zircon" suddenly disappears from all open sources. It is noteworthy that even from the report of the Strela software for 2012, the items on the creation of the material and technical basis for the production of a new product were removed, although the text and the necessary material costs for the 4202 project are quite openly mentioned in the text below.

At the same time, Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin announced the creation on the basis of the Corporation of tactical missile weapons and the engineering supermarketing engineering manufacturing association, which was to be engaged in development related to hypersonic technology. True, a little later, the idea of ​​creating a hypersonic industrial association on such a scale was abandoned in favor of merging the machine-building design bureau Raduga based in Dubna, which develops and produces air-based missiles, including cruise missiles, with Reutov NPOmash. One of the developments of this design bureau was the X-90 hypersonic rocket, also known as the “Spade” or GELA, a hypersonic experimental aircraft. But the union did not happen again, the enterprises continued their activities in their respective areas.

In the summer of 2012, at the 929 test site of the State Flight Research Center, located in Akhtubinsk, throwing tests of an air-launched hypersonic cruise missile, which was carried by the Tu-22М3 bomber, took place. According to some reports, not all launches were successful, but work on the product continued.

In September, 2013-th head of the Corporation of tactical missile weapons Boris Obnosov admitted that in Russia work on hypersonic missiles flying in the atmosphere is being actively conducted, moreover, there is already an experimental product. True, according to the head of the KTRV, despite the fact that the rocket develops a speed of about 4,5 Mach, it is not yet possible to ensure a stable and long flight in this mode.

It is possible that, taking into account the fact that Zircon is referred to as an interspecific missile system, in the 2012 – 2013 years it was his tests that, judging by the words of Boris Obnosov, ended in partial success. The rocket was able to go on a hypersound, but for a short time.

Upgrade for heavy cruisers

After 2013, 3K22 again mysteriously disappears from all open sources, so that in the fall of 2015, it will suddenly appear in the modernization project of Admiral Nakhimov.

According to the agreement between Sevmash, which is engaged in the conversion of TARKR, and Almaz-Antey corporation, the latter must supply ten ZS-14-11442М ten universal vertical launchers for the enterprise that is being renovated with the modernization of the 11442 heavy nuclear missile cruiser. According to the same document, new launchers, each of which is designed to accommodate eight missiles, ensure the launch of both the Caliber CD and the 3М55 supersonic anti-ship missiles, they are also Onyx P-800, and 3K22, that is, Zircon . Completion of work - no later than 2018. The estimated contract price is defined in 2 billion 559 million rubles, the marginal cost of production - three billion. By August 2016, Almaz-Antey should deliver to the customer the first of ten ordered launchers, which, after being adopted by a special commission consisting of shipbuilders, developers and manufacturers of rocket weapons, including the NPO Novator (KR Caliber) and the NPO Mechanical Engineering (" Onyx "and" Zircon "), will receive the letter" O ". In case of successful completion of the work, the remaining nine of the UVPU will transfer Sevmash by May 2017.

And at the end of 2015, at the 21-th State Central Interspecific Test Site located in the village of Nenoks of the Arkhangelsk Region (the main test site of both sea-based cruise and ballistic missiles), some experimental sample was launched and ended in failure. Judging by the available photos from the scene, the rocket, flying some distance, fell and exploded.

According to the available information, it was at Nenokx that at the same time, work was carried out to create a ground-based launch complex for experimental missiles. At the beginning of this year, tests at the site resumed.

In March, it became known that the Zircon appeared on the launch pad. According to an informed source, hypersonic rockets are already in the metal, they began testing from a ground launch complex. It is very likely that the 21 GCSP in Nenoks is being tested by 3K22, as well as the 3М22 rocket itself. It was the unsuccessful launch of the Zircon that hit the lenses of the December 15 2015 cameras.

In February, it became known that 3K22 will be part of the armament of another heavy nuclear missile cruiser of the 1144 project - Peter the Great, which, as planned, will be repaired in the middle or end of 2019.

According to reports, one of the carriers of the Zircon should be the submarine of the fifth generation Husky, the development of which began the offshore engineering bureau Malakhit. According to the developers, the newest nuclear submarine is designed on one basic platform in two versions: a multi-purpose, focused on the fight against enemy submarines, and anti-aircraft PLAKR, armed with cruise missiles, including Zircons.

"Zirconix"?


Despite the fact that the tests of "Zircon" are already underway, information about the rocket, even in comparison with project 4202, is extremely small. There is still no accurate data, is there aviation a variant of the latest hypersonic missile system, and if so, how successfully have it been tested in Akhtubinsk in 2012-2013, what are its prospects.

It should be noted an interesting feature of "Zircon". Judging by the annual report of the NPO Mashinostroeniya, not only the radar homing head will be installed on its board, but also an optical-electronic complex responsible for finding and detecting targets. It is noteworthy that the oke should work at hypersonic speeds.

Meanwhile, only five years passed from the appearance of the first information about the new rocket and the creation of a group of chief designers before the start of the tests, if not to take into account aviation launches. That is, it is likely that the basis of "Zircon" are technical solutions, in many respects already ready and proven. This assumption is supported by a very short time between the creation of a draft design and the release of the design documentation of the autopilot system and inertial navigation. NPO Granit-Electron took about a year to do this. A high degree of unification of the new rocket with supersonic “Onyxes” is also confirmed by the technical task for UVPU, according to which the “Zircon” is completely interchangeable with 3М55, and the launcher itself should be ready this summer.

If our version is correct, then onboard Onyx launchers located on ships, submarines and even ground objects, if necessary, you can easily use Zircon, which makes a hypersonic rocket truly universal and deadly for a potential enemy.
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  1. Leprekon
    Leprekon April 2 2016 02: 39
    11
    Warmer! Especially warm are the plans for the modernization of Admiral Nakhimov and Peter the Great, presented as secondary messages.
    1. Kalmar
      Kalmar April 2 2016 22: 17
      +1
      It is, of course, interesting. But here's the question: how much does this hypersound in general increase the effectiveness of anti-ship missiles in terms of overcoming enemy air defense / missile defense? My point is that, say, strategic aviation has also been on the "faster and higher" path for a long time, but this path has become a dead-end: anti-aircraft missiles are still faster and higher.

      The Zircon, as I understand it, will have hypersonic speed as its main feature. Super-maneuverability, for example, cannot be screwed up here: the structure cannot withstand overloads. The low-altitude flight profile also cannot be realized: an unrealistically large amount of fuel will be required. However, our partners already have anti-aircraft weapons that are good at working on high-speed targets (the same THAAD, for example).

      In total, all that remains is to hope that the enemy missile defense systems will not have time to process all anti-ship missiles in 4-5 minutes of the latter's flight. The density of air defense / missile defense of a typical target for such weapons (American AUG) is quite high; a dozen "Zircons", say, are unlikely to break through. And here it would be interesting to know how many of them can actually be placed on the same "Peter the Great". Twenty (as with "Granites") is far from being enough, but if a dozen or so three or four, then for American partners the evening ceases to be languid.
      1. venik
        venik April 3 2016 23: 31
        +7
        Dear Calmar!
        The most important "trick" of hypersound is not even that the huge flight speed requires an extremely high reaction speed of the air defense system (in fact, on the verge of possibility
        modern technology), due to the fact that the attacking missile stays in the affected area for a very short time, and the fact that radar defense systems do not see it at all !!!
        The thing is that at such speeds, due to the friction of the flowing air against the surface, a layer of plasma envelops the rocket, which almost completely absorbs radio emission.
        Such a kind of "stealth" coating. Thus, such objects can be detected only with the help of electro-optical systems, and they are known to have a limited range (up to 40 km at medium altitudes and even less at low altitudes). And the rocket flies this distance in a matter of seconds and the reaction speed of existing air defense systems (and promising ones too) is simply NOT ENOUGH to shoot down a rocket !!!

        The question arises, but how to direct it? The fact is that the properties of the plasma change under the influence of radio emission, which theoretically can be detected using built-in sensors, which means that the plasma itself can be used as a receiving antenna.
        Those. there is the possibility of remote control. But I can’t say how the problem of measuring height and homing is solved !!! Not enough input data.
        1. Kalmar
          Kalmar April 4 2016 08: 33
          -1
          Quote: venik
          The thing is that at such speeds, due to the friction of the flowing air against the surface, a layer of plasma envelops the rocket, which almost completely absorbs radio emission.

          Okay, let's say the radar doesn't see the missile. Although here the question is: the plasma will "fade" in a fairly wide range: for approximate guidance it may be enough. But in IR, this rocket will glow like a searchlight. If, at the same time, it also flies at an altitude of 15-20 kilometers, then there seem to be no big problems with detection. And then, the same THAAD somehow works, although its targets are also hypersonic (true, ballistic, but here it's just that no one else flies on hypersonic).
        2. Skifotavr
          Skifotavr April 4 2016 16: 07
          +1
          Quote: venik
          Dear Calmar!
          The most important "trick" of hypersound is not even that the huge flight speed requires an extremely high reaction speed of the air defense system (in fact, on the verge of possibility
          modern technology), due to the fact that the attacking missile stays in the affected area for a very short time, and the fact that radar defense systems do not see it at all !!!
          The thing is that at such speeds, due to the friction of the flowing air against the surface, a layer of plasma envelops the rocket, which almost completely absorbs radio emission.
          Such a kind of "stealth" coating.

          Back in the 60s, the USSR successfully intercepted an ICBM warhead in the atmosphere in practice. And today the Moscow missile defense system A-135 intercepts ICBM warheads at high altitude in the atmosphere in a plasma cloud. True, the current Gazel antimissiles are equipped with a nuclear warhead, but this is the result of the victory of one of the parties in the struggle of designers with different points of view. Although, of course, placing such a powerful radar plus a corresponding computer complex on ships can be problematic.
      2. Alex777
        Alex777 April 14 2016 12: 54
        +1
        As stated in article 10 launchers for 8 missiles. Total - 80 PU.
        Then you can combine how much KR, RCC and PCR will be.
  2. Armored optimist
    Armored optimist April 2 2016 04: 13
    +3
    And someone said - the plasma will interfere. Such a missile as a head part of an ICBM. So that after entering the dense layers it would be braked to the desired amount of M and then along the lay trajectory in the side of the AUG. The aircraft carriers have outlived. Now there will be a burden for the USA.
    1. paxil
      paxil April 2 2016 05: 55
      +3
      Quote: armored optimist
      The aircraft carriers have outlived. Now there will be a burden for the USA.

      Well, why? Firs will not bully us let them live, and attack the Papuans still fit.
      1. Sirocco
        Sirocco April 2 2016 06: 41
        +5
        Quote: paxil
        And someone said - the plasma will interfere.

        Probably solved this problem.
        In general, it is always a pleasure to make gifts to our potential "partners". All the more unexpected.
    2. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri April 3 2016 22: 10
      +1
      At 5-6M there is still no plasma layer. Not 20-25M, however (the speed at which BB ICBMs enter the atmosphere)
  3. fa2998
    fa2998 April 2 2016 06: 06
    +4
    With this Internet, a mentally healthy person will go nuts! Maybe someone is in the subject, and authoritatively tell WHAT THIS WEAPON is "Zircon". There are two opposite opinions - some enthusiastic articles about the St. 6 M rocket, with a picture from Star Wars, others, that this is just a modification of the "Brahmos", which is already in service in India (and this is already 3 M). I would like to know the opinion of a rocket scientist, a practice, and not one who has picked up knowledge on the Internet (I also have a good one)! what hi
    1. Kvazar
      Kvazar April 2 2016 19: 46
      0
      All hypersonic missiles have one appearance.
      And so there is the P-800 Onyx missile export version of Yahot. Superior Yachot is Bramos.
      There is Zircon and its export version called it "Brahmos-2"
    2. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri April 4 2016 12: 35
      +1
      Here is the concept "BrahMos-2":
  4. Sergey333
    Sergey333 April 2 2016 07: 15
    +5
    Quote: fa2998
    With this Internet, a mentally healthy person will go nuts! Maybe someone is in the subject, and authoritatively tell WHAT THIS WEAPON is "Zircon". There are two opposite opinions - some enthusiastic articles about the St. 6 M rocket, with a picture from Star Wars, others, that this is just a modification of the "Brahmos", which is already in service in India (and this is already 3 M). I would like to know the opinion of a rocket scientist, a practice, and not one who has picked up knowledge on the Internet (I also have a good one)!

    Those who at least know something will not write here, but about brahmos - what difference does it make to you whether it is him or not, if only he flies well. Anyway, brahmos is a Russian development, there is only Hindu money there.
  5. cergey51046
    cergey51046 April 2 2016 07: 19
    0
    It's nice when we are ahead of the rest.
  6. Pvi1206
    Pvi1206 April 2 2016 07: 26
    +2
    It is clear that Russia should have an order of magnitude more advanced weapons compared to what it sells on the foreign market.
    The new missile described in the article belongs to this class ...
  7. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter April 2 2016 07: 40
    +8
    How did they solve the problem of overheating? Probably ceramic refractory. The second problem is plasma. Which is formed on the frontal parts and absorbs radio waves. What complicates the work of the GOS. But, once they are tested, then they have decided. Difficult task. But if they could, I take off my hat.
  8. RuslanD36
    RuslanD36 April 2 2016 10: 23
    +2
    I already twitched from the title of the article:
    Zircon: 1700 m / s from the target.

    How can distance be measured by speed?

    Does the author measure time in light years?
    1. Neputin
      Neputin April 2 2016 20: 13
      -4
      Speed, distance and time are three interrelated physical quantities or indicators that change when the other two change. This is an absolute physical fact of Google to help you (the theory of relativity A. Einstein)
      1. opus
        opus April 3 2016 21: 01
        +2
        Quote: Neputin
        . This is an absolute physical fact of Google to help you (the theory of relativity A. Einstein)

        schA vomiting. Victim of the exam?
        The total Theory of Relativity on Fingers ™
        still general relativity, not that (
        Quote: Neputin
        theory of relativity
        )

        ?
        Dafayte


        find
        Quote: Neputin
        Speed, distance and time are three interrelated physical quantities or indicators that change when the other two change.


        What would not be wrong.
        C is not speed at all, but the speed of light (photon) in a vacuum,

        - this is not time, it is an energy-momentum tensor.
  9. magician
    magician April 2 2016 12: 45
    0
    Modern materials and technologies have enabled the implementation of this project. Work on the creation of these weapons models has been carried out since the end of the 60s. Now we are observing the outcome. And as I think this is not the last masterpiece of Russian engineers.
  10. serverny
    serverny April 2 2016 13: 13
    +1
    Quote: RuslanD36
    I already twitched from the title of the article:

    Have you ever heard of a pun?
    Phraseologism "in one fell swoop" does not say anything?
    1. RuslanD36
      RuslanD36 April 2 2016 13: 51
      -1
      Want to play with words: write fiction, not articles. It seems that "military review" is not a yellow rag
    2. opus
      opus April 3 2016 21: 11
      +1
      Quote: serverny
      Phraseologism "in one fell swoop" does not say anything?

      “Excited by Kostya’s letters, that very evening Boris sat down at the drawing board with the intention of in one fell swoop draw a diagram of an extraordinary machine gun ”(V. Kozhevnikov).

      Phraseology is understandable.
      The difference is still "in one fell swoop" (to do) and to be "ONE swing from the goal"

      And how then to UNDERSTAND this phrase:

      “Excited by Kostya’s letters, that very evening Boris sat down at the drawing board with the intention of FIVE MAKES draw a diagram of an extraordinary machine gun ”(V. Kozhevnikov).

      is it like 5 seedlings?
      belay
      Quote: RuslanD36
      How can distance be measured by speed?

      It happens that distance is "measured by time":
      1 light year (second, minute), 1 parsec (parallax second) = 3,2616 light years.
      Although this is a joke, of course. anyway there METERS wink
  11. 3danimal
    3danimal 30 August 2017 23: 38
    0
    It seems that the author understands the difference between supersonic aircraft and hypersonic.
    The latter is qualitatively more complicated, and therefore the conditional Zircon (with direct-flow hypersonic taxiway) will be completely unlike the Brahmos with direct-flow supersonic.
    The most realistic version of the rocket engine is the solid propellant rocket engine. There are many analogies, for example, R-33.
    The elder brother of the American AIM-54 "PHOENIX" BB missile. Speed ​​up to 4,5 M, mass ~ 500 kg, warhead mass ~ 50 kg (i.e. 10% of the total). Range up to 300 km.
    T.O. with a warhead of 150-200 kg, the rocket will have a weight equivalent to 2000kg. It will take a more powerful engine, more solid fuel supply. But the goal is not high-altitude, and the flight range along a quasi-ballistic trajectory will be, perhaps, 500+ km.
    The requirements for the detection range are higher, but the EPR of the targets is not a few square meters, but hundreds and thousands. Radar seeker, able to make out 3 sq. M. from 15km, will see 1000 sq.m. from 60 (directly proportional to the root of the 4th degree from the difference in the EPR).
    What do we get in the end? RCC flying on a marching section in the stratosphere at the lower boundary of hypersound, having a considerable range (long arm) and extremely short flight time (intelligence does not have time to meet and it is difficult for the enemy to intercept such a high-speed and small-sized target).
    Of course, a speed of 5M will be achieved only on the stratospheric section of the track (valid for missiles with solid propellant rocket engines and with scramjet engine), with a decrease it will decrease to 2-3M.
    This is the only realistic concept of the GZ RCC that can be created on existing technologies in the near future and in reasonable dimensions.
    And anti-ship missiles with scramjet, rushing over the crests of waves at 5M + - is nothing more than a propaganda duck for the layman, domestic and western.