Military Review

Slaughter something ... prettier (part of 6)

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And so it happens that you choose a topic at random, guided by the principle “like it - dislike it”. Then she begins to like others, and as a result she begins to live her own life, and it is not you who “lead” her, but she you! So it happened with a series of materials about knives and daggers - “to kill more beautiful ...” The readers of the BO liked it, and they started writing that it would be nice to continue it and even pointed out “fish places”. But not all of them turned out to be such, so it took time to find the materials that were equally interesting, in the author’s opinion.



Typical Roman Pugio Dagger. Auxiliary weapon Roman legionary. Blade and hilt are forged as one. The sheath is usually also iron.

And now before you another material on this subject, which this time is based on a collection of cold steel not the Metropolitan Museum in New York, but a collection of artifacts from the Princeton University Museum in the United States - a private research university, one of the oldest, most prestigious and the most famous universities in the country, which is located in the city of Princeton, in the state of New Jersey. There and historical faculty, and here for the services of its students there is a small but very interesting collection of knives.

We begin, as before, with daggers of stone. However, in past materials of such a wonderful flint dagger, we did not have. This one - and you see it in the next photo, just lovely. Found in Denmark, the end of the Neolithic era, ca. 8000 - 2000 BC. Length 26.9 cm., Thickness 1.9 cm., Width 6.4 cm. It seems to be all clear. But questions remain, and there are more than answers. The skill with which it was made, and most importantly - its small thickness, is amazing. But the most interesting thing is not even that. And the fact that almost exactly the same dagger is in the Stockholm State Historical Museum. True, it dates from 1600 year BC. It is believed that it mimics the form of early bronze daggers. But ... both seemed to come from the same workshop! That is, such workshops at that time already existed, and the production of flint weapons was "continuous"? So there were not so many people in the Stone Age and wild ...

Slaughter something ... prettier (part of 6)

Flint dagger from Princeton University Museum.

Egypt has had a tremendous impact on the development of European civilization, although this is not always obvious. In any case, what is important is that he fed the whole Roman empire with wheat, and if it were not, it is not known how it would have developed and expanded. And it was precisely the daggers cast from copper and bronze that the ancient Egyptian warriors were armed with.


For example, what the copper dagger of the Middle Kingdom era of 2030 – 1640 looked like. BC. Length 28.9 cm., Width 5.8 cm., Thickness 2.2 cm. Very interesting design of the handle. On it figured pommel of alabaster, riveted to the very handle with side rivets. And it was necessary to think of it before! Princeton University Museum.

About Mycenaean daggers and rapier swords there have already been a lot told. I would just like to emphasize that if the flint daggers were faked for copper and bronze as one whole - the handle plus the blade, then the daggers of that era had a metal blade, but a wooden handle. This clearly indicates a metal deficiency. The blade was cast separately, forged and inserted into the kerf on the handle, after which it was fastened with rivets. On the blade, which is in the photo below, there are four holes for rivets. And there are blades with three and four, and five to seven rivets. In any case, such a connection could not be particularly strong. But what is interesting is that when later the handle was cast at the same time as the blade, and the fastener, and the master riveted these rivets, they were already playing hard on solid models. That is what people have at all times was the inertia of thinking. The technology is new, and the design is old - “so did the fathers!”


Bronze blade from the Cyclades, approx. 1500 - 1350 BC. Princeton University Museum.

In the collection of bronze daggers at Princeton University there are many Chinese daggers of the Shan dynasty. All of them are made of bronze, solid and all have an equally beautiful and completely uncomfortable handle. And the question is: why did they need such daggers and how did they hold them in their hands? In addition, they are all very thin. This is clearly not a military weapon, but then what was the point in it, or rather, what was the point of spending on "this" valuable metal? Dagger length 26.0 cm., Width 9.0 cm., Thickness 0.4 cm.


Dagger of the Shan dynasty from the Princeton University collection.

There are in the collection of the museum and the famous "Laurigansk bronze." Luristan is a region on the border of Iran and Iraq, in Central Zagros, where in 1100 –700. BC. there was a developed industry of cast bronze. The finds are characterized by a large number of anthropomorphic and zoomorphic figures in the decoration of weapons and horse harnesses, as well as religious objects. The emergence of this center is associated with the Caucasian tribes that migrated to this area and merged with the kassites who were engaged in the production of bronze as early as 2000 BC. It is believed that the newcomers were Indo-Europeans, and it is quite possible that both culturally and ethnically they became the ancestors of the later Persians and Medes. In any case, it is important that they cast excellent bronzes using the “lost shape” technique. Many reputable museums tend to have in their collections samples of "Lurian bronze." Well, in Princeton there is a very interesting dagger with “ears” on the handle.


“Eared Dagger” from Luristan from Princeton University collection.


"Eared dagger." Side view. Again - why such a strange handle? What gave such a form, why it was made exactly this - is unknown! By the way, the dagger dates from about 1000 - 750's. BC. The length of its 32.5 cm., Width 5.4 cm., And the maximum thickness 4 cm.


However, the shape of the handle of this dagger is no more surprising than the shape of the blade at the knife from Congo 1905 of the year. Length 14.1 cm., Width 3.5 cm., Thickness 0.3 cm. The handle itself is wooden. Blade forged from steel. Princeton University Museum.

Well, now back again in Ancient Rome, where the most common dagger, which was owned by any 1 legionary. AD, was pugio - which had the appearance of several times reduced gladius, although not quite. Gladius usually had a rhombic blade shape, but the pugio had a flat blade with a vertical edge. The crosshair is weak, in the middle of the handle there was a thickening. The scabbard is tinned tin, bronze or iron sheet, and very often they were decorated with silver inlay. That is, the swords were decorated by the Romans easier daggers! The length of the blade ranged from 20 to 25 cm with a tip of a very characteristic shape.


The Princeton University Museum also has such a dagger, and in a very richly decorated sheath. Here, and bronze, and silver, and gold, and mobile, in a word, decorated it at least where. But what is interesting: these archaeologists find daggers, confidently dating them 1 c. AD, but by the end of it they disappeared from the weapons of the legionaries. In any case, there are no pugios on the figures from the column of Trajan!


And here is the Roman Pugio from the Museum of the City of Hann in Lower Saxony. And the Roman legions got there in due time.


Pugio from the Haltern am See Museum in Germany.


A modern version of this dagger, made in full accordance with the Roman tradition.


Let's go back to the Princeton University Museum Fund and look at this dagger made in France in 1840 year. Gilt bronze was used for its design. The length of the dagger 38.7 cm. in sheath, blade - 36.1, see, crosshair width, 9.5, see, blade, 3.9, cm. Such a dagger is so beautiful and spectacular that ... is worthy of the novel by Agatha Christie, where they are stabbed to some collector.


No less beautiful daggers were made in Toledo in the late XIX - early XX century. Steel made of silver and gold has gone to make it. Length 8.5 cm., Width 4.5 cm., Thickness 1.1 cm. Princeton University Museum.


There is also a Japanese dagger in the museum's collection. And ... very unusual. That is, its design is quite traditional. Another thing - the blade. That blade has nothing to do with it. Judging by the design of the handle, this kaiken - a dagger for a woman. But here a blade with half-double-edged sharpening of its blade is a thing for the Japanese completely unusual! Blade length 33.0 cm., Width 3.6 cm., Thickness 2.7 cm. Sheath: length 25.3 cm., Width 4.0 cm., Thickness 3.4 cm.

It would be interesting to read about it in more detail, however, apart from information about who exactly gave it to the museum, nothing more was found about it.
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17 comments
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  1. aszzz888
    aszzz888 31 March 2016 07: 48
    +2
    Thank you, Vyacheslav for the selection of material. Interesting and unusual old knives. Well, a remake he is a remake.
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 31 March 2016 08: 06
    +4
    Vyacheslav, thank you for an interesting excursion to one of the halls of the Princeton University Museum .. Daggers made of stone always struck ..
  3. IS-80
    IS-80 31 March 2016 08: 32
    +1
    then the daggers of that era themselves had a metal blade, but a wooden hilt. This clearly indicates a shortage of metal.

    Deficit deficit, but this is probably not the case. Rather, the point is the origin of these swords and daggers from spears.
    And there are blades with three and four, and five to seven rivets. In any case, such a connection could not be particularly strong.

    Apparently, the strength was still enough, since this type of fastening lasted long enough.
    1. brn521
      brn521 31 March 2016 15: 54
      +1
      Quote: IS-80
      Rather, the point is the origin of these swords and daggers from spears.

      Then it would be more convenient and strong mount, but not rivets, which even with the dagger format have dubious strength. Moreover, the most practical examples would have preserved the ability to turn daggers into spears.
      1. IS-80
        IS-80 31 March 2016 16: 15
        +1
        Quote: brn521
        Then there would be a more convenient and durable mount

        What kind?
        Quote: brn521
        which even with the dagger format have dubious strength.

        Apparently enough for a stabbing strike and for that battle system.
        Quote: brn521
        Moreover, the most practical examples would have preserved the ability to turn daggers into spears.

        And then what bothers you? Remove the rivets and please catch the tip. smile
        1. krez71
          krez71 31 March 2016 19: 17
          0
          They completely forgot about the frost ... It is quite possible that the wooden linings were riveted for a comfortable grip in the winter.
        2. brn521
          brn521 April 1 2016 09: 48
          0
          Quote: IS-80
          What kind?

          Sleeve or at least petiole. To transfer the load to the handle was more efficient.
          Quote: IS-80
          Apparently enough for a stabbing strike and for that battle system.

          But for the spear it would definitely not be enough. Loads at times more.
          Quote: IS-80
          And then what bothers you? Remove the rivets and please catch the tip.

          The mount is weak and messing around for a long time. Would a sleeve, or at least a stalk, be another matter.
          In general, I do not argue that swords (at least some species) could come from spears. It seems the same to himself. But the sample is not entirely successful.
  4. King, just king
    King, just king 31 March 2016 10: 12
    0
    "Everything seems to be clear. But questions remain, and there are more of them than answers." This is from an article - about a flint dagger ...

    Very strange thing. Vyacheslav, but is it possible, in more detail, about this thing?
    1. kalibr
      31 March 2016 10: 49
      +1
      It will be necessary to see what is on this topic!
  5. tan0472
    tan0472 31 March 2016 10: 36
    +1
    Maybe the "eared dagger" is the pommel of a spear, and how was the dagger supposed to be used on rare occasions?
    1. kalibr
      31 March 2016 10: 48
      0
      No, it's definitely a dagger!
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. Chiropractor
        Chiropractor 31 March 2016 11: 59
        +3
        Then the handle should be wound from leather or other non-slip material.
        Ears, of course, are knocked out of a unitary system - maybe they are something ritual, not functional?

        Kaiken - an approximate year of manufacture? The stamp of the master? Under the wooden handle should be, once on the blade is missing.
        The material is similar to steel plus bronze elements. There is no second rivet on the handle.
        It looks like a remake of the Meiji era.

        Regarding the half-sharpening, the dagger held with one hand in the direction of danger, and the open palm of the second hand laid just on the unsharpened part of the blade.
        Now you will not find qualified consumers of kaikens ...

        With a half-sharpening there is, for example, such a tanto with a slotted handle ....
        Meiji period, by the way.

        Unfortunately, I failed to insert a photo - I haven’t figured it out yet ... request
        1. brn521
          brn521 31 March 2016 15: 59
          0
          Quote: Kostoprav
          Unfortunately, I failed to insert a photo - I haven’t figured it out yet ...

          I do not immediately pick up. Only when editing an already published message.
      4. alex-cn
        alex-cn 31 March 2016 20: 44
        0
        But the early scimitars had such "ears". Somewhere I came across the fact that this is an imitation of a bone head, and scimitars came from some kind of ritual knives, but this is how much earlier, and a dagger, not a scimitar.
  6. Arkady Kakiy
    Arkady Kakiy 31 March 2016 11: 20
    0
    Very interesting!
    It will be necessary to study this topic more closely.
  7. The comment was deleted.
  8. Siberia 9444
    Siberia 9444 31 March 2016 14: 57
    +2
    Thank you for the article. Not long ago I saw not an ordinary knife, you can't even call a knife. Very serious
    1. IS-80
      IS-80 31 March 2016 15: 49
      +2
      Quote: Siberia 9444
      Thank you for the article. Not long ago I saw not an ordinary knife, you can't even call a knife. Very serious

      Microtech Jagdcommando. There is an option on aliexpress to buy a Chinese copy, if interested. smile
    2. King, just king
      King, just king 31 March 2016 15: 59
      +2
      Dol is strange. With holes or what?
    3. Pomeranian
      Pomeranian April 16 2016 20: 59
      0
      Quote: Siberia 9444
      Very serious

      Throwing knife?
  9. Vlad_N
    Vlad_N 31 March 2016 15: 29
    +2
    As always, a great review. It seems to be the 21st century, but still edged weapons are always interesting.
  10. Denimax
    Denimax 31 March 2016 18: 59
    0
    There were so many daggers. It is interesting what the author can say about stylets.
  11. alex-cn
    alex-cn 31 March 2016 20: 47
    +1
    A flint - just a dagger? The photo gives the impression that the handle also has sharp edges.
  12. Denimax
    Denimax 31 March 2016 20: 57
    0
    Another would be to find out the method of processing "small chips".
    1. brn521
      brn521 April 1 2016 09: 59
      0
      Quote: Denimax
      Another would be to find out the method of processing "small chips".

      As for the edge, it came across that it was necessary to press on the edge of the plate with something bone and wooden and turn it. Flakes will break off. But that’s exactly what the edge is. How to deal with the rest is not very clear.
      Quote: alex-cn
      A flint - just a dagger? The photo gives the impression that the handle also has sharp edges

      Flint has an uncomfortable structure for creating volumetric objects. Those. maybe they could make a round handle, but during processing the material can easily break off incorrectly. So we got the same plate, but with a stiffener. Take a closer look, there are narrow chips that seem to create a fairly wide wedge, not intended for cutting. Compare with those on the blade. But it will not work without chips, the flint plate will have any uneven edges that will have to be processed.
  13. Gunther
    Gunther April 1 2016 12: 36
    +1
    Good photos, the pugio on the first one even has the shape of a blade predatory, but the hilt requires either hand pads or protection (a glove), otherwise the grip will be weak, but opinions may vary (A. Kochergin, for example, believes that the guard on a combat knife - excess).
    Quote: Author
    Judging by the design of the handle, this is a kaiken - a dagger for a woman

    Japanese society was strictly regulated and not all women had kaiken (futokoro-gatana), but only members of the samurai clan - jigai (ritual cutting of the throat) was the privilege of representatives of the "noble classes")))
    Kaiken is not strictly "feminine"; samurai used it for self-defense in tight, narrow spaces (in Japan there is little space, but there are many people) as a last resort, because it was always worn with them.
    Quote: Author
    ..... fed wheat the whole roman empire, and do not have it, it is still unknown how it would develop and expand.

    It remains only to sympathize with the hungry Romans, how they were in poverty and did not expand until the conquest of Egypt, and having crunched an Egyptian bun and gained strength, they apparently immediately expanded the boundaries empire))
    Well, the article is well written, but the author’s conclusions are sometimes puzzling, and this is not the first time that it was worth discussing the construction of a wedge in one of the articles, it was very funny, you need to know the history at least in the scope of the exam.
    Plus article, I like when the article is well designed, the author only needs less imagination, more facts, well, young-green.
  14. Pomeranian
    Pomeranian April 16 2016 20: 58
    0
    Vyacheslav, the last dagger is very convenient for cutting (skerking) fish. The best sharpening for cutting speed is not double-edged, but one and a half, as on this knife ...
  15. aleks177
    aleks177 5 May 2016 22: 17
    0
    Quote: aszzz888
    remake he is remake

    I absolutely disagree!
    Modern weapons artists are superior to masters of the past. Better technology provides more room for expression.
    Look at the multi-layered stainless steel etching of a master Koreshkov, for example.
    Or philosophical compositions of Gennady Sokolov ...
    And here are only samples of decorated weapons, it does not reach the level of art.